Operational Strategies and Storage

learnedbawledElectronics - Devices

Nov 24, 2013 (3 years and 10 months ago)

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www.smart
-
microgrid.ca

Project 1.4

Operational Strategies and Storage
Technologies to Address Barriers for Very High
Penetration of DG Units in Intelligent
Microgrids

Dr.
Géza

Joós

Student: Michael Ross

www.smart
-
microgrid.ca

Purpose and Challenges


Create a
general framework for energy
management of
Microgrids

with large
amounts of
renewables


Controlling a
Microgrid

with a high level of
uncertainty and variability (e.g., stochastic
nature of renewable generation).


The methodology will be implemented for
different renewable energy portfolios and
power system configurations


Developing an operation strategy that maximizes
economic considerations


Incorporating various DER

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-
microgrid.ca

2011


Identify barriers associated for large number of renewable DGs
& research energy management strategies

2012


Establish performance metrics considering cost optimization

2013


Evaluate Storage technologies, modes of operation, ancillary
service functions and values

2014


Research and develop controlling strategies and algorithms

2015


Evaluate performance of strategies

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-
microgrid.ca

Enhancement
for Canada’s
future power
system

Industrial
experience

Cutting

edge
research

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-
microgrid.ca

Project 1.4

Operational
Strategies & Storage
Technologies for a
large penetration of
renewable DGs

Projects 1.1 & 1.2

Control, operation
and power
management

Projects 2.2 & 2.4

Energy & supply
security and
Integration design

Projects 3.1 & 3.2

Communication
infrastructure and
Grid integration

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-
microgrid.ca

Barriers for Large Number of
Renewable DGs



Bi
-
Directional Power Flow


Protection Coordination


System Grounding Issues


Unintentional Islanding


Power Balancing


Ancillary Services

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-
microgrid.ca

Bi
-
directional power flow


There may be times of high input power
and low consumption, and other times of
high demand but low generation.


This is a problem since the voltage regulation is
difficult to control (voltage rise effect).


Power can be exported as well as imported


A fault on a lateral feeder can be “seen” on
a healthy feeder, causing it to trip

Source:
NRCan

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-
microgrid.ca

Protection Coordination


Loss of coordination (fault currents can be
larger, which means that some protective
equipment can trip simultaneously)


Loss of sensitivity (if the fault is located
downstream of the DG, the utility might not
be able to detect that a fault occurred).


Nuisance fuse blowing

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-
microgrid.ca

Protection Coordination


Fault currents can vary widely based on
whether
microgrids

are connected to the
grid, or disconnected


Protection equipment must know when the
microgrid

is isolated or grid
-
connected


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-
microgrid.ca

System Grounding Issues


Grounding issues of the DG and
interconnecting transformer can cause
either
overvoltages

in a line
-
single to
-
ground fault, or it can increase the short
circuit current by allowing a path for zero
-
sequence currents to flow

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-
microgrid.ca

Unintentional Islanding


The DG can reconnect out of phase with the
utility


The DG can be damaged in a fault condition


There is a risk to personnel who may
operate on an energized feeder


DGs may not have voltage or frequency
support

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-
microgrid.ca

Power Balancing


Load following controls must be in place
when the DG is large enough such that
many loads on the feeder are supplied with
power from the DG, or when operating as a
microgrid
.


This is particularly difficult with renewable
DGs since the input power is intermittent.

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-
microgrid.ca

Ancillary Services


The feeder cannot rely on generator inertia
(if interfaced through power
-
electronics)
with dynamic changes in load


Must rely on other sources (energy storage, for
example) to ensure inertial frequency response
for the initial energy balance when a new load
comes online/offline

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-
microgrid.ca

Current Interconnection
Standards



IEEE 1547


Requirements for the Interconnection of
Distributed Generation to the Hydro
-
Quebec
Medium
-
Voltage Distribution System


BC Hydro Interconnection Requirements for
Power Generators


Hydro One Distributed Generation Technical
Interconnection Requirements


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-
microgrid.ca

Energy Management Strategies


Load curtailment


Demand response


Direct load control


Generation curtailment


Including dump loads


Energy Storage Systems


Batteries


Flywheels


Supercapacitors


Etc.


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-
microgrid.ca

Gaps:

-

Other barriers for high
penetration renewable DGs?

-

Other interconnection
standards?

-

Energy management strategies?

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-
microgrid.ca

Project 1.4

Operational Strategies and Storage
Technologies to Address Barriers for Very
High Penetration of DG Units in Intelligent
Microgrids

For further information contact:

Michael Ross

michael.ross2@mail.mcgill.ca