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DOI: 10.1177/1081286505046485
2006 11: 555Mathematics and Mechanics of Solids
T. I. Zohdi
Uncertainty growth in HypoElastic Material Models
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Uncertainty growth in HypoElastic Material Models
T.I.ZOHDI
Department of Mechanical Engineering,6195 Etcheverry Hall,University of California,
Berkeley,CA,947201740,USA
(Received 22 March 2004;accepted 5 April 2004)
Abstract:The purpose ofthis note is to highlight a new point of concern in the use of hypoelastic constitutive
equations.In particular,it is shown that if there is any uncertainty in the material constants that appear in such
equations,it can induce nonmonotone uncertainty growth in the resulting solutions.
Key Words:Hypoelastic,uncertainty,nonmonotone growth
1.INTRODUCTION
Hypoelasticity endeavors to describe the elastic response of a material based upon rates.The
theory was developed by Truesdell [1],his motivation being to extend the classical linear
elastic theory to large strains,however,without assuming the usual hyperelastic approach of
stress = F(finite strain).The approach is to write rate ofstress = F(rate ofdeformation),
with the goal being to obtain a description of elastic behavior expressed entirely in terms
of rates,however avoiding the effects of viscosity,relaxation,etc.The model serves as a
starting point for a number of ratetype models in elastoplasticity by augmenting the basic
hypoelastic model with flow rules governing the evolution of plastic strain metrics.The
classical hypoelastic approach is to write
0'def
T dfT _W T+T WW =H(T,D),(1.1)
0
where T is the Jaumann rate of the Cauchy stress,T,where H(T,D) is a tensor function
which is linear and isotropic in the symmetric part of the velocity (v) gradient,denoted
by D  (VXV + (V v)T),and linear in T,and where W  (Vvv (V V)T)
is the vorticity tensor.(Of course,such a formulation can be extended to anisotropy by
incorporating dependency on structure tensors accompanied by their own evolution laws.)
For extensive mathematical details on this class of models see Truesdell [1,2] or Truesdell
and Noll [3].Probably the simplest of member of this family of representations is
0
T =titr(D)1+2,uD',(1.2)
where ri is the bulk modulus,where,u is the shear modulus,where tr(D) is the trace of
D and where D'= D tr (D)1 is the deviatoric part of D.There have been numerous
Mathematics and Mechanics ofSolids,11:555562,2006 DOI:10.1177/1081286505046485
0 2006 Sage Publications
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556 T.I.ZOHDI
criticisms of such models,such as artificial softening,under certain conditions,which was
initially recognized by Truesdell [2].Furthermore,when such models are used in conjunction
with plasticity relations,the occurance of stress oscillations in large simple elastic shear can
result.This behavior has been noted by several authors,dating back,at least,to Lehmann
[4] and Dienes [5].A variety of approaches for suppression of such oscillations have been
suggested,for example,by Dafalias [6].However,a question that is usually not addressed is
the sensitivity ofsuch models to uncertainty or error in their material constants.(We shall use
the terms"uncertainty"and"error"interchangeably throughout the analysis.) For example,
first take a onedimensional version ofEquation (1.2):
T= ED,(1.3)
where E is Young's modulus.Now assume that there is an uncertainty in 1E:
=ED = (E + 6E)DI (1.4)
where D is controlled.Subtracting Equation (1.3) from Equation (1.4) yields an equation for
the error,q= T,
= TT=t ED.(1.5)
Thus,for a constant D,and constant error in the material constant (5E),a constant error
results in the stress rates.This indicates that the error in stress grows in time linearly with
uncertainty in the material constant,which is acceptable.
Now consider the perturbed threedimensional model
0
T = (i'i+ 65i)tr(D)1+2(,u+5j)D'(1.6)
where 5r,and 6,u are the uncertainties in the bulk (rX) and shear moduli (,u) respectively
def
Subtracting Equation (1.2) from (1.6) yields an equation for the error d TT,where D
is controlled:
0
T OT = WW +  W= tr (D)1 +2t iD'.(1.7)
Thus,the character of the operator
W)defW
A(¢,W) W.¢b±q5W (1.8)
will dictate the growth of the error due to any uncertainty in the material constants.This
error growth may be exponential in time,which is unacceptable.(There are a variety of
other possible detrimental effects due to uncertainty in material parameters,and the interested
reader is referred to Zohdi [79].)
