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Gender Based Asylum:


and Reports

Crawley, Heaven and Lester, Trine, Comparative Analysis of Gender
Persecution in National Asylum Legislation and Practice in Europe (UNHCR EPAU

Schlenzka, N., Sommo, L., Wadia, K. & Camp
ani, G., editors, Refugee Women:
Hoping for a Better Future (Parabolis 2004).

Martin, Susan, Refugee Women, 2d Edition (Lexington Books 2003).

Women Asylum Seekers in the UK: A Gender Perspective

Some Facts and Figures
(Asylum Aid/Refugee Women’s R
esource Project 2003).

Canadian Council for Refugees, International Conference on Refugee Women Fleeing
Based Persecution: Conference Proceedings, Montreal, Canada, May 4

Crawley, Heaven, Refugees and Gender: Law and Process (Jordan

Publishing &
Refugee Women’s Legal Group 2001).

Spijkerboer, Thomas, Gender and Refugee Status (Ashgate Publishing 2000).

Callamard, Agnes, Refugee Women: A Gendered and Political Analysis of the Refugee
Experience, in Refugees: Perspectives on the
Experiences of Forced Migration
(Alastair Ager. Ed., Pinter 1999).

Toward a Gender
Sensitive Asylum Policy in Europe: Conference Report, Brussels,
Belguim, June 11
12, 1998 (UNHCR)

Crawley, Heaven, Women as Asylum Seekers: A Legal Handbook (Immigrati
Practitioners´ Assoc., Refugee Action & Refugee Women’s Legal Group 1997).

Chaloka, Beyani, An International Legal Perspective on Refugee and Displaced
Women, in Legal Status of Refugee and Internally Displaced Women in Africa
(Christopher Mulei et a
l. eds., UNIFEM & AFWIC 1996).

Onyango, The Plight of the Larger Half: Human Rights, Gender Violence and
the Legal Status of Refugee and Internally Displaced Women In Africa, in Legal Status
of Refugee and Internally Displaced Women in Africa (Chr
istopher Mulei et al. eds.,

Goldberg, Pamela, Where in the World Is There Safety for Me: Women Fleeing
Based Persecution, in Women’s Rights, Human Rights: International Feminist
Perspectives (Julie Peters & Andrea Wolper, ed
s., Routledge 1995).

Spijkerboer, Women and Refugee Status: Beyond the Public/Private Distinction
(Emancipation Council 1994).


Gallagher, Anna Marie, Triply Exploited

Female Victims of Trafficking Networks


Strategies for Pursuing Protect
ion and Legal Status in Destination Countries, 19
Georgetown Immig
. L. J.
Fall 2004

Nessel, Lori, “Willful Blindness” to Gender
Based Violence Abroad: United States
Implementation of Article Three of the United Nations Convention Against Torture, 89

Minnesota Law Review (
November 2004).

Haynes, Dina F., Used, Abused, Arrested and Deported: The Case for Extending
Immigration Benefits to Protect Victims of Trafficking and Secure the Prosecution of
Traffickers, 26 Human Rights Quarterly
2 (May 2004).

Heyman, Michael G., Asylum, Social Group Membership and the Non
State Actor:
The Challenge of Domestic Violence, 36 U. Mich. J.L. Reform 767 (2003).

Shearer Demir, Jenna, The trafficking of women for sexual exploitation: a gender
d and well
founded fear of persecution?, Working Paper No. 80 (EPAU UNHCR
March 2003).

Musalo, Karen, Revisiting Social Group and Nexus in Gender Asylum Claims: A
Unifying Rationale for Evolving Jurisprudence, 52 De Paul Law Review 777 (Spring

Anker, Deborah E., Refugee Law, Gender, and the Human Rights Paradigm, 15
Harvard Hum. Rts. J. 133 (Spring 2002).

Bhabha, Jacqueline, Internationalist Gatekeepers: The Tension Between Asylum
Advocacy and Human Rights, 15 Harvard Hum. Rts. J. 155 (2002).

Chisholm, B.J., Credible Definitions: A Critique of US Asylum Law’s Treatment of
Related Claims, 44 Howard Law Journal 427 (2001).

Hueben, Elizabeth A., Domestic Violence and Asylum Law: The United States Takes
Several Remedial Steps in Recog
nizing Gender Based Persecution, 70 Univ. of
Missouri at Kansas City Law Review 453 (2001).

