Social Inclusion Quarterly E-Journal, August 2012

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Social Inclusion


e
-
Journal Published by

Social Inclusion Research Fund

August

2012




From the Editorial Team


Dear all,


We are ple
ased to
bring you
our
August

issue of Social Inclusion,
with
update of recent happenings at SIRF
and in the
research
arena of social exclusion and inclusion.


We

are proud to bring you a
ll th
ree articles in this issue from

research
es

conducted by
female researchers.
The lead arti
cle by Roshani Shrestha talks about
how
socio
-
cultural
taboo

continues

to
persist against

single women
in Nepal
.
The research article by
Reena Maharjan
presents
a

research narrative
on
Manjani



Traditional Administrative System of Danuwars


and the reasons of its

extinction.

The third article by
Ruby Shakya deals
on
changing livel
ihood of Pahari
, a marginalized ind
igenous group and the r
eason of

their deprivation.


C
entral Department of Sociology Anthropology
, TU organized Methodology Design and Consultation
Workshop
on 6
-
8 May 2012

to finalize methodology

of
Social
Inclusion Atlas and
Ethnographic Profile

(SIA
EP)

through consultation wi
th experts and representatives of multiple stakeholders.

The
SIA EP team
further worked on the feedback and inputs from the workshop and
developed
research
tools and
instruments which were

shared
in several team workshops in July. This was again shared wi
th the
experts

for comment and finalization in the programme
organized on 5 August 2012.

S
even days
orientation
training workshop
is scheduled
on 1
1
-
1
7 August 2012
to the
Research
Supervisors and Enumerators of
Nepal Social Inclusion Survey

and Ethnographi
c Profiles
.


On the dissemination front,
SIRF
will
publish 9 Research Briefs in the month of August 2012
. Look out for
these
briefs
in our
website

www.socialinclusion.org.np
.

These briefs are of selected S
IRF funded researches
under its HGRF and MMRA grant.
SIRF Secretariat will continue to provide further opportunities for the
researchers to disseminate their research findings to a wider audience through different channels.


SIRF Secretariat express
es

its
deepest condolence on sad demise of Ms
Farida Siddiqui
,
SIRF
Research
Appr
enticeship of 2009.
May
her
soul rest

i
n peace.


Happy reading!


Manju Tuladhar, Sita Rana, Swas
ti Pradhan and Rojan Bajracharya




Lead Story

Colou
r Taboo on Nepalese Single Women: Their Changing Perception as a Resistance


By
Roshani Shrestha
,

Harka Gurung Research Fellow 2011


News


S
ocial Inclusion Atlas and Ethnographic Profile (SIA EP)

In
e
quality and Affirmative Action: Situating Nepal in Global Debates

S
taff Movement in SIRF Secretariat

MOU with Ministry of Women, Children and Social Welfare

Dissemination of SI
RF Researche
s

in Intellectual Seminars and Public Forums







1

In this article, the term single women is used instead of widow

2

offered t
he position of god in wife’s life from religious point of view

3

Right and Democracy. 2007.
Human
Rights to

Food in Nepal: Report of International Fact Finding
Mission
, Kathmandu.

4

Women for Human Rights (WHR) Single Women Group. 2008.
Problems and Challe
nges of Single Women
(Widows) in Nepal: A Study
. Kathmandu: WHR.

From the Researchers


Manjani System: Traditional Identity among the Danuwars of Kamala Khonch in Sindhuli District

Changing Livelihood

among Pahari Community




Publications

Ethnicity and Federalisation in Nepal

Anthropology and Sociology of Nepal



Radio and TV Programmes


Radio programme “S
amabeshi Aawaz”

Television programme “Samabeshi Bahas”




Colour Taboo on Nepalese Single Women: Their Changing Perception as a Resistance
1

By
Roshani Shrestha
,

Harka Gurung Research Fellow 2011


Background

Nepalese

society, influenced by patriarchy, has a common feature of hierarchical treatment between male and
female. Though gradual changes have been noticed, women are not free from different socio
-
cultural taboos.
Socio
-
cultural behavior towards women is largely
affected with the change in their marital status. Husbands’ life
is much precious to wives than their own as they are considered
pati parmeshwor
2

on the one hand and there is
heavy economic reliance on husbands on the other hand because most of the women a
re not sufficiently
equipped with skills and knowledge required for living their lives independently. This might be one of the reason
wives love to offer their husbands more nutritious diet and eat the leftover in many cases. “
[…] women are
commonly the la
st to eat and the first to go without food in times of shortage”(Right and Democracy, 2007:24)
3
.


