Advantages to a single-page site

learnedmooseupvalleyElectronics - Devices

Nov 7, 2013 (3 years and 7 months ago)

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Advantages to a single
-
page site


All the information can be viewed quickly


The full web site can be printed with just one
print command


Links within different parts of the document is
quick


Easy to save it on the hard disk for future use


Advantages to a single
-
page site


Give an introduction to the page and say who
will benefit from the page


Give a good table of contents so that the
reader can go directly to the page he/she is
interested


Always have a link back to the main page or
the table of contents page


Since the table of contents cover all the
related pages the reader can only bookmark
the main page



When one page is enough

Organizing a simple site


Organize the site with short, quick
-
read
pages with graphical icons


A good Web page will make the organization
visible on the Internet


All Web pages should have the postal
address, contact details and email address


Always make the Web pages identical


Try to avoid standard clip art graphics and
other most popular graphics (Don’t copy too
much!!)

Organizing a simple site

Organizing a larger site


Very similar to a simple site. Make sure you write a
paragraph explaining the contents of the site and
the intended audience


Always organize the main links on your site
according to the questions or desires of your
readers


If you want you can put the contact details on all
the major pages of your site


Providing topic specific link pages is a very good
way to organize a large Web site



Try to keep the number of choices (list or
icons) on any index to a maximum of 7


If you need to present more than 7 links try to
break the list into groups


Avoid putting any page more than two links
away from the home page


Always add comments to your Web page code.
Enclose your comments between <!


and
--
>

tags


To include comments in JavaScript put the // at
the beginning of each comment that is a single
line



For JavaScript comments more than one line start
the comment with /* and end them with */


In style sheets, start comments with /* and end
with */


You should have <!


tag just after the <script> or
<style> tag, with a
--
> before the matching
</script> or </style> tag


The above will hide the script from the older
browsers that would otherwise treat it as regular
text and display it on the page

Publicizing


Somebody tells them about your site address


People may follow a link from your site to someone else’s
site


Your site can be listed in a search engine such as Yahoo or
Google


Add the site address to your business card or company
literature


A
spider

is an automated computer program that spends all
day looking at Web pages all over the Internet and building
database of the contents of all the pages it visits






Listing your pages


A
search engine

(
portals
) is an automated
computer program that looks in a database
index for pages containing specific words or
phrases


To publish it on the major search engines you
must fill in the forms they provide with, brief
description, category, list of key words etc..


URL stands for Uniform Resource Locator,
which is the technical name for the address
of a Web page


Criteria used by search engines
to match to a specific search


Do the key words appear in the <title> tag of
the page?


How many times do the keywords appear in
the entire page?


Do the keywords appear in the first few lines
of the page?


How many other pages on my database link
to the page?


How many times has this page been selected
previously


Select a combination of words your
intended audience will most likely enter


Make sure the selected words occur
several times on your page


Put the most important one in the
<title> tag


Other key words in the first heading or
introductory paragraph


Use the <meta /> tag to specify some
information about the page that doesn’t
belong in the <body> text


Most search engines allow <meta /> tags to
give a short description of your page, and
some key words to identify what your page is
about



<meta name=“description”


content=“Order form for the Toshiba Laptop” />

<meta name=“keywords”


content=“laptop, computers, Toshiba, portable” />


Use the <meta /> tags after the <head>, <title>,
and </title> tags but before the closing </head>
tag


The first tag ensures that the search engine has a
valid description to list on the search results


The second tag slightly increase the search rating
by matching the keywords


Meta tags can only help but it will not have a
dramatic effect on your position in the search list




Loading another page automatically


If you move your page to another directory
say some thing like “
This page has moved to

….” with the new address

(and link it)


You can make any other page load
automatically after a specified amount of time


e.g
<meta http
-
equiv=“refresh” content=“5
;
nextpage.htm
” />






Documenting the full address of a
page


It is not a good practice to use just the
filename links


e.g:
<a href=“orderform.htm”>


It is a good good practice to use the full URL
in all links


Always use the full address of the home page
in all the link pages


Use the <base /> tag to include the address
of a page within the <head> section of that
page


Planning for the future of HTML

The best sources of HTML standards are:

http://www.w3.org

and

http://www.htmlcompendium.org


Check the
http://www.microsoft.com

or
http://home.netscape.com

for latest versions
of the browser software



HTML beyond the Web


Use style sheets and scripting languages to create
more advanced pages


Integrate interactive media, and databases with the
HTML code wherever needed


Use the new data security standards to carry out
financial and other sensitive transactions


Today all versions of the Microsoft Windows
operating system uses HTML as a fundamental part
of the user interface

From calculators to communicators


Today computer is not a number crunching
device. It is rather a communication device


Today you share information using the
networked computers


Computers are used for chat, email,
interactive video, music etc…..


HTML as an User Interface


In conjunction with HTML
-
enabled software such as
Microsoft Office 2000, HTML is the common standard
interface for word processing, spreadsheets, and
databases


Netscape communicator as the name indicates uses
HTML to integrate all types of media into email,
discussion groups, schedule management, business
documents and collaborate project management


This HTML standardization will help us to publish in a
standard way so that it will look the same to anyone
in the world


The digital media revolution


To deliver television quality video the technology is
there but the cost still is very high!!


