Data and Knowledge Management
Difficulties in Managing Data
Amount of data increases exponentially.
Data are scattered.
Data are collected by many individuals using
various methods and devices.
Data come from many sources.
Data degrades over time.
Data security, quality and integrity are critical.
an approach to managing
data and information across an entire
Amount of data is overwhelming
The Database Approach: Benefits
Database management system (DBMS)
provides all users with access to all the data.
A DBMS can reduce the following problems:
A DBMS can increase the following:
Database Management Systems
File (or table)
Designing the Database
Entity (a table)
Attribute (a field)
Database designers plan the database
design in a process called
relationship (ER) modeling
Relationship Diagram Model
repository of historical data
organized to support decision makers in the
Nonvolatile (unchanging/read only)
Data Warehouses: Advantages
Data can be accessed easily and quickly.
Extensive data analysis is possible.
Data is consolidated into one place.
Data Warehouses: Disadvantages
Requires constant maintenance.
Could be difficult to set up and maintain.
Could take extensive time to set up.
Functional units may not always want to
a small data warehouse, designed
for the end
user needs in a strategic business
unit (SBU) or a department.
Smaller and less functional so generally:
can be created and perform quicker
local control so data sharing may not be
Knowledge management (KM)
a process that
helps organizations manipulate important
knowledge that is part of the organization’s
memory, usually in an unstructured format.
recall what it is...
action. How we
technical knowledge that has been
policies, procedural guides, reports, products,
strategies, goals, core competencies
cumulative store of
subjective or experiential learning.
experiences, insights, expertise, know
trade secrets, understanding, skill sets, and
Knowledge Management Systems (KMSs)
Knowledge Management Systems
refer to the use of information technologies to
systematize, enhance, and expedite
Knowledge Management System Cycle