While husbands are alive, wives sacrifice much for them. Instead of acknowledging their contribution, the society
inflicts pathos and pains making widows the
self consumer of their woe. They are discarded in many socio
-
cultural functions; their social life comes almost to end after husband's death. “The death of a woman's husband
marks the painful transition from a wife to a single woman that relegates her to a

state of physically alive and
socially dead” (Problems and Challenges, viii)
4
. Thus, they live a life biologically not socially. They have
restriction on even colour choice. In this article, it
has been analyzed what sort of
colour taboo has been inflicte
d
on
single women

and how their perception has been changed as a resistance.


Socio
-
cultural Practice on Single Women from Past to Present





5

Baral, Basu. 2050 VS.
Hindu Samajik Sangathanko Prarup
. Kathmandu: Sajha Prakashan.

6

burning woman on pyre of her husband

7

Majpuria, Indra. 2007.
Nepalese Women
. Kathmandu: Modern Printi
ng Press.

8

Uprety, Meena and Shikshya Adhikari. Perceptions and Practices of Society towards Single Women in the
Context of Nepal. in Om Gurung et al eds
Occasional Papers in Sociology and Anthropology,Vol. II
.
Kritipur: Central Department of Sociology/
Anthropology, University Campus.

9

This data is based on field study carried out in Pokhara in 2010.

10

The term 'considerable' in this research refers to not interested in using oneself but supporting its use as
individual rights for those who want.


In ancient period women were given more freedom and position which got changed in course of time. In the
Vedic Perio
d women were given equal status as of men though they didn't have equal opportunity in education.
“In the Vedic period, we have reasons to believe that so far as education was concerned, the position of women
was generally not unequal to that of the men […
.] and women were regarded as having equally important status
in the social life of the early period” (quoted in Basu 137)
5
. Any religious performance used to be considered
incomplete without his wife. The
Ardhanarishwor

(half Shiva and half Parvati) form
glorifies the mutual relation of
husband and wife who are interdependent but not independent.


But the role and position of women have been changed in different stages. In Late Vedic Period, the position of
women in the society was degraded. It became eve
n worse in the Smriti Period. They were respected only as
mother but as a wife they were not given equal status as of husband. They were made subservient to male and
it got worsen in medieval period. Though some royal women could play a great role in pala
ce affairs, this period
is considered to be a dark period for women as the
Sati system
6

was rampant which continued in Malla Period
too. There are the records of many wives of Malla kings burnt alive with the dead husbands. Though Prime
Minister Junga Baha
dur Rana took initiation to shun the system however later Chandra Shamsher succeeded on
it. (Majupria, 2007).
7

Though sati system is not prevalent now, discrimination, domination and exclusion of
women is pervasive in Nepalese society.


Moreover, single wo
men’s situation is much worse with different restrictions and negative social eyes on them.
“The patriarchal social values always make critiques and pose unseen restrictions to the widows. All their
activities are seriously watched with negative eyes. They

are not supposed even to talk to other males in society.
[....] they can not have a better life even when they dare to remarry” (Uprety, Meena and Shikshya Adhikari,
250)
8
.This gives a clear picture on discriminatory social behavior on single women which
is a bitter fact even
today.


Colour Taboo and Perception of Single Women
9


Irrespective of caste and religion, ethnicity and so on, different taboos have been imposed upon single women
like using red colour, attending social and religious ceremonies etc.
A research data based on the study carried
out in Pokhara in 2010 among total 81 single women reveals their changing perception on colour taboos and
gradual resistance against it.


Use of red colour is usually prohibited among the single women; resistance
against such taboos has been getting
momentum. They have started wearing and using red colour. Higher percent of single women openly supported
its use whereas others found it considerable
10
.



Source: Field Study 2010


The given figure shows 57 percent of

respondents considering use of red colour good whereas remaining 43
percent though supported its use however not comfortable using it oneself. They advocated on freedom to
choose colour as the rights of any individual. Some s
ingle women have started slowl
y breaking the tradition by
adopting red colour. Most of the respondents associated with different organisation and particularly with Women
for Human Rights (WHR) were found using red colour comfortable, challenging the existing socio
-
cultural
practices.

I
t shows that all single women want to enjoy the freedom on colour choice though breaking the
tradition is tough.



Source: Field Study 2010


As red bangle (
chura
) and red glass bead (
pote
) is worn by married women, it is snatched away after being
widow. H
owever, most of the single women were found against such practice. Forty
-

seven percent single women
considered using red
chura
and
pote

good whereas 47 percent of them responded it
as considerable
. Only 6
percent found it bad and majority of its supporter
s were either uneducated or lowly educated. It shows that
larger fraction of it wants their freedom on using red
chura

and
pote

as individual freedom resisting against
orthodox tradition.