McCabe, Eve, The Inadequacy of International Human Rights Law to Protect the Rights
of Women as Illustrated by the Crisis in Afghanistan, 5 UCLA Journal of Interna
Law and Foreign Affairs 419 (2001).

Ruben, Glennys F. Ortega, Women and the Law in Africa: A Call for United States
Courts to Re
evaluate Policy Considerations Regarding Female Genital Mutilation as a
Justifiable Reason for Asylum, 10 University o
f Miami International and Comparative
Law Review 145 (2001).

Gray, Lindsay M., Hanging Asylum Law for Afghan Women under the Taliban:
Desperate Ties, Moderate Measures, 40 Brandeis Law Journal 557 (2001).

Goldberg, Pamela, Analytical Approaches in Sea
rch of Consistent Application: A
Comparative Analysis of the Second Circuit Decisions Addressing Gender in the
Asylum Law Context, 66 Brooklyn Law Review 309 (2000).

Margulies, Peter, Democratic Transitions and the Future of Asylum Law, 71 Colorado
Law R
eview 3 (2000).

O´Neill, Caroline J., Health is a Human Right: Why the US Immigration Law Response
to Gender Based Asylum Claims Requires More Attention to International Human
Rights Norms, 17 Journal of Contemporary Health Law and Policy 241 (2000).

exander, Barbara Cochrane, Convention Against Torture: A Viable Alternative Legal
Remedy for Domestic Violence Victims, 15 American University International Law
review 895 (2000).

Blanck, Amanda, Domestic Violence as a Basis for Asylum Status: A Human R
Based Approach, 22 Women’s Rights Law Reporter 47 (2000).

Nyguyen, An Mai, The Torture Convention: A Gap Filler for the Holes in the US
Asylum Policy Towards Victims of Domestic Violence, 30 Southwestern University
Law Review 30 (2000).

Susannah, Taking the Force out of Enforcement: Giving Effect to International
Human Rights Law Using Domestic Immigration law, 29 California Western
International Law Journal 339 (1999).

Anker, Deborah, Joan Fitzpatrick and Andrew Shacknove, Crisis and C
ure: A Reply to
Hathaway/Neve and Schuck, 11 Harvard Human Rights Journal 295 (1998).

Folkelius, Kristina & Gregor Noll, Affirmative Exclusion? Sex, Gender, Persecution
and the Reformed Swedish Aliens Act, 10 In´tl J. Refugee L. 607 (1998).


Lenore, et al., A Woman Without a Man is a Woman at Risk: Women at
Risk in Australian Humanitarian Programs, 11 Journal of Refugee Studies 267 (1998).

Stanley, Alison and Victoria Tennant, Wom
n Asylum Seekers: An Alternative
Approach, 12 Immigr. & N
ationality L. & Prac. 54 (1998).

Hall, Shelley M, Quixotic Attempt? The Ninth Circuit, the BIA and the Search for a
Human Rights Framework to Asylum law, 73 Washington Law Review 105 (1998).

, Marian, Gender
related Persecution and the Adjudicat
ion of Asylum Claims:
Is a Sixth Category Needed? 12 Florida Journal of International Law 317 (1998).

Lewis, Hope, and Isabelle R. Gunning, Cleaning Our Own House: Exotic and Familial
Human Rights Violations, 4 Buffalo Human Rights Law Review 123 (1998

Musalo, Karen, Ruminations on In Re Kasinga: The Decision’s Legacy, 7 Southern
California Review of Law and Women’s Studies 357 (1998).

Pengelley, Nicholas, Female Genital Mutilation: Grounds for the Grant of an
Australian Protection Visa? The Ram
ifications of Applicant A, 24 Monash U.L. Rev. 94

B. Vermeulen, T. Spijkerboer, K. Zwaan, R. Fernhout, Persecution by Third Parties,
of Nijmegen, Centre for Migration Law, May 1998.

Tettey, Elizabeth, Failure of State Protection wi
thin the Context of the
Convention Refugee Regime with Particular Reference to Gender
Related Persecution,
3 J. Int´l Legal Studies 53 (1997).

Daver, Binaifer a., Rethinking Gender
related Persecution, Sexual Violence, and
Women’s Rights: A New Concept
ual Framework for Political Asylum and
International Human Rights Law, 6 Tex. J. Women & L. 241 (1997).

Haines, Rodger P.G., Gender
Based Persecution: New Zealand Jurisprudence, Int´l J.
Refugee Law at 129 (Autumn 1997).

