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Nov 6, 2013 (4 years and 6 days ago)

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Systems Analysis & Design

Systems Analysis & Design

8
th

Edition

Chapter 1



Introduction to Systems
Analysis and Design

2

2

Introduction


Companies use
information as a

weapon
in the battle to
increase productivity,
deliver quality products
and services, maintain
customer loyalty, and
make sound decisions
.


Information technology
can mean the difference
between
success

and
failure

Figure 1
-
1

3

3

The Impact of Information
Technology


Information Technology


Combination of
hardware

and
software
products

and
services

that companies use to
manage, access, communicate, and share
information


A vital
asset

that must be
used effectively
,
updated constantly
, and
safeguarded carefully

4

4

The Impact of Information Technology


The Future of IT


Will see robust growth for at least a decade


The greatest need will be for
systems analysts
,
network administrators, data communications
analysts, and software engineers

Figure 1
-
3

5

5

The Impact of Information
Technology


The importance of Systems Analysis
and Design



To ensure information system’s (IS) quality


The Role of Systems Analysis and
Design


Systems Analysis and Design


Step
-
by
-
step process for developing high
-
quality
information systems


Systems Analyst


Plan, develop, and maintain information systems

6

6

The Impact of Information
Technology


What

do we need in IS?
-
>
How

to do it?


Who develops Information Systems?


In
-
house applications


Software packages


Internet
-
based application services


Outsourcing


Custom solutions


Why, When
, What, How, Who

7

7

Information System Components


A System is a set of
related

components
that produces specific results


Information systems have five key
components:
hardware
,
software
,
data
,
processes
, and
people

Figure 1
-
6

8

8


Hardware


Everything in the physical layer of the
information system


Moore’s Law

accurately predicted that
computer processing power would double
every 18 to 24 months

Information System Components

9

9

Information System Components


Software


System software


Network operating system


Application software


Enterprise applications

=============================


Horizontal system (
橫向系統
)


Vertical system (
縱向系統
)


Legacy systems (
老舊系統
)

10

10

Information System Components


Data


The raw
material that an
information
system
transforms into
useful
information

Figure 1
-
11

11

11

Information System Components


Processes


Describe the
tasks

and
business functions

that
users, managers, and IT staff members
perform to achieve specific results


People


Users, or end users, are the people who
interact with an information system, both inside
and outside the company

12

12

Information System Components

Figure 1
-
9

13

13

Understanding The Business


Business Profile


Overview of a company


Business Models


Graphical representation of one or more
business processes

Figure 1
-
12

14

14

Understanding The Business


New Kinds of
Companies


Production
-
oriented


Service
-
oriented


Internet
-
dependent


Dot
-
com (.com)


Brick
-
and
-
mortar


14

15

15

Understanding The Business


Companies are classified based on their
main activities:


Brick
-
and
-
mortar


Production
-
oriented


Service
-
oriented


Click
-
and
-
mortar or pure play


Dot
-
com (.com)

Figure 1
-
14

16

16

Impact of the Internet


E
-
Commerce (I
-
Commerce)


B2C (Business
-
to
-
Consumer)


B2B (Business
-
to
-
Business)


EDI, XML, HTML

17

17

Impact of the Internet


Web
-
Based
System
Development


WebSphere


.NET


Web services


Internet
-
based
systems involve
various hardware
and software
designs

17

18

18

How Business Uses Information

Systems


In the past, IT managers divided
systems into
categories

based on the
user group

the system served


Office systems


Operational systems


Decision support systems


Executive information systems

19

19

How Business Uses Information

Systems


Today, it makes more sense to identify a
system by its
functions
, rather than by
users


Enterprise computing systems


Transaction processing systems


Business support systems


Knowledge management systems


User productivity systems

20

20

How Business Uses Information
Systems

Enterprise computing
systems


Support
company
-
wide
operations and
data management
requirements


Enterprise resource
planning (ERP)


Many hardware and
software vendors
target the enterprise
computing market

20

21

21

How Business Uses Information
Systems


Transaction
processing systems


Involve large amounts
of data and are
mission
-
critical

systems


Process data
generated by
day
-
to
-
day

business
operations


21

22

22

How Business Uses Information
Systems


Business support systems


Provide job
-
related information to users at
all
levels
of a company


Management information systems (MIS)


Radio frequency identification (RFID)


What
-
if

22

23

23

How Business Uses Information
Systems


Knowledge management systems


Called expert systems


Simulate human reasoning by combining a
knowledge base and inference rules


Many knowledge management systems use a
technique called fuzzy logic

23

24

24

How Business Uses Information
Systems


User productivity systems


Technology that improves productivity(
生產力
)


Groupware


Information systems integration


Most large companies require systems that
combine transaction processing, business
support, knowledge management, and user
productivity features

24

25

25

Information System Users and Their
Needs

Figure 1
-
21

26

26


Top mangers


Strategic planning


Middle managers and knowledge
workers


provide direction, necessary
resources and performance feedback
to
supervisors and team leaders


Supervisors and team leaders


oversee
operational employees

and carry out
day
-
to
-
day
functions


Operational employees


enter and
receive data

they need to perform jobs

Information System Users and Their
Needs

27

27

Systems Development Tools and
Techniques


Prototyping


Early working version
of an information system


Speeds up
the development process
significantly


Can be an extremely valuable tool


28

28

Systems Development Tools and
Techniques


Computer
-
Aided Systems Engineering
(CASE) Tools


CASE uses powerful software to help systems
analysts develop and maintain information
systems

29

29

Systems Development
Methods


Structured Analysis


traditional systems development technique


Uses the
systems development life cycle
to plan,
analyze, design, implement, and support an
information system

Figure 1
-
25

30

30

Overview of Systems Development
Methods


Agile Methods


Are the newest
development


Emphasizes
continuous
feedback


Iterative

development


Agile community
has published the
Agile Manifesto


Spiral model

30

31

31

Systems Development Methods


Joint Application Development and
Rapid Application Development


Both composed of users, managers, and IT
staff


JAD


Team based fact finding


RAD


compressed version of the entire
process

32

32

The Systems Development Life Cycle


SDLC

used to plan and manage the
systems development process.


It includes the following steps:

1.
Systems planning

2.
Systems analysis

3.
Systems design

4.
Systems implementation

5.
Systems operation and support

33

33

The Systems Development Life Cycle

Figures 1
-
28 & 1
-
29

34

34

Systems Development Guidelines


Develop
a project plan


Involve users
and listen carefully to
them


Use project management tools
to
identify tasks and milestones


Develop
accurate cost and benefit
information


Remain
flexible

34

35

35

Information Technology Department


The information technology (IT)
department develops and maintains a
company’s information systems

Figure 1
-
30

36

36

The Systems Analyst Position


A systems analyst
investigates,
analyzes, designs, develops, installs,
evaluates, and maintains
a company’s
information systems


On large projects, the analyst works as
a member of an IT department team.


Smaller companies often use
consultants to perform the work


37

37

The Systems Analyst Position


Responsibilities


Overlap business and technical issues


Help translate business requirements into IT
projects


Plans projects, develops schedules, estimates
costs


Required Skills and Background


Solid technical knowledge


Strong oral and written communication skill


Good analytical ability


Understand business operations and processes

38

38

Homework


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部門在
組織圖中的位階。


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