dictionary - SICS

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Nov 3, 2013 (3 years and 7 months ago)

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Affidavit

An
affidavit

is a formal sworn statement of fact, written down, signed, and witnessed (as to
the veracity of the signature) by a taker of oaths, such as a
notary public
. The name is
Medieval Latin

for
he has declared upon oath
.


Application Service (AS) [TC2]

A service that may perform a certain business
-
oriented task according to a pre
-
defin
ed
workflow.


Application Service Provider (ASP) [TC2]

Enterprises, companies or individuals that provide
AP
s and offer them via searchable
registeres to customers.


Business Process [TC2]

An abstract workflow that describes the action and tasks a unit has

to enact.


Contract [TC2]

A form of convention that designates the behavior the involved parties commit to.


EDI (wikipedia)

Electronic Data Interchange

(
EDI
) is the computer
-
to
-
computer exchange of structured
information, by agreed message standards, fr
om one computer application to another by
electronic means and with a minimum of human intervention. In common usage, EDI is
understood to mean specific interchange methods agreed upon by national or international
standards bodies

for the transfer of business transaction data, with one typical application
being the automated purchase of goods and services.

Despite being relatively unheralded, in this era of technologies such as
XML

services, the
Internet

and the
World Wide Web
,

EDI is still the data format used by the vast majority of
electronic commerce

transactions in the world as it protects against
interloper
(s).


Electronic signature (wikipedia)

Electronic signature

is often used to mean either a signature imputed to a text via one or
more of several electronic means, or
cryptographic

means to add non
-
repudiation and
message integrity features to a document.
Digital signature

usually refers specifically to a
cryptographic signature, either on a document, or on a lower
-
level data structure. The
co
nfusion in terminology is unsatisfactory in many respects, and will remain so until usage,
especially in statutes and regulations, becomes more standardized.


Enterprise Network Agreement (ENA) [TC2]

A description of the requirements to be fullfilled in or
der to become member of an Enterprise
Network
. This is the basis of the
General VO Agreement
.


General VO Agreement (GVOA) [TC2]

The “high
-
level” definition of all the parameters and rules that have to be fullfilled by all
participantsof the
VO
.


Loose co
upling (wikipedia)

Loosely coupled

describes a resilient relationship between two or more computer systems
that are exchanging data. Loosely Coupled systems are considere
d useful when either the
source
or the destination computer systems are subject to fre
quent changes.


Repository/Registry [TC2]

A database that stores information about (publicly available) services like their WSDL,
SLA

templates

etc.


Service Level Agreemen
t (SLA) [TC2]

An electronic form of
contract
, that is only of limited legal impact.
It describes the quality of
services that has to be maintained.


S
LA Template [TC2]

A document that contains the parameters that can principally be fullfilled by the service that
provides the template.


Service Level Agreement (wikipedia)

A
Service Level A
greement

(SLA) is a formal written agreement made between two parties:
the service provider and the service recipient. The SLA itself defines the basis of
understanding between the two parties for delivery of the service itself. The document can be
quite c
omplex, and sometimes underpins a formal
contract
. The contents will vary according
to the nature of the service itself, but usually includes a number of core elements, or clauses.

General
ly, an SLA should contain clauses that define a specified level of service, support
options, incentive awards for service levels exceeded and/or penalty provisions for services
not provided. Before having such agreements with customers the IT services need

to have a
good quality of these services
.

Quality management

will try to improve the
QoS
, whereas the
SLAs will try to keep the quality and guarantee the quality to the customer.



Service
-
Oriented Architecture:

(wiki
pedia
)

In
computing
, the term
Service
-
Oriented A
rchitecture

(SOA) expresses a
software
architectural

concept that defines the use of services to support the
requirements

of software
users. In a SOA environment, nodes on a
network

make resources available to other
participants in the network as independent

services that the participants access in a
standardized way. Most definitions of SOA identify the use of
Web services

(i.e. using
SOAP

or
REST
) in its implementation. However, one can implement SOA using any web service
-
based technology.