Kelson, Gregory A., Gender
Based Persecution and Political Asylum: The International
Debate for Equality Begins, 6 Tex. J. Women & L. 181 (1997)

Nichols, Shannon, American Mutilation: The Effects of Gender
Biased Asylum Laws
on the World’s Women, 6 Kan. J. L. & Pub. Pol´y 42 (19

Sheridan, Mary M., In Re Fauziya Kasinga: The United States Has Opened Its Doors to
Victims of Female Genital Mutilation, 71 St. John´s Law Review 433 (1997).

Raghu, Maya, Sex Trafficking of Thai Women and the United States Asylum Law
12 Georgetown Immigration Law Journal 145 (1997).

Tarpley, Joan R., Bad Witches: A Cut on the Clitoris with the Instruments of
Institutional Power and Politics, 100 West Virginia Law Review 297 (1997).

Bahl, Anjana, Home is Where the Brute Lives: Asy
lum law and Gender Based Claims
of Persecution, 4 Cardozo Women’s Law Journal 33 (1997).

Passade Cisse, Bernadette International Law Sources Applicable to Female Genital
Mutilation : A Guide to Adjudicators of Refugee Claims Based on a Fear of Female
ital Mutilation, 35 Columbia Journal of Transnational Law 35 (1997).

Fitzpatrick, Joan, The Gender Dimension of US Immigration Policy, 9 Yale Journal of
Law and Feminism 23 (1997).

Bhabha, Jacqueline, Embodied Rights: Gender Persecution, State Soverei
gnty and
Refugees, 9 Pub. Culture 3 (1996).

Peters, Teresa L., International Refugee Law and the Treatment of Gender
Persecution: International Initiatives as a Model and Mandate for National Reform, 6
Transnat´l L. & Contemp. Probs. 225 (1996).

Phipps, Joyce Antila, Immigration and the Latin Community, 17 Women’s Rights law
Reporter 279 (1996).

United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, Progress in Resettlement of Women
Risk 1985

1995 (Aug. 1995) (unpublished manuscript, on file w
ith the UNHCR
Centre for Documentation and Research).

Anker, Deborah E., Women Refugees: Forgotten No Longer? 32 San Diego Law
Review 771 (1995).

Vasquez, Laura, Hope for the Future Recognition of Women’s Rights in Asylum
Decision, 3 The Buffalo Wome
n’s Journal of Law and Social Policy 45 (1996).

Guy, Blake M., Female Genital Excision and the Implications of Federal Prohibition, 2
William and Mary Journal of Women and the Law 125 (1995).

Pell, Stephanie K., Adjudication of Gender Persecution Cases U
nder the Canada
Guidelines: The United States Has No Reason to Fear an Onslaught of Asylum Claims,
20 N.C. J. Int´l L. & Com. Reg. 655 (1995).

Warren, Priscilla F., Women Are Human: Gender Based Persecution is a Human
Rights Violation Against Women, 5

Nat´l J. Const. L. 279 (1995).

Ignatius, Sarah, Recent Development: Restricting the Rights of Asylum Seekers: The
New Legislative and Administrative Proposals, 7 Harvard Human Rights Journal 225

Leiss, Anne and Ruby Boesies, Female Asylum Se
ekers: A Comparative Study
Concerning Policy and Jurisprudence in the Netherlands, Germany; France, the United
Kingdom (Dutch Refugee Council 1994).

Love, Emily, Equality in Political Asylum Law: For a Legislative Recognition of
Based Persecut
ion, 17 Harvard Women’s Law Journal 133 (1994).

Patel, Krishna R., Recognizing the Rape of Bosnian Women as Gender
Persecution, 66 Brooklyn Law Review 929 (1994).

Practice Materials and Toolkits

Based Violence Tools Manual: For Assessmen
t and Program Design,
Monitoring and Evaluation in Conflict
Affected Settings (Reproductive Health
Response in Conflict Consortium 2004) .

Sexual and Gender
Based Violence Against Refugees, Returnees and Internally
Displaced Persons: Guidelines for Preve
ntion and Response (UNHCR 2003)

UNHCR Gender Training Kit on Refugee Protection (UNHCR 2002)


University of California

Hastings College of Law

Center for Gender and Refugee Studies


Refugee Women’s Legal Group

Women’s Asylum News

United Nations Development Fund for Women

United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees

University of New South Wales

Centre for Refugee Research

Women at Risk Project

Anna Gallagher

September 15,