Advantages to a single-page site

learnedmooseupvalleyElectronics - Devices

Nov 7, 2013 (4 years and 6 months ago)


Advantages to a single
page site

All the information can be viewed quickly

The full web site can be printed with just one
print command

Links within different parts of the document is

Easy to save it on the hard disk for future use

Advantages to a single
page site

Give an introduction to the page and say who
will benefit from the page

Give a good table of contents so that the
reader can go directly to the page he/she is

Always have a link back to the main page or
the table of contents page

Since the table of contents cover all the
related pages the reader can only bookmark
the main page

When one page is enough

Organizing a simple site

Organize the site with short, quick
pages with graphical icons

A good Web page will make the organization
visible on the Internet

All Web pages should have the postal
address, contact details and email address

Always make the Web pages identical

Try to avoid standard clip art graphics and
other most popular graphics (Don’t copy too

Organizing a simple site

Organizing a larger site

Very similar to a simple site. Make sure you write a
paragraph explaining the contents of the site and
the intended audience

Always organize the main links on your site
according to the questions or desires of your

If you want you can put the contact details on all
the major pages of your site

Providing topic specific link pages is a very good
way to organize a large Web site

Try to keep the number of choices (list or
icons) on any index to a maximum of 7

If you need to present more than 7 links try to
break the list into groups

Avoid putting any page more than two links
away from the home page

Always add comments to your Web page code.
Enclose your comments between <!



To include comments in JavaScript put the // at
the beginning of each comment that is a single

For JavaScript comments more than one line start
the comment with /* and end them with */

In style sheets, start comments with /* and end
with */

You should have <!

tag just after the <script> or
<style> tag, with a
> before the matching
</script> or </style> tag

The above will hide the script from the older
browsers that would otherwise treat it as regular
text and display it on the page


Somebody tells them about your site address

People may follow a link from your site to someone else’s

Your site can be listed in a search engine such as Yahoo or

Add the site address to your business card or company


is an automated computer program that spends all
day looking at Web pages all over the Internet and building
database of the contents of all the pages it visits

Listing your pages

search engine

) is an automated
computer program that looks in a database
index for pages containing specific words or

To publish it on the major search engines you
must fill in the forms they provide with, brief
description, category, list of key words etc..

URL stands for Uniform Resource Locator,
which is the technical name for the address
of a Web page

Criteria used by search engines
to match to a specific search

Do the key words appear in the <title> tag of
the page?

How many times do the keywords appear in
the entire page?

Do the keywords appear in the first few lines
of the page?

How many other pages on my database link
to the page?

How many times has this page been selected

Select a combination of words your
intended audience will most likely enter

Make sure the selected words occur
several times on your page

Put the most important one in the
<title> tag

Other key words in the first heading or
introductory paragraph

Use the <meta /> tag to specify some
information about the page that doesn’t
belong in the <body> text

Most search engines allow <meta /> tags to
give a short description of your page, and
some key words to identify what your page is

<meta name=“description”

content=“Order form for the Toshiba Laptop” />

<meta name=“keywords”

content=“laptop, computers, Toshiba, portable” />

Use the <meta /> tags after the <head>, <title>,
and </title> tags but before the closing </head>

The first tag ensures that the search engine has a
valid description to list on the search results

The second tag slightly increase the search rating
by matching the keywords

Meta tags can only help but it will not have a
dramatic effect on your position in the search list

Loading another page automatically

If you move your page to another directory
say some thing like “
This page has moved to

….” with the new address

(and link it)

You can make any other page load
automatically after a specified amount of time

<meta http
equiv=“refresh” content=“5
” />

Documenting the full address of a

It is not a good practice to use just the
filename links

<a href=“orderform.htm”>

It is a good good practice to use the full URL
in all links

Always use the full address of the home page
in all the link pages

Use the <base /> tag to include the address
of a page within the <head> section of that

Planning for the future of HTML

The best sources of HTML standards are:


Check the


for latest versions
of the browser software

HTML beyond the Web

Use style sheets and scripting languages to create
more advanced pages

Integrate interactive media, and databases with the
HTML code wherever needed

Use the new data security standards to carry out
financial and other sensitive transactions

Today all versions of the Microsoft Windows
operating system uses HTML as a fundamental part
of the user interface

From calculators to communicators

Today computer is not a number crunching
device. It is rather a communication device

Today you share information using the
networked computers

Computers are used for chat, email,
interactive video, music etc…..

