relatedWork - Zhenghu.org

kneewastefulAI and Robotics

Oct 29, 2013 (4 years and 14 days ago)

140 views

R
elated work

Smart System

In this section, bibliography studies are detailed from two aspects. First, we will present the state
-
of
-
the
-
art architecture of the smart systems, then based on those present architecture, the
main
stream
protocols

which they have applied will be
discussed
.


A
rchitecture

In this section, we will give our
bibliography studies from two
axes:

on vertical is to show

the
different level of smart system applications, they are

from simple to
complicate;
on horizontal the
d
ifferent scale of env
ironment is given as from

home to city.

We notice that currently most smart
system
is

focus on the home
area, and it covered by almost all of state
-
of
-
the
-
art applications.



Figure
1

: Smart system architecture

In

the following we start with the simple application in home area to
draw the related works.
There is quite a lot of existing work related to the use of sensors based systems in homes. One of
the most common uses is in activi
ty recognition.

In

the thesis’
work

of E.Munguia
. Tapia

[1]
, a
system for recognizing activities in the home setting using a set of small and state
-
change sensors
is
introduced. The

architecture of
proposed system consists of three major components: (1) the
environmental
-
state
-
change sensors used to collect information about use of objects in the
environment, (2) the context
-
aware experience sampling

toll used by the end user to label his or
her own activities, and (3) the pattern recognition and classification algorithms for recognizing
activities after constructing a model based on a training set.



Another
representative
work done by Dian J. Cook
e
t al.

[2]

for
Managing An intelligent
Versatile Home (MavHome), their proposition of architecture
[3]

summarize

a
referential

sensor
-
based home architecture
, as shown in
Figure
2
,
whi
ch consists of three essential layers from
bottom

to top : (1) the communication

layer facilitates the communication of information,
requests and queries;

(2)the information layer gathers
, stores and generates knowledge useful for
decision making;

(3)the decision layer selects actions for executing based on information supplied
from the other layers through the information layer.

In

addition, a physical layer is necessary to
contain the ha
rdware within the environment including individual devices, transducers and
network hardware.


Figure
2

:
R
eferential sensor
-
based home architecture

proposed

by MavHome

In the building level, the simila
r architecture can be confirmed.

Han Chen et al.
[4]

design and
implement a smart building control system, the high
-
level system architecture consists also three
level of layer: (1) system integration domain which interact with the interface adapters via
physical systems to provide the communication function with higher level systems; (2) process
integration domain is to provide process orchestration and automation

whose purp
ose is to extract
the useful information; (3)
and business integration domain

is the end
-
user
-
facing layer, the target
audience is the business users, who are interested in knowing how the building is performing,
how its performance can be optimi
zed, and furthermore what policies or directives are needed in
order to make the improvement, it is actually the decision making layer as shown in figure above.

In the book of “Architecting the internet of things”,
one

chapter

[5]

d
iscuss the wide range of
challenges in user
-
generated internet of things application, as being worked on among the large
consortium of the DiY Smart Experiences (DiYSE) project
. The techni
cal outline of DiYSE
architecture
present

in the largest domain
,

the same
three main layer
s which are referenced above
for the home and building level.
In their proposed framework, the local domain contains the two
level of layer, the physical system and t
he communication layer, DiYSE gateway plays an
interface to the higher layer. Their information layer consists of devices information repository
and the different of processing sub
-
layers such as service composition and exposure layer,
contextualization la
yer and deployment and execution layer for determining and providing the
physical systems data to
the application layer which means the decision layer.


In fact,
many project and related research work is based on this architecture for developing the
sensor
-
actuator based smart system.
Proofing

that
the
basis of architecture of internet of things

is
for “communicating” the “physical things” “information” to make “decision”
.

So that the one of
our research work is to propose a referential framework, which is capable of self
-
configuring the
physical system, as illustrate in
Figure
3
, adding

an abstraction layer
between the communication
layer and physical layer, its function is to identify and integrated
automatically all the things in
physical system
.



