Chapter 5

lapclassManagement

Nov 6, 2013 (3 years and 9 months ago)

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CHAPTER 5

Data and Knowledge Management

Difficulties in Managing Data


Amount of data increases exponentially.


Data are scattered.


Data are collected by many individuals using
various methods and devices.


Data come from many sources.


Data degrades over time.


Data security, quality and integrity are critical.

Data governance

Data Governance







an approach to managing
data and information across an entire
organization.


Federal regulations


Amount of data is overwhelming


The Database Approach: Benefits


Database management system (DBMS)
provides all users with access to all the data.


A DBMS can reduce the following problems:


Data redundancy


Data isolation


Data inconsistency


A DBMS can increase the following:


Data security


Data integrity


Data independence

Database Management Systems

Data Hierarchy

Bit

Byte

Field

Record

File (or table)

Database

Designing the Database



Data model


Entity (a table)


Attribute (a field)


Primary key



Database designers plan the database
design in a process called
entity
-
relationship (ER) modeling
.


Entity
-
Relationship Diagram Model

Data warehouse



Data Warehouses








repository of historical data
organized to support decision makers in the
organization.


Organized


Consistent


Historical


Nonvolatile (unchanging/read only)


Multidimensional

Data Warehouses: Advantages


Data can be accessed easily and quickly.


Extensive data analysis is possible.


Data is consolidated into one place.

Data Warehouses: Disadvantages


Very expensive.


Requires constant maintenance.


Could be difficult to set up and maintain.


Could take extensive time to set up.


Functional units may not always want to
share data.

Data mart

Data Marts






a small data warehouse, designed
for the end
-
user needs in a strategic business
unit (SBU) or a department.



Smaller and less functional so generally:


less expensive


can be created and perform quicker


local control so data sharing may not be
required


Knowledge management (KM)

Knowledge Management










a process that
helps organizations manipulate important
knowledge that is part of the organization’s
memory, usually in an unstructured format.



Knowledge


recall what it is...


Information in

action. How we
USE

information.


Aka
intellectual capital
(or
intellectual assets
)

Explicit Knowledge






Tacit Knowledge

Explicit
vs

Tacit Knowledge








objective, rational,
technical knowledge that has been
documented.


policies, procedural guides, reports, products,
strategies, goals, core competencies








cumulative store of
subjective or experiential learning.


experiences, insights, expertise, know
-
how,
trade secrets, understanding, skill sets, and
learning


Knowledge Management Systems (KMSs)

Knowledge Management Systems












refer to the use of information technologies to
systematize, enhance, and expedite
intrafirm

and
interfirm

knowledge management.


Knowledge Management System Cycle