Chapter 9 Outline

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Oct 29, 2013 (3 years and 8 months ago)

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《管理信息系统导论》双语教学

学生学习辅助资料

Chapter

9

E
-
Business

Decision

Support

Learning

Objectives

1.

Identify

the

changes

taking

place

in

the

form

and

use

of

decision

support

in

e
-
business

enterprises.

2.

Identify

the

role

and

reporting

alternatives

of

management

information

systems.

3.


Describe

how

onl
ine

analytical

processing

can

meet

key

information

needs

of

managers.

4.

Explain

the

decision

support

system

concept

and

how

it

differs

from

traditional

management

information

systems

5.

Explain

how

the

following

information

systems

can

support

the

information

n
eeds

of

executives,

managers,

and

business

professionals;

a)

Executive

information

systems


b)

Enterprise

information

portals


c)

Enterprise

knowledge

portals

Chapter

9

Outline

Section

I
:

Decision

Support

in

e
-
Business

e
-
Business

and

Decision

Support

Management

Inf
ormation

Systems

Online

Analytical

Processing

Decision

Support

Systems

Using

Decision

Support

Systems

Executive

Information

Systems

Enterprise

Portals

and

Decision

Support


Section2:

Artificial

Intelligence

Technologies

in

Business


An

Overview

of

Artifici
al

Intelligence

Neural

Networks

Fuzzy

Logic

Systems

Genetic

Algorithms

Virtual

Reality

Intelligent

Agents

Expert

Systems

Developing

Expert

Systems

The

Value

of

Expert

Systems

《管理信息系统导论》双语教学

学生学习辅助资料

Chapter

9

Summary



e
-
Business

Decision

Support

Trends

Major

changes

are

taking

pla
ce

in

traditional

MIS,

DSS,

and

EIS

tools

for

providing

the

information

and

modeling

managers

need

to

support

their

decision

making.

Decision

support

in

business

is

changing,

driven

by

rapid

developments

in

end

user

computing

and

networking;

Internet,

Web

browser,

and

related

technologies;

and

the

explosion

of

e
-
commerce

activity.

The

growth

of

corporate

intranets,

extranets,

as

well

as

the

Web,

has

accelerated

the

development

of

"executive

class"

interfaces

like

enterprise

information

portals,

enterprise

k
nowledge

portals,

and

Web
-
enabled

decision

support

software

tools,

and

their

use

by

lower

levels

of

management

and

by

individuals

and

teams

of

business

professionals.

In

addition,

the

dramatic

expansion

of

e
-
commerce

has

opened

the

door

to

the

use

of

enter
prise

portals

and

DSS

tools

by

the

suppliers,

customers,

and

other

business

stakeholders

of

a

company

for

customer

relationship

and

supply

chain

management

and

other

e
-
business

applications.




Information,

Decisions,

and

Management

.Information

systems

can

support

a

variety

of

management

decision
-
making

levels

and

decisions.

These

include

the

three

levels

of

management

activity

(strategic,

tactical,

and

operational

decision

making)

and

three

types

of

decision

structures

(structured,

semistructured,

and

unstructured).

Information

systems

provide

a

wide

range

of

information

products

to

support

these

types

of

decisions

at

all

levels

of

the

organization.




Management

Information

Systems

Management

information

systems

provide

prespecified

reports

and

responses

to

managers

on

a

periodic,

exception,

demand,

or

push

reporting

basis,

to

meet

their

need

for

information

to

support

decision

making.




OLAP

and

Data

Mining


Online

analytical

processing

interactively

analyzes

complex

relationships

amo
ng

large

amounts

of

data

stored

in

multidimensional

databases.

Data

mining

analyzes

the

vast

amounts

of

historical

data

that

have

been

prepared

for

analysis

in

data

warehouses.

Both

technologies

discover

patterns,

trends,

and

exception

conditions

in

a

comp
any's

data

that

support

their

business

analysis

and

decision

making.




Decision

Support

Systems

Decision

support

systems

are

interactive,

computer
-
based

information

systems

that

use

DSS

software

and

a

model

base

and

database

to

provide

information

tailored

to

support

semistructured

and

unstructured

decisions

faced

by

individual

managers.

They

are

de
signed

to

use

a

decision

maker's

own

insights

and

judgments

in

an

ad

hoc,

interactive,

analytical

modeling

process

leading

to

a

specific

decision.




Executive

Information

Systems


Executive

information

systems

are

information

systems

originally

designed

to

support

the

strategic

information

needs

of

top

management.

However,

their

use

is

spreading

to

lower

levels

of

management

and

business

professionals.