Figure
3

: Proposed architecture

A
pplication

As mentioned in the end of the section “general background”, our approach reunites two strands
of research that had been pursued separately under the broader ambient intelligence agenda
[6]
:
smart devices on the one hand, smart spaces on the other hand.

New possibilities offered by the home as a "smart space", equipped with a multipurpose shared
back
-
plane of sensors and actuato
rs, had been widely explored in European FP6 projects under
the ambient intelligence umbrella. Among these, the Amigo
1

project has been exploring early on
the semantic
-
level interoperability of a middleware that would support both the individual home
appli
ances and the sensor
-
based infrastructure providing context
-
awareness to the home as a
smart space. Energy management is a new application that could lead to a renewed, more
pragmatic interest in both smart spaces and smart devices. On the home and buildin
g scales,
context
-
aware services for energy saving have been
proposed
[8]

under a mixed smart
space/sma
rt device approach. Chen et al.

[7]

deal with the city scale as a sma
rt space, showing
that smart spaces are getting new and broader applications.

In the wake of the ambient intelligence agenda, a vast body of research has addressed middleware
for c
ontext management

[9]
[10]
[11]
.

As stated before, these
context middleware infrastructures
are merely a first step towards a joint “horizontalization” of smart space and smart things
applications, as their abstractions tend to be sensor
-
data
-
centric and do not take into account the
coupling of sensors and actua
tors through the target entities, as proposed here.






1

www.amigo
-
project.org

Existing self
-
configuration protocols for HAN

With a narrower focus on devices themselves rather than on the smart space, SOA
-
like and
semantic
-
level distributed software infrastr
uctures

[12]

for the home with spontaneous
configuration capabilities have been widely addressed and are an obvious inspiration for the
solution presented h
ere, esides the efforts from standardization bodies to elaborate complete
solutions such as n and , we can mention the following ushiro et al

[13]

propose a
Residential Gateway Controller with Plug
&

Play capabilities. In their architecture, they integrate
home appliances using the
Echonet communication

protocol. Joo et al.
[14]

propose an Intelligent
Home Service Framework (iHSF). In the iHSF architecture, a device handler is used for the
system to manage all existing devices in the home. They assume that a preexisting mechanism
brings and configure
s together the handler and the correspondi
ng physical device. Do
moNet
[15]
is an approach that helps integrate conventional home automation systems according to the
service oriented computing paradigm. The DomoNet architecture describes a SOA model which
essentially consists of a network connecting application gateways called
TechManagers (
TMs).
Each TM handles one home automation subnet such as UPnP and X10.

All of
these solution
s require not only that the tar
get devices should be natively endowed with
the proper network interfaces, but also that these interfaces comply with corresponding standards
at all appropriate levels, up to the semantic level. They also requi
re that devices be identified
according to a highly specific and previously known type, for their physical instances to be
discovered. The proposed approach differs radically from this previous work in broadening the
perimeter to integrate all non
-
networke
d legacy home appliances. It does not re
-
quire a prior
equipment of these devices with standard network interfaces. Nor does it require that they be
known on the basis of the specific type or make that they belong
to:

they are identified only by
approximat
ion to a generic or semi
-
generic model.

Reference

[1].


Munguia Tapia, Emmanuel.

Activity recognition in the home setting using simple and
ubiquitous sensors
. Diss. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2003.

[2].

COOK, Diane J., YOUNGBLOOD, Michael, HEIERMAN
III, Edwin O.,

et al.
MavHome: An
agent
-
based smart home. In :

Pervasive Computing and Communications, 2003.(PerCom
2003). Proceedings of the First IEEE International Conference on
. IEEE, 2003. p. 521
-
524.

[3].

YOUNGBLOOD, G. Michael, COOK, Diane J., et HOLDER,
Lawrence B. The mavhome
architecture.