HTML as an User Interface

In conjunction with HTML
enabled software such as
Microsoft Office 2000, HTML is the common standard
interface for word processing, spreadsheets, and

Netscape communicator as the name indicates uses
HTML to integrate all types of media into email,
discussion groups, schedule management, business
documents and collaborate project management

This HTML standardization will help us to publish in a
standard way so that it will look the same to anyone
in the world

The digital media revolution

To deliver television quality video the technology is
there but the cost still is very high!!

Today the same box under your TV can also be
used for Internet access (Interactive transmission)

Since HTML is the glue that links all the multimedia
it is certain HTML will dominate the digital
communications industry

XML: Unity in diversity

HTML has been the foundation for the
eXtensible Markup Language (XML).

XML provides a truly universal format for
exchanging all types of information over the

XML is a bridge between XML and SGML (
Standard General Markup Language)

What are protocols?

s the special set of rules that end points in a
telecommunication connection use when they communicate

Both end points must recognize and observe a protocol.
Protocols are often described in an industry or international

Transmission Control Protocol

(TCP), which uses a set of
rules to exchange messages with other Internet points at the
information packet level

Internet Protocol

(IP), which uses a set of rules to send and
receive messages at the
Internet address level

Additional protocols that are usually packaged with a TCP/IP
suite, including the
Hypertext Transfer Protocol

(HTTP) and
File Transfer Protocol

(FTP), each with defined sets of rules to
use with corresponding programs elsewhere on the Internet

How e
mail works on the Internet

Simple Mail Transport Protocol

(SMTP) specifies
how electronic messages are exchanged between
computers using the Transmission Control Protocol or

TCP provides a reliable exchange of data on the
Internet without any possibility for loss of data

SMTP is used to exchange messages between
servers or between a client and a server

SMTP is used to deliver the messages and an e
client program is used to retrieve the messages


mail uses the client
server method to allow mail to
be exchanged

Client exchange messages with a server that is
ultimately responsible for delivering the e
messages to the destination

On the server computer each user is assigned a
specific mailbox. Each mailbox has a



mailbox name and the computer name

The mailbox part is normally made from a user’s
name. The hostname is chosen by a network


The last few alphabets represent the domain
name categories

The main categories are


A company or commercial organization


An education institution


A government organization


A military organization


Network service provider


Other organizations

country code

A country code e.g. .uk, .au, .us

Format of e
mail messages


The mail recipient’s e
mail address


The sender’s e
mail address


List of carbon copy addresses


List of blind carbon copy addresses


The date when the message was sent


The subject of the message



The address to which a reply should be sent

mail client software

One of the most popular client software e
programs is Microsoft Outlook Express

Today Microsoft is installed as part of the Windows
operating system

In order to use the Outlook program, it must be
configured properly

Configuration consists of providing user
information such as the user name, organization,
mail address, and reply address

It is also important to identify the server computer
to which the client will connect to send and receive

There is a server associated with the incoming and
outgoing messages

The incoming mail uses POP3, the Post Office
Protocol, whereas the outgoing mail server uses

You can change the default settings of the client

e.g you can change the server timeout value, or leave
a copy of the mail on the server computer

Sending an e
mail message

Consider an example in which david_ creates the e
mail message.
David uses the e
mail client to send a message to

The message is sent by David to the e
mail server
”. The mail server at

forward the message to the email server at
, where Bill can read that message

Remember SMTP is used to transfer messages
everywhere except for the

client connection at the
destination, which uses POP3

mail error messages

Two of the most common errors stem from
the user specifying either the mailbox name
or the computer name incorrectly

Other specific problems will have their own
specific message, which can help to solve the

Access to e
mail using the Web

Some e
mail servers allow access to the mail
system using a World Wide Web browser

The browser acts the same as an e
mail client
that allows a user to send and receive e

A username and password are required in
order to access any mail files

e.g Outlook Web Access, Yahoo Web mail etc..

Multipurpose internet mail
extensions (MIME)

MIME provide a way for binary programs, graphical
images, or other types of files to be attached to an e
mail message

MIME standard provides several important features
such as


Specifications for other character sets


Definitions for content types such as applications,
images, and other multimedia file types


An extended set of possible headers


A method to include several different objects within
a single message

Common MIME data type


Audio file


Binary file


Binary executable application file


GIF image file


Java text source file


JPEG image file


MIDI audio file


QuickTime movie file


MPEG video file


Real audio file


ZIP file

Internet Message Access Protocol

IMAP is a
newer protocol

designed to provide access
to electronic messages that are stored on a mail

Unlike POP Internet Message Access Protocol
provides direct access to the messages that are
stored on the server

This allows for mail messages to be managed from
any computer at any time

IMAP is fully compatible with the MIME and Internet

IMAP includes concurrent access to shared
mailboxes, online and offline access to messages

