Innovation Culture, Technology

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Nov 7, 2013 (3 years and 5 months ago)

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Innovation Culture, Technology Policy and the uses of History by Thomas Wieland

Innovation Culture, Technology
Policy and The Uses of History



byThomas Wieland

Innovation Culture, Technology Policy and the uses of History by Thomas Wieland

Innovation Systems & Culture

Systems


Organizational &
institutional structures


Directs rate and direction
of innovation


National, regional,
sectoral


Industrial R&D labs,
Universities, Govt.
agencies, patent systems


Culture


Technological vision


Use of products


Value systems of
individuals and groups


Research traditions


Affects innovation
systems


Not recognized much,
hence policies ineffective


Innovation Culture, Technology Policy and the uses of History by Thomas Wieland

Innovation Culture


Group’s or society’s framework that determines
how things are viewed and how things are done
by its individual members


Neither invariant nor universal


Produced and reproduced in social interactions
by group or society members


Innovation Culture: Group’s or society’s
framework that channels the perception of
economic and technological challenges and
provides strategies to meet them


Innovation Culture, Technology Policy and the uses of History by Thomas Wieland

Innovation Culture


Made of technological visions, values,
research traditions of those who are part
of innovation process


Reservoir of ideas


Provides proven strategies

Innovation Culture, Technology Policy and the uses of History by Thomas Wieland

Institutions

Formal


Consciously built with
specific purpose and
hence can be easily
changed


Actively participate in
innovation


Codified and explicit


Patent laws,
university curricula


Informal


Implicit, less visible


Emerge
spontaneously


Internalized through
socialization


=culture


Customs, traditions


Affects the formal
systems


Innovation Culture, Technology Policy and the uses of History by Thomas Wieland

Post WW II
-

Western Germany


Technology
-
taker in nuclear power plants,
biotechnology, computers


Strengths in automobiles, machine
tools,chemicals


Role of cultural factors for shaping
technology policies


Computers & Biotechnology

Innovation Culture, Technology Policy and the uses of History by Thomas Wieland

Case Study
-

Computers


1960s


IBM 70%, German players 10%


Siemens and AEG
-
Telefunken, two eletro
-
technical firms asked for public funding


Govt. accepted as widening technological
gap


Data Processing Programmes (DPP)
launched in 1967, 1971, 1976

Innovation Culture, Technology Policy and the uses of History by Thomas Wieland

Goals of DPPs


National computer industry to compete with US
players


Use data processing to modernize industry and
administration


Academic environment in computer science for
training and cutting
-
edge research


42% funds in industrial R&D, 29% data
processing applications


Siemens and AEG benefited


national
champions to develop mainframe computer


Innovation Culture, Technology Policy and the uses of History by Thomas Wieland

DPPs …


Research Ministry


data processing
system 70/72


military command, process
control, weather control etc


Siemens, AEG refused to collaborate


Lot of money spent on mainframe as that
was the vision


Transistors & ICs made smaller computers


Siemens & AEG both tried to compete with
IBM

Innovation Culture, Technology Policy and the uses of History by Thomas Wieland

DPPs…


Siemens


JV with RCA


RCA withdrew


AEG


developed on own, but no business
customers


3
rd

DPP


focus on minicomputers

Innovation Culture, Technology Policy and the uses of History by Thomas Wieland

Disparity between goals & means


Goal of winning technology race in short
term, means not commensurate


Siemens


elcetro
-
technical


power/transportation


$2.1Bn Vs $5.3 Bn
of IBM


Technology development focus over
marketing & user support

Innovation Culture, Technology Policy and the uses of History by Thomas Wieland

Culture


Symbols of scientific & technological superiority of USA


Self
-
esteem of Germany challenged as takers from
makers


Glorious electro
-
technical industry


historical resource


“One must not undervalue the capacity of the German
industry”


Decline in imagined hierarchy of nations


Competing with IBM


technological , hence
marketing/support not developed


Business customers ignored for scientific/engineering
purposes

Innovation Culture, Technology Policy and the uses of History by Thomas Wieland

Biotechnology


University Biology


Chemical Industry


‘found’


Pharmaceutical Industry
-

playground


Innovation Culture, Technology Policy and the uses of History by Thomas Wieland

Innovation Culture, Technology Policy and the uses of History by Thomas Wieland

Thank You