Unlike traditional
point
-
to
-
point

architectures, SOAs comprise loosely coupled (joined),
highly interoperable application services. These services interoperate based on a formal
definition independent
of the underlying platform / programming language. A SOA is
development technology (such as
Java

and
.NET
) independent. The software components
become very reusable, e.g. the same
C# (C Sharp)

service may be used by a Java application,
and/or any other programming language which can acce
ss this service, due to the virtue of the
interface definition being defined in a standards
-
compliant manner (e.g.
WSDL
) which
encapsulate
s/hides the vendor/language
-
specific implementation from the calling
client/service.

SOA provides a methodology and
framework

for documenting
enterprise

capabilities and can
support integration and consolidation activities.

High
-
level languages

such as
BPEL

or
WS
-
Coordination

take the service concept one step
further by providing a method of defining and supporting wo
rkflows and business processes.


SOA definitions

Term

Definition / Comment

service

(Ideally) a self
-
contained, stateless business function which accepts one or more
requests and returns one or more responses through a well
-
defined, standard
interface. Ser
vices can also perform discrete units of work such as editing and
processing a transaction. Services should not depend on the state of other
functions or processes. The technology used to provide the service, such as a
programming language, does not form p
art of this definition.

orchestration

Sequencing services and providing additional logic to process data.
Does not
include data presentation.

stateless

Not depending on any pre
-
existing condition. In a SOA, services should not
depend on the condition of
any other service. They receive all information
needed to provide a response from the request. Given the statelessness of
services, service consumers can sequence (orchestrate) them into numerous
flows (sometimes referred to as pipelines) to perform applic
ation logic.

provider

The function which performs a service in response to a request from a
consumer.

consumer

The function which consumes the result of a service supplied by a provider.

discovery

Service oriented architecture relies on the ability to i
dentify services and their
capabilities. Therefore, a SOA depends on a directory which describes the
services available in its domain.

binding

The relationship between a service provider and consumer is dynamic; it is
established at runtime by a binding m
echanism.



SOAP (wikipedia)

SOAP

(Simple Object Access Protocol)

is a
protocol

for exchanging
XML
-
ba
sed messages
over a
computer network
, normally using
HTTP
. SOAP forms the foundation layer of the
web
services stack
, providing a basic messaging framework that more abstract layers can build on.
SOAP facilitates the
Service
-
Oriented

architectural
pattern
.

There are several different t
ypes of messaging patterns in SOAP, but by far the most common
is the
Remote Procedure Call

(RPC) pattern, where one network node (the
client
) sends a
request mes
sage to another node (the
server
), and the server immediately sends a response
message to the client.


Trust [TC2]

In the TC framework used in the sense related to “trustworthiness”: the expectations put in a
service to behave in a particular way. This ref
lects first of all an evaluation of past
performance.


Trusted Third Party [TC2]

Services that participate in a
VO
, yet don’t directly contribute to the realization of the overall
Business Process

(as opposed to the

Application Service
).


Universal Descrip
tion, Discovery, and Integration (UDDI) (wikipedia)

UDDI

is an
acronym

for
Universal Description, Discovery, and Integration



A platform
-
independent,
XML
-
based registry for businesses worldwide to list themselves on the
Internet
.
UDDI is an open industry initiative (sponsored by
OASIS
) enabling businesses to discover
each other and define how they interact over the Internet. A UDDI business registration
consists of three components:



White Pages
-

address, contact, and known
identifiers;



Yellow Pages
-

industrial categorizations based on standard taxonomies; and



Green Pages
-

technical information about services exposed by the business

UDDI is nominally one of the core
Web Services

standards. It is designed to be interrogated
by
SOAP

messages and to provide access to
WSDL

documents describing the protocol
bindings and message formats required to interact with the web services listed in its directory.


Virtual Organization (VO) [TC2]

A set of business entities that work together (e.g. by

message exchange) to reach a common
goal


generally represented by an overall
Business Process
.


