COURSE OUTLINE
Fall 2010
1. Calendar Information
Electrical Engineering
5
8
5
Introduction to Power Electronics
Commutation. Diode rectifiers. Fully controlled 3

phase rectifiers. Choppers, inverters,
ac controllers. Single

phase switch mode converters: dc

to

dc, ac

to

dc, dc

to

ac
. Circuit
and state

space averaging techniques. Switching devices and magnetics.
Course Hours:
H(3

2/2)
Calendar Reference:
http://www.ucalgary.ca/pubs/calendar/current/
electrical

engineering.html#7645
2. Learning Outcomes
In this course we will rev
iew then we will investigate
further
the following concepts:
power balance, averaging, root mean square, orthogonality, commutation, and
most
especially
the definition of inductance expressed as
v
dt
=
L
di
, with its many
interpretations: as a definite int
egral used for commutation interval calculation; as a
difference equation used for current ripple calculation (for one state of a converter in a
time interval approximated by dt); in AC steady

state analysis giving an average inductor
voltage of zero and g
iving us the principle of Volt second balance; in DC steady

state (ie,
with a constant value of average inductor current) once again giving an average inductor
voltage of zero and once again giving us the principle of Volt second balance but this
time appl
ied to DC; as a time

scale independent form, namely,
v
d
θ
=
ω
L
di
allowing
average and rms calculations for any period of the cycle; in Laplace form, V
=
I
ω
L
permitting
ripple current approximations; and
in Laplace

Fourier form, V
=
I
h
ω
L
giving us
current amplitude calculations at each harmonic frequency
. Al
l t
hese concepts will then
be employed in the time

domain
steady

state
analysis of several power converters.
With an emphasis on steady

state operation
(though we need to know that power

up
and other transients are also considered as well in converter
design practice)
, we will
study three classes of non

linear, or switching, power converters, namely: (a) Diode
Based Power Converter Topologies, where we will investigate low

power (ie, below
1.5kW) single

phase diode rectifiers as well as the high power
full

bridge 3

phase diode
rectifier that is employed in kilo

Watt to mega

Watt applications; (b) Thyristor Based
Power Converter Topologies, where several types of conventional high power converters
will be examined, including the fully

controlled 3

phase
rectifier, the dc chopper, the six

step 3

phase inverter (with a little bit of frequency domain analysis), and the single

phase ac controller; and
(c)
Transistor Based Power Converter Topologies, sometimes
called switch mode converters, that have proven th
emselves at sub

kilowatt power levels
and are becoming popular at higher power levels up to mega

Watts. The three basic
switch mode converters that we will study in the context of low power applications are
the buck, boost and inverting converters. We will
also study two isolated types of switch
mode converters, namely, the hybrid

bridge forward converter and the flyback converter.
Our main scholastic objective
s of this course are two fold: (1) To be able to sketch
steady

state waveforms for the most com
mon industrial and commercial power
converters. We will have lots of practice using our KVL (Kirchhoff Voltage Law) and
KCL (Kirchhoff Current Law) circuit analysis skills; and (2) To know which inductor
interpretation to use, dependant upon the objectiv
e of our analysis, e.g. to find peak

to

peak current ripple in a DC chopper: for high ripple (we will determine in this course what
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“high” means) we use the differential equation, but for low ripple we use the difference
equation form. In each case we will
select the calculation method that is the most
succinct
–
a skill that is particularly useful when performing original design work.
At the end of this course (where each point below is taken from each chapter of our
course notes at http://www2.enel.ucalga
ry.ca/People/Nowicki/), you will be able to:
distinguish between linear and non

linear power converter operation
recognize when commutation takes place and calculate the commutation period
use the principle of power balance as a check on your circuit anal
ysis
perform quick “back of the envelope” average and rms calculations and apply the
principle of othogonality to aid you in your rms calculations; to know that the
terms “average” and “DC” are interchangeable in the context of power converters
for diode r
ectifiers: sketch steady

state waveforms; calculate the average output
voltage and input power factor, without and with the inclusion of line inductance;
and also estimate output current ripple for inductive loads using an approximate
“effective ripple imp
edance”
for SCR rectifiers: sketch steady

state waveforms; calculate the average output
voltage and input power factor, as a function of the firing angle, without and with
the inclusion of line inductance; estimate the commutation interval with an
approxim
ate commutation inductor voltage
for DC choppers: sketch steady

state waveforms including a piece

wise
approximation when the current ripple is less than 50%; calculate the average
output voltage by applying KVL to averaged element voltages; estimate outpu
t
current ripple for each state of the converter from the definition of inductance
expressed as
v
dt
=
L
di
for the 3