Today the same box under your TV can also be
used for Internet access (Interactive transmission)


Since HTML is the glue that links all the multimedia
it is certain HTML will dominate the digital
communications industry


XML: Unity in diversity


HTML has been the foundation for the
eXtensible Markup Language (XML).


XML provides a truly universal format for
exchanging all types of information over the
Web


XML is a bridge between XML and SGML (
Standard General Markup Language)



What are protocols?


Protocol
i
s the special set of rules that end points in a
telecommunication connection use when they communicate


Both end points must recognize and observe a protocol.
Protocols are often described in an industry or international
standard.


Transmission Control Protocol

(TCP), which uses a set of
rules to exchange messages with other Internet points at the
information packet level



Internet Protocol

(IP), which uses a set of rules to send and
receive messages at the
Internet address level



Additional protocols that are usually packaged with a TCP/IP
suite, including the
Hypertext Transfer Protocol

(HTTP) and
File Transfer Protocol

(FTP), each with defined sets of rules to
use with corresponding programs elsewhere on the Internet




How e
-
mail works on the Internet


The
Simple Mail Transport Protocol

(SMTP) specifies
how electronic messages are exchanged between
computers using the Transmission Control Protocol or
TCP


TCP provides a reliable exchange of data on the
Internet without any possibility for loss of data


SMTP is used to exchange messages between
servers or between a client and a server


SMTP is used to deliver the messages and an e
-
mail
client program is used to retrieve the messages


SMTP


E
-
mail uses the client
-
server method to allow mail to
be exchanged


Client exchange messages with a server that is
ultimately responsible for delivering the e
-
mail
messages to the destination


On the server computer each user is assigned a
specific mailbox. Each mailbox has a
unique

address


e.g
mailbox@computer


mailbox name and the computer name


The mailbox part is normally made from a user’s
name. The hostname is chosen by a network
administrator


E
-
mail


The last few alphabets represent the domain
name categories


The main categories are


.com


A company or commercial organization


.edu
-

An education institution


.gov
-

A government organization


.mil
-

A military organization


.net
-

Network service provider


.org
-

Other organizations


country code


A country code e.g. .uk, .au, .us

Format of e
-
mail messages

To


The mail recipient’s e
-
mail address

From


The sender’s e
-
mail address

Cc


List of carbon copy addresses

Bcc


List of blind carbon copy addresses

Date


The date when the message was sent

Subject


The subject of the message

Reply
-

to


The address to which a reply should be sent

E
-
mail client software


One of the most popular client software e
-
mail
programs is Microsoft Outlook Express


Today Microsoft is installed as part of the Windows
operating system


In order to use the Outlook program, it must be
configured properly


Configuration consists of providing user
information such as the user name, organization,
e
-
mail address, and reply address


It is also important to identify the server computer
to which the client will connect to send and receive
mails


There is a server associated with the incoming and
outgoing messages


The incoming mail uses POP3, the Post Office
Protocol, whereas the outgoing mail server uses
SMTP


You can change the default settings of the client
software

e.g you can change the server timeout value, or leave
a copy of the mail on the server computer

Sending an e
-
mail message


Consider an example in which david_
beckham@fcuk.com. creates the e
-
mail message.
David uses the e
-
mail client to send a message to
clinton@aol.com
.


The message is sent by David to the e
-
mail server

fcuk.com
”. The mail server at
fcuk.com

will
forward the message to the email server at
aol.com
, where Bill can read that message


Remember SMTP is used to transfer messages
everywhere except for the

client connection at the
destination, which uses POP3

E
-
mail error messages


Two of the most common errors stem from
the user specifying either the mailbox name
or the computer name incorrectly


Other specific problems will have their own
specific message, which can help to solve the
problem

Access to e
-
mail using the Web


Some e
-
mail servers allow access to the mail
system using a World Wide Web browser


The browser acts the same as an e
-
mail client
that allows a user to send and receive e
-
mail
messages


A username and password are required in
order to access any mail files

e.g Outlook Web Access, Yahoo Web mail etc..


Multipurpose internet mail
extensions (MIME)


MIME provide a way for binary programs, graphical
images, or other types of files to be attached to an e
-
mail message


MIME standard provides several important features
such as


-

Specifications for other character sets


-

Definitions for content types such as applications,
images, and other multimedia file types


-

An extended set of possible headers


-

A method to include several different objects within
a single message

Common MIME data type


.au


Audio file


.bin


Binary file


.exe


Binary executable application file


.gif


GIF image file


.java


Java text source file


.jpg


JPEG image file


.mid


MIDI audio file


.mov


QuickTime movie file


.mpg


MPEG video file


.ra
-

Real audio file


.zip
-

ZIP file

Internet Message Access Protocol
(IMAP)


IMAP is a
newer protocol

designed to provide access
to electronic messages that are stored on a mail
server


Unlike POP Internet Message Access Protocol
provides direct access to the messages that are
stored on the server