EIS

are

easy

to

use

and

enable

《管理信息系统导论》双语教学

学生学习辅助资料

executives

to

retrieve

information

tailored

to

their

needs

and

preferences.

Thus,

EIS

can

provide

information

about

a

company's

critical

success

factors

to

executives

to

support

their

planning

and

control

responsibilities.




Enterprise

Information

and

Knowledge

Portals

.

Enterprise

information

portals

provide

a

customized

and

personalized

Web
-
based

interface

for

corporate

intranets

to

give

their

users

easy

access

to

a

variety

of

internal

and

external

business

applications,

databases,

and

information

services

that

are

ta
ilored

to

their

individual

preferences

and

information

needs.

Thus,

an

EIP

can

supply

personalized

Web
-
enabled

information,

knowledge,

and

decision

support

to

executives,

managers,

and

business

professionals,

as

well

as

customers,

suppliers,

and

other

busi
ness

partners.

An

enterprise

knowledge

portal

is

a

corporate

intranet

portal

that

extends

the

use

of

an

EIP

to

include

knowledge

management

functions

and

knowledge

base

resources

so

that

it

becomes

a

major

form

of

knowledge

management

system

for

a

company.




Artificial

Intelligence

.

The

major

application

domains

of

artificial

intelligence

(AI)

include

a

variety

of

applications

in

cognitive

science,

robotics,

and

natural

interfaces.

The

goal

of

AI

is

the

development

of

computer

functions

normally

associated

with

human

physical

and

mental

capabilities,

such

as

robots

that

see,

hear,

talk,

feel,

and

move,

and

software

capable

of

reasoning,

learning,

and

problem

solving.

Thus,

AI

is

being

applied

to

many

applications

in

business

operations

and

managerial

decisio
n

making,

as

well

as

in

many

other

fields.




AI

Technologies


The

many

application

areas

of

AI

are

summarized

in

Figure

9.22,

including

neural

networks,

fuzzy

logic,

genetic

algorithms,

virtual

reality,

and

intelligent

agents.

Neural

nets

are

hardware

or

software

systems

based

on

simple

models

of

the

brain's

neuron

structure

that

can

learn

to

recognize

patterns

in

data.

Fuzzy

logic

systems

use

rules

of

approximate

reasoning

to

solve

problems

where

data

are

incomplete

or

ambiguous.

Genetic

algorithms

use

selection,

randomizing,

and

other

mathematics

functions

to

simu
late

an

evolutionary

process

that

can

yield

increasingly

better

solutions

to

problems.

Virtual

reality

systems

are

multisensory

systems

that

enable

human

users

to

experience

computer
-
simulated

environments

as

if

they

actually

existed.

Intelligent

agents

ar
e

knowledge
-
based

software

surrogates

for

a

user

or

process

in

the

accomplishment

of

selected

tasks.




Expert

Systems

Expert

systems

are

knowledge
-
based

information

systems

that

use

software

and

a

knowledge

base

about

a

specific,

complex

application

area

to

act

as

expert

consultants

to

users

in

many

business

and

technical

applications.

Software

includes

an

inference

engine

program

that

makes

inferences

based

on

the

facts

and

rules

stored

in

the

knowledge

base.

A

knowledge

base

consists

of

facts

about

a

speci
fic

subject

area

and

heuristics

(rules

of

thumb)

that

express

the

reasoning

procedures

of

an

expert.

The

benefits

of

expert

systems

(such

as

preservation

and

replication

of

expertise)

must

be

balanced

with

their

limited

applicability

in

many

problem

situat
ions
.

《管理信息系统导论》双语教学

学生学习辅助资料

Multiple

Choice

Quiz

1.

Decision
-
making

that

involves

implementing

organizational

policies

is

called:

a)

Strategic

b)

Tactical

c)

Operational.

d)

Day
-
to
-
day

2.

An

inventory

reorder

decision

would

be

considered

an

example

of

a(n):

a)

Unstructured

decision

b)

Semistructured

d
ecision

c)

Programmable

decision

d)

Nonprogrammable

decision

3.

Drill
-
down

in

online

analytical

processing

involves:

a)

Aggregation

of

data

b)

Analyzing

data

in

the

reverse

direction

and

displaying

detailed

data

that

comprises

consolidated

data

c)

Looking

at

the

databases

f
rom

different

viewpoints

d)

Push

reporting

4.

Finding

input

values

that

produce

a

specific

output

is

called:

a)

Goal

seeking

b)

Drill
-
down

c)

Slicing

&

dicing

d)

What
-
if.

5.