FTP clients and servers

The capability to copy a file between computers is
provided by the File Transfer Protocol, or FTP

FTP uses connection
oriented TCP as the underlying
transport protocol providing guaranteed reliability

The primary function of FTP is defined as transferring
files efficiently and reliably among host computers
and allowing the convenient use of remote file
storage capabilities

Essentially FTP is a client
server application that uses
two ports on both the client and the server


In FTP transfer one port is used to exchange FTP
control or command information and the other port is
used to transfer the data

On the FTP server computer, port 20 is used for data
transfer and port 21 is used for control by default

FTP client can use any port numbers greater than
1023 (Port numbers less than this are reserved for
server applications)

FTP uses the Telnet protocol on the control

FTP Commands

An FTP exchange of information consists of requests
sent by the client and responses sent by the server

After the client connects, the server sends a
response to the client either


the connection

This initial response is called

If the server accepts the connection, the client sends
requests to the server for processing

The server sends more responses back to the client.
The last request from the server indicates whether
the request was accepted or rejected

FTP Commands


delete remote file


List contents of remote directory


Send one file


Set ASCII transfer type


Terminate FTP session


Receive file


get multiple files


Make directory on the remote machine


Set binary transfer type

FTP Clients

FTP client is provided for almost every type of
hardware and operating system platform available

On a Windows computer an FTP client is installed
when the TCP/IP protocol is installed

There are two types of access to a FTP server:
anonymous FTP and not anonymous

Anonymous mode of operation allows public access
to files stored on an FTP server (e.g. a manufacture
may provide free updates to device drivers or an
easy method to distribute shareware applications

The non anonymous mode requires an account and

Free FTP

WS_FTP LE is available free for non business users

WS_FTP is written as a Windows application rather
than a DOS application allowing us to use the mouse
rather than the keyboard

Each session will prompt on the screen for the host
name and a user ID and password

The left side of the window displays the contents of
the local system and the right side of the window
displays the contents of the remote system

On the local system, the wsftp32 directory contents
are displayed and the root directory “/” is displayed
on the remote system

You can perform the following operations by
selecting the appropriate button on the display:


Change to a different directory


Make a new directory


Remove a directory


Refresh the current display


Obtain directory information

Between the windows two arrows are used to
indicate the direction of the transfer

Notice the three selections at the bottom of
the window

The “Auto” selection determines the file type
by using the files extension. E.g an .exe file
will be set to binary and a file with .txt
extension would automatically be set to ACSII


Below the file transfer type fields. A status window is
displayed that contains a complete list of text
messages exchanged by the client and server

The bottom of the screen provides the options for


Close the current session


Cancel an operation


Open the message log window


Obtain online help


Change the program options


Review the About program info


Exit the program

FTP Servers

FTP servers operate on server class computers
using operating systems such as Windows NT, Unix,
and many others

A minimum implementation is required for all FTP
servers so that each server regardless of the
underlying platform, can be used to reliably
exchange information

There minimum requirements are specified in RFC

An FTP server is responsible for allowing access to
the server and mechanisms are provided to
authenticate users, access the server file structure,
and set file transfer parameters

A user is permitted to transfer files only after
entering a correct account name and associated

Telnet Clients and Servers

The provision of remote terminal access was the very
first service implemented to allow user with an
interactive terminal session attached to one mainframe
computer to remotely connect to another mainframe as
though it were directly connected

The Telnet protocol (RFC 854) provides for a bi
directional, byte
oriented service using TCP as the
transport to reliably deliver messages

Telnet Clients

A telnet client is provided when the TCP/IP protocol
suite is installed

You can run the Telnet client from the Run option on
the Start menu

To begin a Telnet session, it is necessary to specify
the Telnet program followed by the host to connect

Before any interactive commands can be entered the
user need to enter a user name and password to
gain access to the remote system

When a Telnet session is complete it is necessary to
disconnect it. This option is available on the Connect
down menu. A session is automatically
disconnected if the client program is terminated

Telnet Servers

Telnet servers are available for most hardware and
operating system platforms

On a Windows computer, it is necessary to locate a
third party Telnet server because Microsoft does not
provide a Telnet server program

By default Telnet server is installed on port number

You are encouraged to search the Web for Telnet
server applications that can be run on a Windows

Troubleshooting Techniques

Many of the problems experienced when using the
FTP stem from the differences between the text
and binary files that a user wants to transfer

By default, an FTP client will transfer a file using
the ASCII mode

Hence any other type of file such as an executable
or a ZIP file will be modified during the transfer
and corrupted

Use of WS_FTP makes using FTP program easier