TOK and Businessx

lapclassManagement

Nov 6, 2013 (3 years and 7 months ago)

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THEORY OF KNOWLEDGE
and

SCHOOL ECONOMICS AND
BUSINESS


Whose
Perspectives?

and other Problems of Knowledge

The Theory of Knowledge Diagram

Where is Business and Management?

WAYS OF KNOWING


Perception


Emotion


Reason


Language


HOW DO THEY PLAY A ROLE IN THE
CONSTRUCTION OF ECONOMIC AND
BUSINESS KNOWLEDGE?

PROBLEMS OF KNOWLEDGE


Sources
-

bias and subjectivity


Evidence
-

reliability


Degree of Certainty


Methods and standards of Justification


Whose knowledge?


History of knowledge

PERCEPTION


What we PERCEIVE of the real world is a
product of a FILTERING PROCESS
involving:

a BIOLOGICAL filter

a
COGNITIVE
filter which includes

a PSYCHOLOGICAL and LINGUISTIC filter

a CULTURAL and VALUES filter


PERCEPTIONS AND KNOWLEDGE
CONSTRUCTION

The COGNITIVE FILTER can itself be
broken down further into


a rational filter (“head”)


psychological,
linguistic


an
axiological filter (“heart”)


cultural,
moral, aesthetic

These
filters may take the forms of
models,
theories
, paradigms and value
judgements.


Knowledge, paradigms, and the world

Knowledge

The world

Biological Filter

“Head”
and
“heart” filters
**

Knowledge re
-
shaping the world through human action

**”Head”
-

LANGUAGE, THOUGHT PROCESSES,

“Heart”
-

CULTURE, VALUES, PARADIGMS and IDEOLOGIES



NATURE OF BUSINESS
KNOWLEDGE





What is the role of intuitions and tacit knowledge in
business decisions?


Can management be taught from a book? Do
successful managers know more than they can tell?


Whose perspective does B&M adopt?


Is the management of organizations an art or a
science?


What roles do
emotions

and
creativity

play in
business, and how are they manifested?


Changing assumptions about human beings and
culture in business.

SPECIFIC
ISSUES
IN B&M THAT
CONNECT WITH TOK


Measuring what we value
vs
. valuing what we
measure. Can quality be reliably captured in
quantitative measures?


Cost
-
benefit reasoning vs. ethical reasoning in
business decisions and strategy


The reliability of business accounts


Sources of bias in business
knowledge


W
hose knowledge


management’s or
employee’s?


Others?



ETHICAL ISSUES IN BUSINESS
AND ORGANIZATIONAL LIFE





Can ethical judgments be applied to the
behaviour of corporations (as distinct from its
managers or other agents)?


Is it ethical for businesses to develop ethical
objectives as a marketing strategy?


Is it possible to be humane and successful in
business at the same time?


WHAT WE CAN DO AS
TEACHERS


Pay special attention to the distinction between
technical and non
-
technical uses of words


Encourage students to look for the
limitations of
economic
and strategic analysis


Encourage focus on
institutional, behavioural,
moral and political assumptions of any analysis


Encourage students to identify
, wherever
possible, the gainers and losers from policies.