VO Lifecycle [TC2]

Main phases of the
VO

that logically distinguish the actions to be performed: identification,
formation, operation and evolution, dissolut
ion.


VO Manager [TC2]

The central management instance that acts on behalf of the
VO
customer. This entity is
responsible for “guiding” the VO lifecycle and performing membership
-
related management
tasks.


XML

(wikipedia)

The
Extensible Markup Language

(
XM
L
) is a
W3C
-
recommended general
-
purpose
markup
language

for creating spe
cial
-
purpose markup languages, capable of describing many different
kinds of
data
. It is a simplified subset of
SGML
. Its primary purpose is to facilitate the sharing
of data across different systems, particularly systems connected via the
Internet
. Languages
based on XML (for example,
Geography Markup Language

(GML),
RDF/XML
,
RSS
,
MathML
,
X
HTML
,
SVG
,
MusicXML

and
cXML
) are defined in a formal way, allowing
programs to modify and validate documents in these languages without prior knowledge of
their form.


Web service (wikipedia)

According to the
W3C

a
Web servi
ce

is a software system designed to support interoperable
machine
-
to
-
machine interaction over a network. It has an interface that is described in a
machine
-
processable format such as
WSDL
. Other s
ystems interact with the Web service in a
manner prescribed by its interface using messages, which may be enclosed in a
SOAP

envelope, or follow a
REST

approach. These messages are typically conveyed using
HTTP
,
and normally comprise
XML

in conjunction with other Web
-
relate
d standards. Software
applications written in various programming languages and running on various platforms can
use
web

services to exchange data over
computer networks

like the
Internet

in a manner
similar to
inter
-
process communication

on a single computer. This interoperability (for
example, between
Java

and
Python
, or Microsoft Windows and
Linux

applications) is due to
the use of
open standards
.
OASIS

and the
W3C

are the primary committees responsible for
the architecture and standardization of web services. To improve interoperability between
web service implementations, the
WS
-
I

organization has been developing a series of profiles
to further define the standards involved.


Web Services Description Language

(WSDL) (wikipedia)

The
Web Services Description Language

(WSDL) is an
XML

format published for
describing
Web services
. Version V 1.1 has not been endorsed by the
World Wide Web
Consortium

(W3C), however it has released a draft for version 2.0 on
May 11
,
2005
, that will
be a re
commendation (an official standard), and thus endorsed by the W3C.

WSDL describes the public interface to the web service. This is an XML
-
based service
description on how to communicate using the web service; namely the protocol bindings and
message format
s required to interact with the web services listed in its directory. The
supported operations and messages are described abstractly, and then bound to a concrete
network protocol and message format.

WSDL is often used in combination with
SOAP

and
XML Schema

to provide web services
over the internet. A client (program) connecting to a web service can read the WSDL to
determine
what functions are available on the server. Any special
datatypes

used are
embedded in the WSDL file in the form of XML Schema. The client can then use SOAP to
actually call one of the f
unctions listed in the WSDL.


Web Service Level Agreements (WSLA)

(VO3)

WSLA is a XML language for specifying and monitoring SLA for Web Servicies, which is
complementary to WSDL.


World Wide Web Consortium

(
W3C
) (wikipedia)

The
World Wide Web Consortium

(
W3C
) is an international
consortium

where member
organizations, a full
-
time staff, and the public, work together to develop standards for the
World Wide Web
. W3C's mission is:
"To lead the World Wide Web to its full potential by
developing protocols and guidelines that ensure long
-
term growth for the Web"
. W3C also
engages in education and outreach, develops

software, and serves as an open forum for
discussion about the Web. The Consortium is headed by
Tim Berners
-
Lee
, the original creator
of the World Wide Web and primary autho
r of the
URL

(Uniform Resource Locator),
HTTP

(HyperText Transfer Protocol) and
HTML

(HyperText Markup Language)
specifications
, the
principal technologies that form the basis of the Web.