This allows for mail messages to be managed from
any computer at any time


IMAP is fully compatible with the MIME and Internet
standards


IMAP includes concurrent access to shared
mailboxes, online and offline access to messages

FTP clients and servers


The capability to copy a file between computers is
provided by the File Transfer Protocol, or FTP


FTP uses connection
-
oriented TCP as the underlying
transport protocol providing guaranteed reliability


The primary function of FTP is defined as transferring
files efficiently and reliably among host computers
and allowing the convenient use of remote file
storage capabilities


Essentially FTP is a client
-
server application that uses
two ports on both the client and the server

FTP


In FTP transfer one port is used to exchange FTP
control or command information and the other port is
used to transfer the data


On the FTP server computer, port 20 is used for data
transfer and port 21 is used for control by default


FTP client can use any port numbers greater than
1023 (Port numbers less than this are reserved for
server applications)


FTP uses the Telnet protocol on the control
connection


FTP Commands


An FTP exchange of information consists of requests
sent by the client and responses sent by the server


After the client connects, the server sends a
response to the client either
accepting

or
rejecting

the connection


This initial response is called
greeting


If the server accepts the connection, the client sends
requests to the server for processing


The server sends more responses back to the client.
The last request from the server indicates whether
the request was accepted or rejected

FTP Commands

delete


delete remote file

ls


List contents of remote directory

put



Send one file

ascii


Set ASCII transfer type

quit


Terminate FTP session

get



Receive file

mget


get multiple files

mkdir
-

Make directory on the remote machine

binary



Set binary transfer type


FTP Clients


FTP client is provided for almost every type of
hardware and operating system platform available


On a Windows computer an FTP client is installed
when the TCP/IP protocol is installed


There are two types of access to a FTP server:
anonymous FTP and not anonymous


Anonymous mode of operation allows public access
to files stored on an FTP server (e.g. a manufacture
may provide free updates to device drivers or an
easy method to distribute shareware applications


The non anonymous mode requires an account and
password



Free FTP


WS_FTP LE is available free for non business users
at:


www.ipswitch.com


WS_FTP is written as a Windows application rather
than a DOS application allowing us to use the mouse
rather than the keyboard


Each session will prompt on the screen for the host
name and a user ID and password


The left side of the window displays the contents of
the local system and the right side of the window
displays the contents of the remote system




On the local system, the wsftp32 directory contents
are displayed and the root directory “/” is displayed
on the remote system


You can perform the following operations by
selecting the appropriate button on the display:


-

Change to a different directory


-

Make a new directory


-

Remove a directory


-

Refresh the current display


-

Obtain directory information



Between the windows two arrows are used to
indicate the direction of the transfer


Notice the three selections at the bottom of
the window


The “Auto” selection determines the file type
by using the files extension. E.g an .exe file
will be set to binary and a file with .txt
extension would automatically be set to ACSII


WS_FTP LE


Below the file transfer type fields. A status window is
displayed that contains a complete list of text
messages exchanged by the client and server


The bottom of the screen provides the options for


-

Close the current session


-

Cancel an operation


-

Open the message log window


-

Obtain online help


-

Change the program options


-

Review the About program info


-

Exit the program

FTP Servers


FTP servers operate on server class computers
using operating systems such as Windows NT, Unix,
and many others


A minimum implementation is required for all FTP
servers so that each server regardless of the
underlying platform, can be used to reliably
exchange information


There minimum requirements are specified in RFC
959.



An FTP server is responsible for allowing access to
the server and mechanisms are provided to
authenticate users, access the server file structure,
and set file transfer parameters


A user is permitted to transfer files only after
entering a correct account name and associated
password


Telnet Clients and Servers


The provision of remote terminal access was the very
first service implemented to allow user with an
interactive terminal session attached to one mainframe
computer to remotely connect to another mainframe as
though it were directly connected


The Telnet protocol (RFC 854) provides for a bi
-
directional, byte
-
oriented service using TCP as the
transport to reliably deliver messages

Telnet Clients


A telnet client is provided when the TCP/IP protocol
suite is installed


You can run the Telnet client from the Run option on
the Start menu


To begin a Telnet session, it is necessary to specify
the Telnet program followed by the host to connect
to


Before any interactive commands can be entered the
user need to enter a user name and password to
gain access to the remote system


When a Telnet session is complete it is necessary to
disconnect it. This option is available on the Connect
pull
-
down menu. A session is automatically
disconnected if the client program is terminated



Telnet Servers


Telnet servers are available for most hardware and
operating system platforms


On a Windows computer, it is necessary to locate a
third party Telnet server because Microsoft does not
provide a Telnet server program


By default Telnet server is installed on port number
23


You are encouraged to search the Web for Telnet
server applications that can be run on a Windows
platform


Troubleshooting Techniques


Many of the problems experienced when using the
FTP stem from the differences between the text
and binary files that a user wants to transfer


By default, an FTP client will transfer a file using
the ASCII mode


Hence any other type of file such as an executable
or a ZIP file will be modified during the transfer
and corrupted


Use of WS_FTP makes using FTP program easier