Who

was

the

British

AI

pioneer

responsible

for

proposing

a

test

in

1950

for

determining

if

machines

could

think?:

a)

John

McCarthy

b)

Herbert

Simon

c)

Allen

Nevell

d)

Alan

Turing

6.

This

network

software

model

uses

Darwinian

(survival

of

the

fittest):

a)

Neural

network

b)

Ge
netic

algorithm.

c)

Fuzzy

logic

d)

Virtual

reality

7.

Which

one

of

the

following

would

NOT

be

considered

an

AI

application

in

the

cognitive

science

group?:

a)

Expert

systems.

b)

Neural

networks

c)

Knowledge
-
based

systems.

d)

Learning

systems

《管理信息系统导论》双语教学

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Fill

in

the

Blank

Quiz

1.

Detailed

inf
ormation

is

required

for
( )

level

of

decision

making.

2.

Periodic

reports

produced

regularly

are

called
( )

reports

3.

( )

involves

the

aggregation

of

data.

This

can

involve

simple

roll
-
ups

or

complex

groupings

involving

interrelated

data.

4.

In
( )

analysis,

the

goal

is

to

find

the

optimum

value

for

one

or

more

target

variables,

given

certain

constraints.

5.

A(n)

( )

network

is

a

computing

systems

that

is

modeled

after

the

brain's

meshlike

network

of

interconnected

processing

elements.

6.

These

systems

(

),

can

proc
ess

data

that

are

incomplete

or

ambiguous
.

True
-
False

Quiz

1.

Industry

experts

predict

that

the

growth

in

e
-
business

and

e
-
commerce

will

dramatically

slow

as

we

are

currently

reaching

the

maturity

stage

for

the

development

of

Intranet

and

extranet

application
s.(
T
rue

or

False).

2.

The

type

of

information

required

by

a

decision
-
maker

in

a

company

is

directly

related

to

the

level

of

management

decision

making

and

the

amount

of

structure

in

the

decision

situation

they

face.

(
T
rue

or

False
).

3.

An

inventory

reorder

decis
ion

is

an

example

of

a

highly

structured

decision

that

is

normally

made

at

the

operational

management

level.(

T
rue

or

False
).

4.

Finding

input

values

that

produce

a

specific

output

is

called

goal

seeking

.(

T
rue

or

False
).

5.

Neural

networks

can

process

many

pie
ces

of

information

simultaneously

and

can

learn

to

recognize

patterns

and

programs

themselves

to

solve

related

problems

on

their

own.

(
T
rue

or

False
).

6.

Genetic

algorithm

software

is

not

useful

for

situations

in

which

thousands

of

solutions

are

possible

and

must

be

evaluated

to

produce

an

optimal

solution.

(
T
rue

or

False
).

Chapter

9

Glossary

Analytical

modeling

:

Interactive

use

of

computer
-
based

mathematical

models

to

explore

decision

alternatives

using

what
-
if

analysis,

sensitivity

analysis,

goal
-
seeking

an
alysis,

and

optimization

analysis.

Artificial

intelligence

:

A

science

and

technology

whose

goal

is

to

develop

computers

that

can

think,

as

well

as

see,

hear,

walk,

talk,

and

feel.

A

major

thrust

is

the

development

of

computer

functions

normally

associated

with

human

intelligence,

for

example,

reasoning,

inference,

learning,

and

problem

solving.

Data

mining

:

Using

special
-
purpose

software

to

analyze

data

from

a

data

warehouse

to

find

hidden

patterns

and

trends.

《管理信息系统导论》双语教学

学生学习辅助资料

Decision

support

system

:

An

information

syst
em

that

utilizes

decision

models,

a

database,

and

a

decision

maker's

own

insights

in

an

ad

hoc,

interactive

analytical

modeling

process

to

reach

a

specific

decision

by

a

specific

decision

maker.

E
-
business

decision

support

:

The

use

of

Web
-
enabled

DSS

soft
ware

tools

by

managers,

employees,

customers,

suppliers,

and

other

business

partners

of

an

internetworked

e
-
business

enterprise

for

customer

relationship

management,

supply

chain

management,

and

other

e
-
business

applications.

Enterprise

information

portal

:

A

customized

and

personalized

Web
-
based

interface

for

corporate

intranets

and

extranets

that

gives

qualified

users

access

to

a

variety

of

internal

and

external

e
-
business

and

e
-
commerce

applications,

databases,

software

tools,

and

information

services

En
terprise

knowledge

portal
:

An

enterprise

information

portal

that

serves

as

a

knowledge

management

system

by

providing

users

with

access

to

enterprise

knowledge

bases.