Use of
Sindur

and
Mangalsutra

As use of
mangalsutra

and vermillion

powder (
sindur
) has still been regarded as token of married life for a
woman offered by the groom to the bride at the very moment of tying nuptial ties. On this ground, wearing
mangalsutra

by single women is still not so common in our society and at the s
ame time on the very ground
single women have been facing the discrimination. Right after the death of their husband, single women must
wipe out the
sindur

forever. But the research data reveals 4 in 5 respondents with the opinion that using
sindur
is

good

if they want.


Perception on Use of
Sindur

Use of
Sindur

Frequency

Percent

Good

64

79.0

Bad

17

21

Total

81

100

Source: Field Study 2010


The table shows 79 percent of respondents considering using
sindur

good whereas only 21 percent found it bad.
Thou
gh some of them perceived it negatively but larger portion supported its use which shows that larger
fraction of respondents are not happy with such restriction. Even some respondents opined its continuation after
the husband's death as the token of love r
eceived from the husband till the last breathe.


Perception on Use of
Mangalsutra

Use of
Mangalsutra

Frequency

Percent

Good

65

80.2

Bad

16

19.8

Total

81

100

Source: Field Study 2010


Regarding the use of
mangalsutra,

the response found during the fiel
d study was almost similar to that of the
sindur.

The given table presents 80.2 percent respondents in favour of using

mangalsutra

whereas just 19.8
percent were against it.


Most of them advocated the use of
sindur

and
mangalsutra

as individual freedom.
T
hough they have hesitation to use it oneself, they have started lobbying openly to liberate single women from
unscientific taboos challenging the orthodox practices. Some single women were even found wearing
mangalsutra

during the study who had positive su
pport from her family members. Thus, the family support is
found playing crucial role in bringing change in single women's lives.



C
onclusion

Single women are also one of the important fractions of the society; no any society can be prosperous one
moving
in harmony unless it is inclusive. All of its member should be equally treated regardless of the religion,
caste, ethnicity, marital status, ideology or whatsoever. The discriminatory practices of Nepalese society
imposing colour taboos on single women hav
e made their life miserable. Hindu religion considers the nuptial knot
tied for other seven lives; it won’t vanish if there is the death of any spouse. Therefore, discriminatory practices
imposed upon single women are unfair and unacceptable. It is ridicul
ous to make single women discard red
colour and use of
mangalsutra

as if they do not have any more emotion after the death of husband. Such
restrictions have been forcefully marginalizing and pushing single women away from the mainstream of
development. So
cial taboos on single women in choosing colour of dress, bangles, glass bead or wearing
Mangalsutra

must be eradicated from its root giving them choice of their own. The social behavior towards widow
must be liberal as to widower. Gradual resistance of sin
gle women against the taboos is praiseworthy. Their
equal participation and inclusion is possible by empowerment through removing unscientific social taboos and
providing appositive environment and a dignified life as other members of the society.


* The r
esearcher can be contacted at
rosni_sth@yahoo.com




News


Social Inclusion Atlas and Ethnographic Profile (SIA EP)


Social Inclusion Atlas and Ethnographic Profile (SIA EP) is a national level research study com
missioned by SIRF
and undertaken by the Central Department of Sociology/Anthropology (CDSA) at Tribhuvan University.
The
research project started on 1 November 2011 for the period of 18 months and it was formally launched
on 8
February 2012 by honorable Mi
nister of Education, Mr. Dina Nath Sharma amidst a formal gathering of
policymakers, development partners, academia, media and civil society.


The research seeks to promote informed understanding of Nepal’s social diversity by producing research based,
hi
gh quality and up
-
to
-
date information of the country’s social, cultural and linguistic composition and the status
of human and social development of the 100+ social groups identified by Population Census 2001. The project
aims to use data from Census 2011
and other national level surveys to produce and present the information
useful for inclusive policy formulation, social exclusion assessment and broader education on country’s social
diversity. The project will develop Multi
-
dimensional Social Inclusion In
dex of Nepal that ranks different caste and
ethnic groups according to their inclusion status; design Social Inclusion Atlas of Nepal that displays the
information on social inclusion and diversity in spatial map; and prepare detailed ethnographic profile
of the 42
highly excluded social groups.


CDSA organized Methodology Design and Consultation Workshop to finalize methodology of
Social
Inclusion Atlas
and
Ethnographic Profile

through consultation with experts and representatives of multiple stakeholders.