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HYPOELASTIC MODELS 557
2.AN EXAMPLE
As an example,consider a plane strain problem with the following constant vorticity (K =
constant),
1 0
W=K I 0 0,
O OO~~~~~~~~~~
(2.1)
and the following (symmetric) plane strain error:
q$xy 0 1
q$0 0=
(2.2)
We have the following:
2 5 xy
le W.4o+&0.W=KYY4
A((,W) = W¢+ K Oyy  Ox
 0
qyyoxx 01
2oxy 0
0 0
(2.3)
Thus,we have three coupled equations:
0 + 2Kqx =
and
OYY
and
(2.6)
We remark that the equation for the z direction is uncoupled from the other three equations
and reads as (D~ = 0)
(2.7)
In matrix form,the coupled system is
(2.4)
2Kq$n = (b, 23)D~ (2.5)
0xx
0 ='i T  OYC
 0
46,u
6r,+ Dxx
3
+ 6r,26,u Dyy 7
3
+ 6r,+ 46,u Dyy 1
3
0xy + K(oyy 0,,) = 261.tDy.
0Z_ (5 r,
26p (Dxx + Dyy ).
3
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558 TI.ZOHDI
I 0 0 xx O 0 2K xx
O 1 0 yy + O O 2K < YY
% 7117K K 01{qK
(3K + 4 )Dxx + (15 K 231i )Dyy
= 2ciji4 )Dxx + (a6 + 461 )Dyy (2.8)
I 22u Dxy J
The eigenvalues of the coupling matrix are A11  2Ki,A2 = 2Ki and A13 = 0.The
corresponding eigenvectors are
I (2.9)
V 1 =2Ki V3 1 2Ki [ A=O
Performing a similarity transform to decouple the system,we obtain
100 ¢'xx 2 KiO ]{ xx }
(O + 0")D +( OI 2Ki )O fKl
_ _ 1 _ DJ {
L i XYLX
6 + L6L')Dxx +( )Dyy ] (f
x/](6dK_2 )Dxx +(1+ )Dyy Af (2.10)
t ~~~21byDxy ) tt
The decoupled problems can be written as
Kxx +2KiqMO = fi,(2.11)
yy 2K/iy = f2,(2.12)
(2.13)
0)(Y  Al
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HYPOELASTIC MODELS 559
and can be solved individually to yield
2KI Ki fKi
2Ki e + Ki (2.14)
¢)Yy (t) = ¢Yy (°K)+/e2Klt _Ki'(2.15)
xy (t) =33t+ 0xy (0).(2.16)
Afterwards,the solutions are transformed back to yield
3_ v31 1 }{yy = yy (2.17)
We have the following observations:
* The presence of the complexvalued exponential terms throughout the solution system
will lead to oscillatory behavior of the solution uncertainty,in addition to superimposed
linear growth.
* The magnitude of Kcontrols the rapidity of the solution uncertainty oscillations.
* The magnitude of terms like xx (0)  fi;) and yy (0) + f2) control the the am
plitude of the oscillations.When such terms are large,their amplitudes become large.
When Kis increased,the influence of terms like J diminishes.
2Ki
* The transformation back to the original coordinates eliminates any linear growth for the
xy (t) term.The solution uncertainty components can be written as
0 (t) = a,cos(2Kt) + a2 sin(2Kt) + a3t + a4,(2.18)
and
pyy (t) = bi cos(2Kt) + b2 sin(2Kt) + b3t + b4,(2.19)
and
0bv (t) = cl cos(2Kt) + c2 sin(2Kt) + c3,(2.20)
where the constants,which are somewhat lengthy,can be explicitly expressed in terms of
the loading an initial conditions by equating the complex and real parts of the transformed
solution.
As as example consider the following material perturbations Y rs = 100 Mpa and
(5,u = 100 Mpa and four different values of the rate constant appearing in the vorticity
(1) K = 0.005s1,(2) K = 0.01s1,(3) K = 0.025s1 and (4) K = 0.05s.The
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560 T I.ZOHDI
I.3 PHIXX
G.025
0.02 L
0.015',/\,
0/
0 200T00 600E 8001SW
TIME (Seconds)
0.035.
PHIXX ]
0032/\l
002~~ ~~I
on}5//j\I
51 i~~ 1
0 20 400 600 80Q 10(
TIME (Secsomis)
200 400 S0,ol
TIME (Seconds)
Figure 1.Starting from left to right and top to bottom,the growth in the 0Iy (stress uncertainty) component
due to material perturbations under displacement control for (1) K = 0.005s1,(2) K = 0.01 s1,(3)
K = 0.025s1 and (4) K = 0.05s1.
components of D were all set to zero,except for D.,= 0.001 s.The initial uncertainties
in the components were set to Xxx (0) = 0.01 Gpa,>yy (0) = 0.01 GPa and X.,,(0) = 0.01
Gpa.The growth of the solution uncertainty is linear with superimposed oscillations,as
illustrated in Figures 13.