Executive

information

system
:

An

information

system

that

provides

strategic

information

t
ailored

to

the

needs

of

executives

and

other

decision

makers.

Expert

system

:

A

computer
-
based

information

system

that

uses

its

knowledge

about

a

specific

complex

application

area

to

act

as

an

expert

consultant

to

users.

The

system

consists

of

a

knowledge

base

and

software

modules

that

perform

inferences

on

the

knowledge

and

communicate

answers

to

a

user's

questions.

Fuzzy

logic

:

Computer
-
based

systems

that

can

process

data

that

are

incomplete

or

only

partially

correct,

that

is,

fuzzy

data.

Such

systems

ca
n

solve

unstructured

problems

with

incomplete

knowledge,

as

humans

do.

Genetic

algorithms
:

An

application

of

artificial

intelligence

software

that

uses

Darwinian

(survival

of

the

fittest)

randomizing

and

other

functions

to

simulate

an

evolutionary

process

that

can

yield

increasingly

better

solutions

to

a

problem

Inference

engine

:

The

software

component

of

an

expert

system,

which

processes

the

rules

and

facts

related

to

a

specific

problem

and

makes

associations

and

inferences

resulting

in

recommended

course
s

of

action.

Intelligent

agent
:

A

special
-
purpose

knowledge
-
based

system

that

serves

as

a

software

surrogate

to

accomplish

specific

tasks

for

end

users

Knowledge

base

:

A

computer
-
accessible

collection

of

knowledge

about

a

subject

in

a

variety

of

forms,

su
ch

as

facts

and

rules

of

inference,

frames,

and

objects

Knowledge

engineer

:

A

specialist

who

works

with

experts

to

capture

the

knowledge

they

possess

in

order

to

develop

a

knowledge

base

for

expert

systems

and

other

knowledgebased

systems.

Knowledge

manag
ement

system

:

An

information

system

that

adds

a

knowledge

base

to

the

database

and

other

components

found

in

other

types

of

computer
-
based

information

systems.

Management

information

system

:

A

management

support

system

that

produces

prespecified

reports,

displays,

and

responses

on

a

periodic,

exception,

demand,

or

push

reporting

basis.

Model

base

:

An

organized

software

collection

of

conceptual,

mathematical,

and

logical

models

that

express

business

relationships,

computational

routines,

or

《管理信息系统导论》双语教学

学生学习辅助资料

analytical

tec
hniques

Neural

network

:

Computer

processors

or

software

whose

architecture

is

based

on

the

human

brain's

meshlike

neuron

structure.

Neural

networks

can

process

many

pieces

of

information

simultaneously

and

can

learn

to

recognize

patterns

and

programs

them
selves

to

solve

related

problems

on

their

own.

Online

analytical

processing

:

A

capability

of

some

management,

decision

support,

and

executive

information

systems

that

supports

interactive

examination

and

manipulation

of

large

amounts

of

data

from

many

per
spectives.

Virtual

reality
:

The

use

of

multisensory

human/computer

interfaces

that

enable

human

users

to

experience

computersimulated

objects,

entities,

spaces,

and

"worlds"

as

if

they

actually

existed.

Chapter

9

Real

World

Case

Studie
s

Real World Case

1
:
Essbase for business analytics


Hyperion (Nasdaq:HYSL), a leader in business analysis software, and Channel Point, Inc., a
leading provider of Internet
-
based, business
-
to
-
business solutions that enable e
-
commerce in
the global insurance industry, today ann
ounced the signing of an agreement to combine
Hyperion's OLAP (online analytical processing) technology with Channel Point’s
business
-
to
-
business (B2B) exchange platform technology for insurance carriers and
distributors.


The solution addresses the explos
ive market opportunity for enhancing e
-
commerce exchange
platforms with sophisticated business analysis and reporting capabilities powered by the
market
-
leading Hyperion Essbase OLAP Server.


Under the agreement, Channel Point will integrate and resell Hyp
erion Essbase OLAP Server
with Channel Point’s solutions, providing insurance agents, brokers, customers and financial
institutions with a sophisticated, scalable and Web
-
enabled platform for analysis, metrics and
reporting. By combining the performance, s
calability and analytical power of Hyperion
Essbase with Channel Point’s exchange technology, insurance carriers, brokerages, and
sponsors will be able to gain insights into transactions generated by electronic markets
through the measurement and presentat
ion of quotes, sales and enrolments/submission
metrics.


