Computer Software - t4est

knifedamagingInternet and Web Development

Feb 2, 2013 (4 years and 6 months ago)

137 views

Computer Software


What is Software?


Software is
a general term for many kinds of
program
s used to operate
computer
s and related
devices. It is the information that a computer uses to get a job done. It must be accessed in
order to be used and thus the
re are multiple terms are associated with accessing these programs:



Running



Executing



Starting up



Opening


Software can be divided into distinct groups:


1.

Applications (Application Software)



Known also as programs



Allow users to complete a (specific) task
(
e.g.

word processing, spreadsheets,
databases,
presentations,
graphics programs, internet browsers and email
applications)



Can be made available through 3 venues



Commercial software



prepackaged

(Costs)



available in software/computer stores and the inte
rnet



Shareware



Created by small companies that cannot market their product /
company that wants to release a demonstration



Made available for a short period of evaluation time / part of the
application is disabled until payment



Open Source



Created by prog
rammers that believe in sharing applications and
are released for free on the public domain


2.

System Software



Operating systems (OS) (Windows, UNIX (or
Linux
), Mac’s have OS v10.x?)



Controls input and output and directs the flow of information to and from t
he CPU



Turning on operating system is referred to as “booting up”


checks components,
looks for plug and play peripherals and makes applicable code available for correct
usage. Loads lots of this in RAM



Provides a Graphic User Interface (GUI)

and may all
ow for a Command Line
Interface (CLI) where commands may be entered to the computer.


3.

Utility software



Small useful applications that have limited capability



usually used to help analyze,
configure, optimize and maintain a computer system



Often is includ
ed with OS but can be independently used and downloaded



Used to maintain your computer



Disk cleanup
-

searches
hard drive

and removes unnecessary files (temp.,
cookies, restore points, windows components and compresses old files



Disk fragmentor


reassemb
les sections of fragmented files, increases speed
of data access,



Other examples


System Restore, Disk compression and Archivers

(like
Win
RAR

and Win
Z
ip)
, Registry cleaners, File splitters

(breaks file to allow
it to be sent by email and then reassemble
d again)


4.

documents



any file you have created that is stored on the computer or any of it’s storage devices



needs an application to be viewed

(
e.g.

Word doc, spreadsheet, video, images, audio
(mp3),
WebPages

etc.)





Integrated Development Environments

(
IDE)


A Software application that is a programming environment that has been integrated to provide a
GUI builder, a text or code editor, a compiler and/or interpreter (translates high level languages
into machine language without compiling it


can reduce
development time when a developer
doesn’t want to wait for a compilation) and a debugger. It is a user
-
friendly framework to work
with modern programming languages.


Examples include:



Visual Studio



Delphi



JBuilder,



FrontPage (automates many of the tasks
)



DreamWeaver (automates many of the tasks)



Eclipse (supports multiple languages)


The Software Development Environment

(SDE
) is essentially the same thing but tends to have
additional tools like a version control system.


A Software Development Kit

(SDK)
is a broader term for an IDE which encompasses many
development tools, and allows for more functionality (i.e. being able to create GUI
applications). Many times they include an IDE within them. Additionally it had a huge

library

of code and a huge pile
of
documentation to aid the developer.


For example

the
Eclipse SDK consists of the
Eclipse Platform
, Java developments tools and the
Plug
-
in Development Environment. The Eclipse Platform is a multi
-
language
software
development environment

comprising if a
n IDE and an extensible
plug
-
in

system. By means of
various plug
-
ins, it can be used to develop applications in various
programming languages

including
Ada
,
C
,
C++
,
COBOL
, Java,
Perl
,
PHP
,
Python
,
R
,
Ruby

(including
Ruby on Rails

framework),
Scala
,
Clojure
,
Groovy

and
Scheme
. It can also be used to develop packages for the
software
Mathematica
. Development environments include the Eclipse Java development tools
(JDT) for Java, Eclipse CDT for C/C++ and Eclipse PDT for PHP, among others.