Rt.
Honourable Vice
-
Chair of NPC, Deependra Bahadur Kshetri inaugurated the three days workshop organized on 6
-
8 May 2012. Terrence Turner
,

Professor Emeritus at University of Chicago and David Holmberg
,

Professor at
Cornell University and SIA EP Research

Project Advisor
,

were among the key note speaker
s

of inaugural session.
Speaking at the occasion Rt. Honourable VC of NPC highlighted the importance of SIA EP for planning process of
Nepal. The workshop was scheduled with 10 thematic group discussions whi
ch basically focused on following
agendas




Understanding Contextual Framework of Social Inclusion
Perspective of Nepal and its Measurement



Methodology to Design Multidimensional Social Inclusion Index for Nepal,



Methodology to Prepare Ethnographic Profile

of Nepal



Methodology to Map Social Inclusion Atlas of Nepal


The
SIA EP team
further worked on the feedback and inputs from the workshop and developed research tools
and instruments which were
shared
in several team workshops in July.

The revised
researc
h tools
and
instruments were

again shared with the experts

for comment and finalization in the programme
organized on 5
August 2012.


CDSA had called Expression of Interest (EOI) for Field Research Supervisors and Enumerators

to administer
Nepal Social Inc
lusion Survey (NSIS)
and Ethnographic Profiles
and seven day training workshop
is scheduled
for
the selected
Research
Supervisors and Enumerators on 1
1
-
1
7 August 2012

in Kathmandu
.




Inequality and Affirmative Action: Situating Nepal in Global Debates


C
entral Department of Sociology and Anthropology, TU and Social Science Baha organized Keynote Presentation
Workshop on “Inequality and Affirmative Action: Situating Nepal in Global Debates”. The workshop was
organized on 18 and 19 July, 2012 and other asso
ciate institutions of the programme were Goldsmiths,
University of London and Yale University. The work was a part to three years British Academy UK
-

South Asia
Partnership Project on “Inequality and Affirmative Action in South Asia: Current Experiences an
d Future Agenda
in India and Nepal”


The four keynote papers presented in the programme were as follow




Ashwini Deshpande, Professor of Economics at University of Delhi, presented paper on “Caste Discrimination
and Exclusion: Assessment of Affirmative Act
ion as a Remedy”




Glenn C. Loury, Merton Stoltz Professor of Social Sciences and Professor of Economics as Brown University
presented paper on “The Simple Economics of Affirmative Action Policies”




Marc Galanter, John and Rylla Bosshard Professor of Law an
d South Asian Studies at University of Wisconsin
and LSE Centennial Professor at London School of Economics and Political Science presented paper on
“ Designing Affirmative Action for Nepal: A Tour of the Choices and Problems”




Hilary Silver, professor of

Sociology at Brown University, presented paper on “Social Inclusion and
Affirmative Action: Conceptual and Policy Distinctions”



Staff Movements in SIRF Secretariat


Mr

Sanjib Chaudhary, Communication and Dissemination Adviser left SIRF Secretariat on mi
d of June 2012.
The
secretariat organized small
get together
programme on 12 J
uly 2012 to give farewell to Mr

Chaudhary. He
served SIRF secretariat for more than two years.




Ms Manju Chaudhary joined SIRF Secretariat from 16 July 2012. She replaced Ms Ni
lam Kushwaha Paswan

whose
term expired
on 13
July 2012.


M
o
U with Ministry of Women, Children and Social Welfar
e


Mr Balananda Paudel, Secretary of Ministry of Women, Children and Social Welfare

and Mr

Rem Neefjes, Country
Director of SNV in Nepal, signed

M
o
U on SIRF institutionalisation in
a signing ceremony
held at the Ministry in
Singha Durbar, Kathmandu.
This is
positive way forward for

SIRF
institutionalisation

and
establ
ishment of Social
Science Research Council.

The objective of the MoU is to
suppor
t and facilitate the initiation and development of
Social Science Research Council in Nepal. The specific objectives of the MoU are as follows:

1.

Formation of a Steering Committee to coordinate the establishment, design, structure and funding of the
proposed

SSRC. Mainstream the lessons learnt from like
-
minded organizations / institutions and further
integrate their efforts for social science research.

2.

Formation of an Ad

hoc Council to develop and lead the establishment of the proposed SSRC.

3.

Formation and
in
stitutionalisation

of the proposed SSRC firmly within the system of Government of Nepal to
encourage scientific research that would contribute to understanding of the needs and demands of
government and society through enhanced research capacities so that

knowledge about Nepali society is
reflected in evidence based development innovations, policies and practices.

4.

Resources coordination of all key ministries in pursuance of the achievement of objectives of this
collaboration.






Dissemination of SIRF Re
searches in Intellectual Seminars and Public Forums


SIRF researchers have presented their researches in different National and International Seminars and Public
Forums. They are also selected for competitive course in international academic institutions.
SIRF
R
esearch
F
ellow

2011
,
Ms
Roshani Shrestha, attended
Gender Equality in the Nordic Countries and PDS Professional
Development Seminar
of
International Summer School of University of Oslo (Norway) held in 23
June to 3
August 2012.