The targeted metrics and reports will allow insurance carriers and distributors to significantly
refine operations in areas such as product and channel mix, product configuration, lead
generation and

target marketing. In addition, the integration of Hyperion Essbase and Channel
Point technology will provide users with insights into broker/agent productivity analysis,
up
-
sell/cross
-
sale opportunity analysis; and market share analysis by line
-
of
-
busines
s.


"In today's fast
-
paced and electronically connected business world, it is absolutely essential
that our clients are able to respond quickly to their customers with refined value added
《管理信息系统导论》双语教学

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products and processes based on solid analytics. This need elevates
business analysis and
reporting to greater importance," said Frederick Rook, Ph.D., executive vice president of
product development and operations at Channel Point. "With a highly scalable platform for
sophisticated business analysis applications specifica
lly designed to handle large volumes of
Internet
-
based transactions among hundreds of thousands of concurrent users, Hyperion
Essbase OLAP Server will empower our customers to turn massive amounts of data into
actionable information."


"As the market for o
nline trading exchanges continues to explode, these marketplaces are
generating huge volumes of transaction data that need to be easily accessed and analyzed for
rapid decision making," said Steve Fioretti, vice president of marketing at Hyperion. "By
work
ing with e
-
business leaders such as Channel Point, we are executing on our aggressive
strategy to help organizations understand and optimize the interactions between buyers and
sellers, and ultimately increase their profitability within these B2B marketpla
ces."


About Channel Point Exchange Platform Technology


Channel Point’s exchange platform technology enables the creation of single
-

and
multi
-
carrier, multi
-
product e
-
markets. Using Channel Point technology, individual carriers or
groups of carriers can
create e
-
markets that are customized to their particular distribution
strategies. Channel Point technology gives carriers the flexibility to expand their e
-
markets to
include additional products, carriers or distributors. The Channel Point exchange platfor
m
technology can enable brokers, financial advisors, other distributors and consumers to easily
access product, pricing and market information online and complete business transactions
electronically.


About Hyperion Essbase OLAP Server


In use today by mo
re than 3,000 companies, Hyperion Essbase OLAP Server is a strategic
analytical platform optimized for enterprise management reporting, analysis and planning
applications. It supports multi
-
user read/write access, large
-
scale data capacity, robust
analytic
al calculations, rich attribute analyses, and sophisticated OLAP queries and delivers it
all in a Web
-
centric architecture across multiple open hardware platforms. Hyperion Essbase
provides intuitive multidimensional data navigation and consistent, rapid r
esponse times in
network
-
centric computing environments. More than 350 Hyperion alliance partners,
including Baan, IBM, Lawson Software, PeopleSoft, ShowCase and Walker, leverage
Hyperion Essbase as a strategic enterprise OLAP platform for business analysi
s.


Hyperion Essbase is currently available on HP
-
UX, IBM AIX, Sun Solaris, IBM AS/400,
IBM S/390, Compaq Alpha NT, Microsoft Windows 2000, Windows NT, and Windows 95/98
platforms. Additional information about Hyperion Essbase is available at
http://www.hy
perion.com/essbaseolap.cfm.


About Channel Point, Inc.

《管理信息系统导论》双语教学

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Channel Point is a leading provider of Internet
-
based, business
-
to
-
business solutions that
enable e
-
commerce in the $2.8 trillion global insurance industry. The Company's software
applications and pro
fessional service offerings are designed to meet the evolving needs of
carriers, distributors and buyers of insurance. Channel Point’s technologies leverage the
power of the Internet to streamline and automate the insurance distribution process to
facilita
te end
-
to
-
end transaction processing. The Company's proprietary exchange platform
technology facilitates the creation of e
-
markets that bring together buyers and sellers of
insurance products. Channel Point is headquartered in Coforado Springs, Coforado. F
or more
information, visit www.channelpoint.com.


About Hyperion


Hyperion (Nasdaq:HYSL) is a leader in business analysis software. Hyperion helps business
leaders plan, manage and execute on strategies by analyzing information on e
-
business
initiatives, s
upply chain execution, customers, operations and finance. The company's
market
-
leading OLAP (online analytical processing) technology, packaged business analysis
applications and tools are used by 6,000 organizations worldwide, including more than 60 of
th
e Fortune 100 and more than 40 of the Financial Times European Top 100. In addition, 350
Hyperion alliance partners deliver technology, applications and services to increase the
flexibility and choice for customers. Headquartered in Sunnyvale, California,
the company
has offices in 26 countries. More information is available at http://www.hyperion.com,
info@hyperion.com, or 800/286
-
8000.