Department of Computer Science and Engineering University of Texas at
Arlington, Techinal Report
, 2004.

[4].

Han Chen; Chou, P.; Duri, S.; Hui

Lei; Reason, J., "The Design and Implementation of a
Smart Building Control System,"

e
-
Business Engineering, 2009. ICEBE '09. IEEE
International Conference on

, vol., no., pp.255,262, 21
-
23 Oct. 2009

[5].

Marc Roelands, Johan Plomp, DiegoCasado Mansilla, JuanR
.Velasco, Ismail Salhi,
GyuMyoung Lee, Noel Crespi, FilipeVincidos Santos, Julien Vachaudez, Frdric Bettens,
Joel Hanqc,Carlos Valderrama, Nilo Menezes, Alexandre Girardi, Xavier Ricco, Mario
Lopez
-
Ramos, Nicolas Dumont, Ivn Corredor, MiguelS. Familiar, Jo
sF. Martnez, Vicente
Hernndez, DriesDe Roeck, Christof Nimwegen, Leire Bastida, Marisa Escalante, Juncal
Alonso, Quentin Reul, Yan Tang, and Robert Meersman. The DiY Smart Experiences
Project. In Dieter Uckelmann, Mark Harrison, and Florian Michahelles, ed
itors,
Architecting the

Internet of Things, pages 279
-
315. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2011.

[6].

N.Streitz, G.Privat, Ambient Intelligence, Chapter 60.
In C.Stephanidis, The Universal
Access Handbook. CRC Press, 2009

[7].

M. Chen, et al “Towards smart city M2M
communication with software agent intelligence”,
Multimedia tools and ap
-
plications,2012

[8].

B. Jinsung, P. Sehyun, "Development of a self
-
adapting intelligent system for building
energy saving and context
-
aware smart services," Consumer Electronics, IEEE Tra
nsac
-
tions on , vol.57, no.1, pp.90
-
98, February 2011

[9].

Ramparany, F.; Poortinga, R.; Stikic, M.; Schmalenstroer, J.; Prante, T.; , "An open
context information management in
-
frastructure the IST
-
amigo project," Intelligent
Environments, 2007. IE 07. 3rd IET

International Conference on , vol., no., pp.398
-
403,
24
-
25 Sept. 2007

[10].

J. Schmitt, M. Kropff, A. Reinhardt, M. Hollick, C. Schäfer, F: Remetter and R.
Steinmetz, “An Extensible Framework for Context
-
aware Communication Management
Using He
-
tergeneous Senso
r Networks”, Technical Report TR
-
KOM
-
2008
-
08, August
2008

[11].

Sakurai, Y.; Takada, K.; Anisetti, M.; Bellandi, V.; Ceravolo, P.; Damiani, E.;
Tsuruta, S. “Toward Sensor
-
Based Context Aware Systems.” Sensors 2012, 12, 632
-
649.

[12].

X. Wang, J.S. Dong, C.Y. Chin, S.R. Hettiarachchi, D. Zhang, "Semantic Space:
an infrastructure for smart spac
-
es," Pervasive Computing, IEEE , vol.3, no.3, pp. 32
-

39,
Ju
-
ly
-
Sept. 2004

[13].

N.Kushiro, S.Suzuki, M.Nakata, H.Takahara & M.Inoue Integrated Reside
ntial
Gateway Controller for Home Energy Management System, IEEE Transactions on
Consumer Elec
-
tronics, 49(3),629
-
636,2003.

[14].

I.Joo, J.Park & E.Paik, Developing Ontology for Intelligent Home Service
Framework, IEEE International Symposium on Consumer Electro
nics, 2007.

[15].

V.Miori, L.Tarrini, M.Manca & G.Tolomei, An Open Stan
-
dard Solution for
Domotic Interoperability, IEEE Transac
-
tions on Consumer Electronics,52(1),97
-
103,
2006.