She attended this prog
ram as on
-
campus
student
and Norwegian Agency for Development
Cooperation (NORAD) awarded her full scholarship for this programme. She will also visit Birmingham, UK from
22

September to 20 October 2012 under Rotary Foundation Group Study Exchange Programm
e 2012.


SIRF Research Apprentice

2009
and Fellow

2011
,
Ms
Sadixya Bista, will be presenting her research paper
in

Seventh Annual Himalayan Policy Research Conference

schedule to be held in 11
-
14 October 2012. Nepal
Study Center UNM, Wisconsin at the Unive
rsity of Wisconsin is the organiser of this conference.


The ongoing research of SIRF Research Fellow

2011
,
Mr
Jailab Rai,
has been accepted for presentation

in
Second
Asia Regional Conference of the Society for Conservation Biology
schedule to be held in
Banglore
,

India on 7
-
10
Aug
ust

2012.






Manjani System: Traditional Identity among the Danuwars of Kamala Khonch in Sindhuli District


By Reena Maharjan, Harka Gurung Research Fellow 2011


The Danuwars

The
Danuwars

constitute the third largest indigeno
us ethnic group in Inner
Tarai
of Nepal. They are scattered
over several districts of Eastern and Central Eastern Nepal.

The total population of Danuwars is 53,229 and the
population of Danuwar in Sindhuli district is 12,244 (CBS 2001).
After the success
of the US assisted DDT
-
spraying anti
-
malaria campaign permanent, settlement of hill people commenced in the kamala Khonch in the
early 1960s.

There is no uniformity of recalling Danuwar origin and history among the Danuwars themselves.
Asharam Adhikari Dan
uwar, a school teacher in Tadi Village Development Committee (VDC) told me that
Danuwars came in Nepal from where Tharu came, because Tharu and Danuwars were two brothers. He narrated
to me the myth of Danuwars' origin:



A king had two sons. The family ha
d only one metal plate called Thal to eat food. One of the sons
always ate food on metal plate (Thal), another was deprived to get that plate and he used leaf plate
called Duno (small plate made of leaves of the tree). One day they quarreled for the Thal.
At the
same time the king decided the case. The elder son who used to eat on Thal got Thal forever and his
descendant became 'Tharu’. Meanwhile, the younger son who used to eat on 'Duno’, got the 'Duno’
forever and his descendents became Danuwars.


Another

etymological meaning of the word 'Danuwar' is derived from the word 'Dun'. The word 'Dun' in Nepali
language means 'Inner Terai'. The term Danuwar is derived from the geographical structure 'Dun' and dwellers of
Dun were later called Danuwars.
The 'Danuwa
r' is the commonly applied title used for the various Danuwar
subgroups; largely Rajhan, Kachhade and Rai
-
Danuwar for Tarai, Inner Tarai and middle hills respectively. They
have further divided the subgroups which are expressed on written form of their las
t name. My quest in this
research was to find Manjani System as their cultural political system among the Danuwars of Kamala Khonch.
To find answers to this quest, seven VDCs from Sindhuli district in Kamala Khonch
-

Ranibas, Nepane, Hatpate,
Harsai, Sirthu
li, Dudhauli and Tadi
-

were selected on the basis of concentration of Danuwars' traditional
settlement and households. The primary data were gathered through key informant interviews, focus group
discussions and field observation of the Danuwars. The fiel
d work was carried out from 2
-
14 June 2011. At the
same time, Danuwar Jagaran Samiti’s (DJS) fourth national conference was held on 10
-
11 June in Janakpur.


Manjani System of the Danuwars

Kamala Khonch of Sindhuli district was known as traditional 'Danuwar

State' or Danuwar Autonomy because
they



11

Th
e Manjan was the chief Judicial
-
administrative head of the tribal cabinet and the system formed by
the cabinet was called Manjani System.

12

Tribal general assembly in which all cases were decided through systematic code of the system.