Hyperion's Safe Harbor Statement


Statements in this press release other than statements of historical fact are forward
-
looking
statements, including, but not limited to, statements concerning anticipated product features,
the potential success of the anticipated product offerings and the potential market
opportunities for business analytics. Such statements constitute anti
cipated outcomes and do
not assure results. Actual results may differ materially from those anticipated by the
forward
-
looking statements due to a variety of factors, including, but not limited to the
company's ability to retain and attract key employees,
the successful and timely development
of new products, the impact of competitive products and pricing, customer demand, and
technological shifts. For a more detailed discussion of factors that could affect the company's
performance and cause actual results

to differ materially from those anticipated in the
forward
-
looking statements, interested parties should review the company's filings with the
Securities and Exchange Commission, including the Report on Form 10
-
K filed on September
28, 1999 and the compan
y's Report on Form 10
-
Q filed on February 15, 2000. The company
does not undertake an obligation to update its forward
-
looking statements to reflect future
events or circumstances.


Note to editors: Channel Point, Channel Point Commerce and Channel Point I
nsure are
trademarks of Channel Point, Inc. Hyperion and Essbase are registered trademarks and
《管理信息系统导论》双语教学

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Hyperion Solutions is a trademark of Hyperion Solutions Corporation. All other product and
company names mentioned herein are the property of their respective ow
ners and are
mentioned for identification purposes only.


Real World Case

2
:

Blueprints for e
-
Manufacturing Success


Manufacturers are facing new challenges as global competition accelerates and supply chain
management intensifies. Consumers are demanding
short delivery times for customized
products with exceptional quality and high performance. To respond, firms are examining
their strengths and weaknesses and considering how to change their practices and capabilities
to be effective world
-
class competitor
s. This paper provides managers with an overview of
World Class Manufacturing, describes a process to implement it, and discusses building
commitment for it. To succeed, firms should set business goals and understand customer
expectations, define the essen
tial competencies needed to achieve those goals, create metrics
for each competency, establish target levels for each metric, develop plans and programs to
achieve the targets, organize and manage the implementation process, and evaluate and revise
the eff
orts as needed.


Expanding global competition, rapidly changing markets, and the world
-
wide spread of
advanced manufacturing technology are creating a complex and uncertain environment
(Bayus, 1994; Manufacturing Studies Board, 1986). As customers become
more demanding
and global competition intensifies, manufacturers feel the pressure to meet tighter quality,
cost, and delivery requirements (Doll & Vonderembse, 1991; Skinner, 1985). To effectively
respond to these challenges, many manufacturers are strivi
ng to become world
-
class
competitors.


Simply stated, world
-
class manufacturers design, produce, and deliver products that delight
customers and enable firms to compete with the best in the world (Schonberger, 1996). World
Class Manufacturing (WCM) is a p
rocess, based on employee development and involvement,
that unites key cross
-
functional actions such as product development (Wheelwright & Clark,
1995), material acquisition (Senter & Flynn, 2000; Tracey & Vonderembse, 2000), lean
manufacturing (Womack & J
ones, 1996), and quality management (Deming, 1986; Juran,
1981a, 1981b) in ways that meet precisely specified customer requirements. Success is
achieved by (1) setting business goals and understanding customer expectations, (2) defining
essential manufactu
ring competencies that determine a firm's ability to meet or exceed
customer expectations, (3) creating metrics for these competencies, (4) benchmarking
performance, (5) determining target levels for each metric, (6) developing plans and programs
that enab
le the firm to meet these targets, (7) organizing and managing the implementation
process, and (8) evaluating performance and revising the system. When properly executed,
these actions lead to customer satisfaction and positive business results (Gunn,1992;

Schonberger, 1996).


For many years, manufacturing was an internally focused activity aimed primarily at
efficiency and cost reduction. Employees often completed tasks without understanding the
《管理信息系统导论》双语教学

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effects of their actions on customers. The internal focus wa
s perpetuated by separating critical
functions such as marketing, engineering, manufacturing, purchasing, and quality control.
This separation was often described as the "over
-
the
-
wall" approach to manufacturing. These
walls inhibited direct and continuous

interaction between functions and shielded
decision
-
makers from internal and external customers. The results of separating tasks by
functions are the loss of time, information, and money, and the creation of finished products
that do not meet customer nee
ds (Doll & Vonderembse, 1991). World
-
class manufacturers
build cross functional processes that focus outward on customers and build strategic
relationships with internal and external suppliers (Swinehart, Miller, & Hiranyavasit, 2000).
These efforts at sup
ply chain management and customer relationship management unify
actions and focus attention on the customers of the final rather than intermediary products
(Panizzolo, 1998; Schonberger, 1996).