3.GENERALIZATIONS
Clearly,the previous results provide a criteria by which to choose a general H(T,D) to
mitigate the effects ofuncertainty For this more general case,consider
0
T = H(T,D),(3.1)
and the perturbed operator,operating on the perturbed Cauchy stress
T
Ti =H(T,D).(3.2)
I~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
1
.I
r
A.m
uj
n)
,.
:r
ii
DO 00o
Ic
cs
v)
t:S
;:
;e
ca
l
LL
t,,
(
80 10011
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HYPOELASTIC MODELS 561
o'35 ~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~PHIYY 00PHIYY
0.025
.0 S ~ ~~~/X I
0005''
//~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~0.014
0310 000~
9 200 400 600 8o00 00C 0 200 400 6C0 80 0 20t
TIME SSeondo) TIMF (Seconds)
Figure 2.Starting from left to right and top to bottom,the growth in the b (stress uncertainty) component
due to material perturbations under displacement control for (1) K 0.005 s1,(2) K  0.01 s1,(3)
K = 0.025s1 and (4)K = 0.05s1.
Subtracting yields
0
i 0
TT
W X + ¢ W= H(T,D) H(T,D) def B(T,T,D).
Thus,we have
(3.3)
(3.4)
which govems the behavior of the error.Thus,for the general hypoelastic case,one could
construct H(T,D),by proper selection of A and B,to be as insensitive as possible to
material perturbations,provided that the construction does not conflict with other restrictions,
for example such as those cited in Casey and Naghdi [10].However,generally,this may not
be a simple task.
Acknowledgements.The author wishes to thank his colleagues James Casey and David Steigmann for their constructive
comments during the preparation ofthis manuscript.The author also wishes to thank Prof.Alan Needleman for pointing
out an important algebraic error in an earlier version ofthe manuscript.
ai
cr
.
.:r
InI
a
XZ,,
0 + A(op,W)B(T,T,D),
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562 T I.ZOHDI
Ii PHIXY
O.C0M\/
0.002\\
0.004 4j\
O.o1\,///\/
0008/
0 200 T400 600 800 000)
TIMIE (Seco.nds)
0001 PHiXY /4
0.008 I
0.004
0.002
0004
0 20V 400 600 800'100t'
TIME (Seco,ds)
Figure 3.Starting from left to right and top to bottom,the growth in the q$y (stress uncertainty) component
due to material perturbations under displacement control for (1) K = 0.005 s1,(2) K = 0.01 s1,(3)
K 0.025s1 and (4) K 0.05s1.
REFERENCES
[1] Truesdell,C.Hypoelasticity.Journal ofRational andMechanicalAnalysis,4,83133,10191020 (1955).Reprinted
in Foundations of Elasticity Theory,Intemnational Science Series,Vols 99,100,103,Gordon and Breach,New York,
1965.
[2] Truesdell,C.Hypoelastic shear.Journal of AppliedPhysics,27,441447 (1956).
[3] Truesdell,C.and Noll,W The nonlinear field theories,in Handbuch der Physik,ed.S.Fliigge,Vol.111/3,Springer,
Berlin,1965.
[4] Lehmann,T.Anisotrope plastische Formanderungen.Revue Roumaine des Sciences Techniques.Serie de Me&canique
Appliqee,17,10771086 (1972).
[5] Dienes,J.K.On the analysis of rotation and stress rate in deforming bodies.Acta Mechanica,32,217232 (1979).
[6] Dafalias,Y F Corotational rates for kinematic hardening at large plastic deformations.Journal ofApplied Mechanics,
50,561565(1983).
[7] Zohdi,T I.On the propagation ofmicroscale material uncertainty in a class ofhyperelastic finite deformation stored
energy functions.International Journal ofFracture/Letters in Micromechanics,112,L13L17 (2001).
[8] Zohdi,T.I.Bounding envelopes in multiphase material design.Journal ofElasticity,66,4762 (2002).
[9] Zohdi,T I.Genetic optimization of statistically uncertain microheterogeneous solids.Philosophical Transactions of
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[10] Casey,J.and Naghdi,P M.On the relationship between the Eulerian and Lagrangian descriptions of finite rigid
plasticity Archivefor Rational Mechanics andAnalysis,102,351 375 (1988).
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