13

Marriage with in o
wn Jati, Adultery, Fishing territory. Cases should not disclose with other caste people.
Any Danuwars should not file case in the court.

had practised their own judicial administration named "Manjani System"
11

during the time of King Surendra
Bikram Shah who authorised them to serve as Manjan. The word 'Manjan' refers to designation of a person or a
f
amily and the Manjani System denotes a socio
-
cultural and political system of the Danuwars managed by a
group of persons or functionaries, clan hereditarily enjoying special, respected status and powers invested to that
status in a given territory and comm
unity. The Manjan was the chief judicial
-
administrative head of the tribal
cabinet, equal to that of today's judge and Chief District Officer. It is said that this title was first given by Jung
Bahadur Rana to Kari Dhami Danuwar of Patringa village in late
r half of 19
th

century. Only his family's
descendants’ elder son could hold Manjan title. After Kari,
Dasai Dhami, Fekna Dhami, Hira Lal Dhami and
Jitnarayan Dhami

became Manjans respectively. Manjan called '
Saurahat'

(Jati Assembly)
12

in every year. This
D
anuwar assembly imposed strict sanctions on those who violated basic codes of the
Jati
13
. In spite of physical
torture and compensation, severe violators of Danuwar customary rules were often made to leave the village.
Depending on the density of the Danuw
ar population and the need of the community, they used to have certain
important functionaries of the cabinet such as
Sabhapati (chairman)
,
Gumasta (advisor to chairman)
,
Bichari,
Adhikari, Gorait, Pagari, Bhandari, Gauro
,
Dhami and so forth
.


The Sabhapat
i or chairman was the second highest authority of the system. The Sabhapati was speaking chief.
The most important responsibility of the Sabhapati was to decide cases in the absence of Manjan. The Manjan
and Sabhapati would receive cash fees but the other

functionaries would mostly receive food and feast. Cash
money and food material for feast were accumulated from the fine from the code violators. The Gaumasta was
an advisor to the Sabhapati. Traditionally, each village had one gaumasta. He used to decide

small cases (such
as quarrel, physical abuse and simple beating) in the village. He also had to approve any new communal
construction in the area. He also received gift of new crops from people and chaired local cultural programmes.
The Bichari, like sta
te system would make a case against the convict and put it forward for judgment in the
system. The Adhikari was known as Jamindar (landlord) who had to collect tax from the farmers and maintain
peace and harmony in the village. The Adhikari is still ritual

head in the settlement. The Gorait would go around
the village arresting convicts wanted by the judicial body. The Pagari was the secretary to the Sabhapati. The
Bhandari was responsible for food and feast management during Jati assembly. The Gauro follow
ed order of the
Adhikari and worked as messenger. The Dhami had to perform rituals and keep human settlement safe from evil
spirit. He was considered as security person for unseen power. They traditionally maintained Danuwar culture
with judiciary powers,
functions and responsibilities associated with the designations. The territory governed by
the Manjani System was from Viman to Katari (Now Katari VDC of Udayapur district) along the Kamala River.
This regime operated only in Kamala Khonch territory.


Jitn
arayan Dhami's (the last living Manjan) ancestor Kari Dhami, who became the first Manjan with Rana's order,
was physically robust and courageous man. Common Danuwars took him as their protector. In addition to
political and physical power, Manjan had to ca
rry out the duty of ritual leadership. Being Dhami, he had to
control diseases and natural calamities to protect common people. If diarrhoea spread in any Danuwar
settlement of the Kamala Khonch, then the Manjan ordered village representative or functio
naries of the Manjani
System to block it from the area. If there was serious case then healthy people were evacuated to other places.
Similarly, if local people were unable to control disease, other villagers were called to assist in the time of crisis.


The Manjan followed customary laws, Jati norms and values which were unwritten but handed down by
traditional culture. The decisions made by the functionaries of the Manjani System got equal legitimacy as
government official decisions. It was felt need of

the Manjani System to keep people into bounded system. The
society was organised on the principle of Jati solidarity and purity of blood. All the complicated cases were
collected for the annual Jati assembly called Sauratha in which the whole functionari
es of the Manjani System
decided all registered cases. The Sauratha should be called annually on the recommendations of the
functionaries. The types of cases basically adultery, illicit relationship, illegal marriage especially with lower and
untouchable c
astes, serious injuries caused by physical attack and other legal issues were presented for final



14

The act has classified the indigenous caste group into five groups.
They are (a) endangered (b) highly
marginalised
(c) marginalised (d) disadvantaged and (e) advantaged.

decision on the Sauratha.


Babulal Adhikari Danuwar, old common Danuwar of Hatpate VDC, remembers the heyday of his father, who
arrested convicted people and
took them to Sauratha. According to him, the Saurahat continued till 10 to 15
days on the basis of number of cases. Besides victims and offenders of the Jati codes, other Danuwars used to
came to listen to the decisions of the cases. Common subject matter
of talk was the person and types of crime
and types of punishment. All the participants had to carry rice and cooking materials. The Manjan listened to the
opinions and pitiable voices of both offenders and victims and then he gave ultimate decisions. Offe
nders had to
face severe types of punishment according to the degree and number of offence.