This paper provides practicing managers with an overview of
WCM as an integrated,
cross
-
functional effort that focuses on customers and strives for business success. Its primary
contributions are to describe a process for implementing WCM and to discuss ways to build
commitment for its success. The paper provides m
anagers with a set of actions to guide
implementation and a set of metrics to measure performance.


World Class Manufacturing


WCM is a cross
-
functional process for designing, producing, and delivering goods that
delight customers and lead to exceptional

organizational performance. It combines skills and
resources from various functions to focus on opportunities and threats in the environment. By
seeking leadership in the global marketplace, organizations are choosing to be "world
-
class."
The popularity o
f Richard Schonberger's World Class Manufacturing: The Next Decade (1996)
helps to raise awareness and give definition to a new and better approach to manufacturing.


At the strategic level, Gilgeous and Gilgeous (1999) describe a framevvork for success t
hat
shows how programs and their enablers combine to link company strategy to activities at the
operating level in order to achieve manufacturing excellence. Munda and Hendry (2002a,
2002b) describe the development and implementation of WCM for firms invol
ved in
make
-
to
-
order operation. This approach relates the organization's areas of strength to key
make
-
to
-
order principles and ultimately to potential improvements. Swinehart, Miller, and
Hiranyavasit (2000) describe strategies that can be used to achieve
WCM status in a globally
competitive environment. These strategies require manufacturing operations to be externally
supportive and play a key role in helping firms build a competitive advantage. Flynn,
Schroeder, and Flynn (1999) provide strong support fo
r the use of WCM, alone and in
combination with other manufacturing practices, as a way to achieve competitive advantage.
In a survey of 229 Canadian firms, Lagace and Bourgault (2003) provide insights into the
association between WCM and competitive posit
ioning.


Billo, Needy, and Bidanda (1996) discuss the supporting role played by information
technology (IT) in companies seeking WCM outcomes while Saxena and Sahay (2000), in
《管理信息系统导论》双语教学

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their survey of Indian manufacturing, stress the need to align IT initiative wi
th WCM
objectives. As part of a longitudinal case study of a Swedish firm, Lind (2001) discovered that
WCM involves change in methods of control, empowerment, and the process for
implementing new ideas.


Gunn (1992) describes the WCM environment as having

sophisticated customers, global
manufacturing systems, a faster pace and wider scope of activities, and an emphasis on
product quality.


(1) Sophisticated Customers: Increasing consumer sophistication and wealth as well as
more sophisticated marketing a
re leading to a proliferation of products that target more
diverse tastes and accommodate special market niches (Clark & Fujimoto, 1991; Cooper &
Kleinschmidl, 1994). The growth in stock keeping units (SKUs) compounds manufacturing
complexity exponentially
. This increases the need for flexible systems to design, produce, and
deliver these products (Blackburn, 1991; Doll & Vondcrembse, 1991).

(2) Global Manufacturing Systems: Design expertise and production capabilities are
sourced globally. Subassemblies m
ay be produced on three different continents while final
assembly takes place on a fourth. Coordination and control are managed through integrated,
worldwide information and distribution systems that work to meet customer needs (Flaherty,
1996; Hill, 2000)
.


(3) Pace and Scope of Business Activities: Time and distance are being compressed by
the electronic movement of information in all forms including television's influence on
consumer desires, electronically connected markets, and the influence of e
-
mai
l, fax machines,
and mobile telephones on management styles. Business activities that took weeks now take
days, or are performed in "real time" (Blackburn, 1991).


(4) Demand for Higher Quality: Customers cannot afford to buy unreliable products.
Their l
ifestyles and schedules leave little time for getting products serviced or returning
defective ones to their supplier. The conventional wisdom that zero defects are unachievable
has been debunked by a flood of products that work and work well (Deming, 1986
, 2000;
Juran 1981a, 1981b).


As illustrated in Figure 1, WCM focuses on customers, relies on critical manufacturing
competencies, and develops measures that lead to customer satisfaction and positive business
results (Gunasekaran, 2000; Schonberger, 1996
). The key differences between WCM and
traditional manufacturing begin with a shift in focus from internal operations to customers.
Employees and suppliers must understand customer needs and how their efforts impact those
needs. Key competencies shift from

engineering effectiveness, quality control, and efficiency
to employee development (Badore, 1992), supplier development (Handfield and Nichols,
1999), product development (Clark & Fujimoto, 1991), quality improvement efforts (Deming,
1986, 2000; Juran, 19
81a, 1981b), and just
-
in
-
time (JIT) (Mondon, 1983). As organizations
adopt WCM principles, outcome measures tend to become multi
-
dimensional with throughput
time, supplier capability, employee skills, and other measures being added to more traditional
《管理信息系统导论》双语教学

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fina
ncial measures such as labour costs or material variances.