phase SCR Voltage Source Inverter: sketch steady

state waveforms for
LR loads; estimate the current ripple using Fourier analysis
for the
single

phase AC Controller: sketch steady

state waveforms for LR loads
in discontinuous and continuous current modes; and to know which mode the
controller is operating in
for buck, boost and inverting DC

to

DC converters: sketch steady

state
waveforms; de
termine the DC input to output voltage transfer function using the
principle of Volt second balance (a direct consequence of an inductance in DC
steady

state); determine the boundary condition, if any, between continuous and
discontinuous mode; be able to
estimate the output voltage ripple from the
definition of capacitance expressed as
i
dt
=
C
dv
(in direct analogy with current
ripple calculations for inductance)
for the transformer isolated Forward and Flyback DC

to

DC converters: sketch
steady

state wav
eforms; be able to invent/synthesize these converters starting
with a buck or inverting converter and thus determine the DC input to output
voltage transfer function by extension; determine the DC input to output voltage
transfer function using the princip
le of Volt second balance; and to know which
parameters of a transformer have the greatest effect on converter operation.
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3. Timetable
Section
Days of the
Week
Start
Time
Duration
(Minutes)
Location
L01
MWF
12:00
50
SB 146
B01
F
10:00
110
ENA 0
6
B02
F
1
0:00
110
ENA 0
6
4. Course Instructors
Course
Instruc
tor
Section
Name
Phone
Office
Email
L01, B01

02
E. Nowicki
(403) 220

5006
ENA 206F
enowicki@ucalgary.ca
Teaching Assistants
Section
Name
Phone
Office
Email
B01

02
Arif Al

Judi
403

891

3406
ENA206D
a
rifaljudi@gmail.com
B01

02
Nacer Benaifa
403

660

4707
ENA206D
nacer.benaifa@gmail.com
5. Examinations
The following
examinations will
be held in this course:
6 In

class Quizzes
: closed book, closed notes
; best 4 counted for grading purposes
In

class Mid
term: closed book, closed notes
Final
exam
: 3 hours, Registrar scheduled (closed book, closed notes, formula sheet
provided)
Note:
The timetable for Registrar Scheduled exams can be found at the
University’s Enrolment Services website, http://www.ucalgary.
ca/registrar/.
6. Use of Calculators in Examinations
Only non

programmable calculators may be used during examinations.
7. Final Grade Determination
The final grade in this course will be based on the following components:
Component
Weight
Lab
s
5
%
Quiz
zes
20
%
Midterm Examination
25
%
Final Examination
50
%
TOTAL
100
%
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Course Outline
Note
s
:
1.
It is not necessary to earn a passing grade on the final exam in order to pass the
course as a whole.
2.
The laboratories will require one pre

lab exercise per lab group, that
is marked at
the beginning of the lab. Observations and Analysis will be marked near the end
of the laboratory period.
3.
Of the six in

class quizzes, the best four will be counted for grading purposes.
There will also be six take

home quizzes which will not
be graded. Solutions to all
quizzes will be posted at
http://www2.enel.ucalgary.ca/People/Nowicki/
8
. Textbook
Handouts of class material (in the form of chapters as related to each week of class)
will be made available from Ed’s ENEL585 website:
h
ttp://www2.enel.ucalgary.ca/People/Nowicki/
(scroll to the bottom of the ENEL585 page)
These handouts will provide you with the necessary theory for this course with
additional worked problems available from the website where quiz and exam material
from p
revious years is posted
.
The following
are reference
textbook
s only. They are
NOT
required for this course:
Title
Principles of Power Electronics
Author(s)
Kassakian, Schlecht, Verghese
Edition, Year
1st Edition, 1991
Publisher
Addison Wesley
Title
P
ower Electronics: Converters, Applications and Design
Author(s)
N Mohan, T Undeland, W Robbins
Edition, Year
2nd Edition or higher
Publisher
John Wiley
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Course Outline
9. Course Policies
All Schulich School of Engineering students and instructors have a responsibility
to
familiarize themselves with the policies described in the Sch
u
lich School of Engineering
Advising Syllabus available at:
http://schulich.ucalgary.ca/undergraduate/advising
10. Additional Course Information
The laboratories are scheduled as follows
, al
l in room ENA06
:
Lab 1
B01 Friday Oct. 15,
10:00

11:50AM
Lab 1 B02 Friday Oct. 22, 10:00

11:50AM
Lab 2 B01 Friday Oct. 29, 10:00

11:50AM
Lab 2 B02 Friday Nov. 5, 10:00

11:50AM
Lab 3 B01 Friday Nov. 19, 10:00

11:50AM
Lab 3 B02 Friday Nov. 26, 10
:00

11:50AM
Template revised on 6 May 2010 (RWB)
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