Manka Kumar Danuwar, ex
-
chairman of Sirthaulu VDC, mentioned the most famous type of punishment given by
Manjan called
'Thadi'
. The basic meaning of Thadi is stan
ding with
Supari

(betel nut) on head. The authority
would put big pot full of water on that hard nut on the head of accused person. Manka said that it was considered
an important and effective method to compel the accused to confess. It was seen that most
accused could not
stand Thadi for long and would soon confess in front of authorities and mass. At the same time the convict was
showered with cold water mixed with cow dung all over the body to generate continuous pain and cold. This
punishment was given
to confess the crime he had committed. When he confessed, again he was fined cash
money Rs.36, for each crime and offence. The most common fine would be Rs.36 which was base value among
the Danuwars. If anyone committed many crimes he/she would have been f
ined two
-
36, three
-
36, and four
-
36
and so on. Instead of saying total amount, Danuwars used to count number of time and 36 in fined for each
crime. The collected fine from the offenders was used to manage Sauratha assembly and food for the
participants. Us
ually they finished all collected fine in the occasion.


The growing influx of hill in the Kamala Khonch discouraged Danuwars’ functional aspects of
the Manjani System

after
Panchayat System

in 1962. Then, the clash between the power of the Manjan
-
authori
ties and the
Pradhan
Pancha
appeared in the Danuwar settlement. According to Jitnarayan Dhami, the latest living Manjan said the
authority was last time renewed in 1968. After the Panchayat regime became stronger in late 1960s, the service
of Manjan System

slowly became functionless and ultimately phased out.



*The researcher can be contacted at

reenamaharjanm@gmail.com





Changing Livelihood among Pahari Community


Ruby Shakya,
Matthias Moyersoen Research
Apprenticeship 2011


Nepal is rich in terms of socio
-
cultural characteristics. It is land of different groups.
As per National Foundation
for Development of Indigenous Nationalities Act 2002 AD, Government of Nepal has identified fifty
-
nine (59)
indigenous

nationalities
14
. On the basis of indigenous groups' classification, Paharis are in the marginalised group
category.
The minority group of Paharis is mainly found in the villages of Khopasi, Saldhara and Palanchok of
Kavrepalanchok

District. However, they c
onsider Dailekh District as their ancestral place. They are also scattered
in Lalitpur of Kathmandu Valley and elsewhere. According to Hodgson, Pahari have connection with several other
small ethnic groups such as the Chepang, Kusunda, Danuwar, Thami, Kusw
ar (or Majhi), Dhimal, Kumhal and
Hayu. Paharis have their own Pahari language, which is quite akin to the Tamang and Newar languages. Linguists
say that their language is closest to that of the Newars, but their pronunciation is akin to the Tamangs. They
practise Hindusium but many literatures say that they are Buddhist.


Badhikhel is one of the largest Pahari holding villages in Lalitpur district. According to 2011 census, total
population of Pahari is 11,505 and majority of them reside in Badhikhel. We c
an hardly find any study about the
Pahari community. So, it is the need of time to study about the Paharis. Generally, the study of Paharis was done
regarding their socio
-
economic status, culture, housing pattern, schooling process and overall living style
. But
their occupation shift is yet to be undertaken. So, there should research on this issue to fill the gap. This paper
focuses on research questions such as: What are the traditional occupations of Paharis?; How was their economic
situation in the past?
; and What are they doing to support their livelihood in the present context? The main
objectives of this study are to explore traditional livelihood, and to analyse the impact of modernisation in Pahari
community.


In this research, the researcher has col
lected primary and secondary information from different instruments.
Household survey conducted in the initial period provided primary quantitative information while data from CBS
and other organisation provided secondary information. These works were foll
owed by informal interviews, key
informant interviews and informal discussion. In, Pahari community from Badhikhel VDC of Lalitpur district was
selected purposively. Purposive snow ball sampling has been used for household survey. The study covers 50
house
holds. Primary data were generated through household survey, questionnaire, observation, key informant
interview and informal discussion.


Traditionally, Paharis are basket
-
makers and wood
-
cutters. They have the skill of weaving bamboo tray and
other goods
., One educated man called Khusaman Pahari started informal education in Badhikhel VDC around
100 years past. He started teaching the skills of weaving
nanglo
(
winnowing
-
tray)
,

dalo
(basket) by bamboo as
well. From then onwards, these skills were developed

as traditional occupation. In the past, they also used to sell
wood to Newar merchant of Patan. During 1970’s, they used to earn 1500 rupees in five months by cutting and
selling wood. Economically and socially their living standard is very low.To survive
, many Paharis shift their
occupations. In my research, it was found that one person in each household had adopted new occupation.


Modernisation, globalisation and education have changed their livelihood. It becomes difficult for them to
compete with mode
rnisation and globalisation. They have changed their professions and have chosen other
professions as their livelihood i.e. civil services, carpentry, going abroad, teaching, veterinary, hotels and various
technical and non
-
technical sectors. They shift th
eir occupations because of necessity. Their bamboo products
have been replaced by plastic goods. In highly competitive market they failed to upgrade their occupations.
Majority of population says that they shifted the occupation because of lack of raw mate
rials and market linkage.


Therefore, when Pahari start to shift from traditional occupation their identity, culture, language will also
disappear slowly. So it is the time to preserve it. When they change their occupation it may result to undertake
casua
l and low productivity activities with poor prospects. It may also lead to household adopting a more
vulnerable livelihoods system than they possessed previously. It is their right to adopt modern technologies,
learn new languages, go abroad and practise n
ew culture. At the same time, it is their responsibility to preserve
their traditional occupation, speak in their own language and enjoy their culture.


*The researcher can be contacted at
rubyshakya283@gmail.c
om





Publications





Ethnicity and Federalisation in Nepal


Central Departme
nt of Sociology/Anthropology
(CDSA)
at
Tribhuvan University

(TU)
published book titled
“Ethnicity and Federalisation in Nepal” in April 2012.
The book is outcome of Symposiu
m on “Ethnicity and
Federalisation in Nepal” held on 21
-
25 April 2011 in Kathmandu and it contains a collection of 19 out of 25
papers and keynotes presented symposium by international and national Social Intellects. The main objective of
the symposium was

to enhance the discourse on Ethnicity of Nepal and to gauge its appropriateness for erecting
a federal structure for Nepal. The symposium was organised by the CDSA at Tribhuvan University, with the
support from SIRF as the main funding partner. Symposium
had highly intellectual debate on whether to
federalise country on the basis of ethnicity which is well reflected different articles of the book as some of them
favour ethnic based federalisation and other discuss on its discontent.



The seven internatio
nal intellects whose papers are complied in the book are: T. K. Oommen Professor Emeritus
in Jawahar Lal Nehru University; David Gellner Professor of Anthropology at Oxford University; David Holmberg
Professor of Anthropology at Cornell University; James F
isher Professor of Anthropology at Carleton College; John
Gray Professor at University of Adelaide; Neil Webster associate at DFID/ Nepal; and Sara Shneiderman Assistant
Professor of Anthropology and South Asian Studies at Yale University.


Likewise, the t
welve national intellects whose papers are complied in the book are: Bandita Sijapati (PhD)
associate of World Bank/ Nepal; Mr. Bihari Krishna Shrestha Associate Professor of Anthropology at CNAS in
past; Chaitanya Mishra (PhD) Professor of Sociology at CD
SA, TU; Ganesh BK President of RDN, Nepal; Krishna
Bhattachan (PhD) Senior Lecturer of Sociology at CDSA, TU; Mahendra Lawoti Associate Professor at Department
of Political Science, Western Michigan University; Om Gurung (PhD) Professor and Head of CDSA, T
U; Ram B.
Chhetri Professor of Anthropology at CDSA, TU; Sangeeta Thapaliyal Professor of South Asian Studies at Jawahar
Lal Nehru University, Tulsi Ram Pandey Associate Professor of Sociology at CDSA, TU ; Yam Bahadur Kisan
Lawyer and Human Right Activist
; and Balkrishna Mabuhang Associate Professor of Population at Central
Department of Population Studies, TU.


The book is edited by Chaitanya Mishra and Om Gurung.






Anthropology and Sociology of Nepal


Central Departme
nt of Sociology/Anthropology (CDS
A) at
Tribhuvan University

(TU)
published book titled

Anthropology and Sociology of Nepal


to mark 25 years of its establishment in TU. The book is compilation of
some paper presented in national seminar on “Anthropology and Sociology of Nepal: Taking Sto
ck of Teaching,
Research and Practices” organized by Department. The book highlights on development of Sociology and
Anthropology as a field teaching, research and practices in Nepal. Book has papers contribution from prominent
intellects associate with De
partment and TU since long time past to new upcoming emerging researchers. The
book is edited by Ram B Chhetri, Tulsi Ram Pandey and Laya Prasad Uprety. CDSA
at TU
coordinates mentors of
SIRF’s HGRF and MM
RA research grant awardees of

2009 and 2011.



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en our radio programme


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had
supported
Radio program
me “Samabeshi Aawaz” and Television programme “Samabeshi Bahas”.
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is in course

to support
Television Interaction Programme
s

on SIRF

institutionalisation

and
establishment
of

Social Science Research Council which will be aired soon.






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ents and feedback on the e
-
journal at

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.





*
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