The top of the WCM model lists the overall goals, which are customer satisfaction and
business results. Good customer service has long been a primary objective of manufacturers.
Over time, the obj
ective with respect to customers has changed as the word "service" became
"satisfaction" or even "delight." From meeting specifications and delivery dates reasonably
well, the criteria now include anything relevant to ensuring complete customer satisfactio
n.
The Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award describes business results as key measures
and/or indicators of company operational and financial performance. Surrounding the WCM
model is continuous improvement. Striving to achieve WCM status is an on
-
going
, iterative
process that seeks continuous improvements to meet rising expectations. Recognizing,
evaluating, and acting on opportunities for improvement set world
-
class manufacturers apart
from their competitors.


Process for Implementing World Class Manu
facturing


Even though WCM depends heavily on continuous improvement, initiating these concepts
and ideas may require radical change (Hammer, 1996). Radical change requires top
management commitment, support, and involvement. Each of those words implies d
ifferent
things. Top management commitment implies the consent of organizational leadership to
pursue WCM. Top management support is the allocation of sufficient resources in people and
capital to design and implement WCM. It requires the time and talent o
f the best and brightest
people from across the organization. Top management involvement includes the time of top
executives in defining the concept of WCM, communicating its importance, and breaking
clown barriers to change (Gunasekaran, 2000; Hammer, 199
6; Schonberger, 1996).


Success requires a process that integrates WCM initiatives into the business planning process.
A process for achieving this integration, illustrated in Figure 2, has eight steps.


(1) Set business goals and understand customer ex
pectations,


(2) Define essential manufacturing competencies,


(3) Create metrics for these competencies,


(4) Benchmark performance,


(5) Determine target levels for each metric,


(6) Develop plans and programs to achieve the targets,


(7) Org
anize and manage the implementation process, and


(8) Evaluate poperformance revise the sysirms.

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While steps 1, 7, and 8 may apply generally to the achievement of any radical change, it is
important to discuss each briefly. The primary focus is on unde
rstanding manufacturing
competencies, metrics, benchmarks, targets, plans and programs, and implementation.


Business Goals and Customer Expectations


Business goals and customer expectations are two sides of the same coin. A firm's
performance and profi
ts are directly related to its ability to add value and delight customers
(Cooper & Kleinschmidt, 1994). Business goals define the organizations direction. They
should be as specific as possible, such as "We want to have the highest level of customer
satis
faction in the industry" or "We want to have a 25 percent market share." They should
relate to both business performance and customer satisfaction. These goals guide and
motivate an organization to initiate change. The process of goal setting should involv
e all
levels of the organization in order to achieve buy
-
in and commitment (Deltmer, 1998; Gunn,
1992).

Manufacturing Competencies


The foundation for success in WCM is the five manufacturing competencies: employee
development, supplier development, prod
uct development, quality, and JIT shown in Figure 1.
These elements, summarized in Table 1, are interrelated, and they provide a foundation that
enables firms to create a win
-
win environment for customers and shareholders.


Employee Development


Organiza
tions that strive to be world
-
class manufacturers create systems that integrate
decisions across functions and develop new methods and procedures to streamline operations.
The roles of managers and shop floor employees change substantially as decision
-
maki
ng is
pushed down the organization. Teamwork, training, and shared knowledge become critical
ingredients for success. Managers facilitate, coordinate, and integrate activities that move the
organization towards its objectives rather than command and contro
l the actions of a few
subordinates. Shop floor employees participate in the planning and execution of key
manufacturing practices such as set
-
up time reduction and quality improvement efforts
(Badore, 1992; Nonaka & Takeuchi, 1995).


World
-
class manufact
urers invest in people. They understand that employees grow more
valuable with time and experience. They expend significant resources to develop the full
potential of their employees through job training and continuing education (Badore, 1992).
World
-
class

manufacturers also create many opportunities for people to contribute to their
success. They encourage and obtain high levels of employee participation in a wide variety of
formal and informal improvement efforts (Lind, 2001). These improvement efforts sh
ould not
go unrecognized. Company
-
wide celebrations of special achievements and financial
participation in the profits and savings are ways to provide positive feedback and to keep
employees involved (Dettmer, 1998; Gunn, 1992; Schonberger, 1996).

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Suppli
er Development


Advocates of WCM recognize that competition is no longer between individual firms; rather,
it is between their supply chains. For example, the development, design, production,
marketing, and delivery of a car should be a coordinated team e
ffort that begins with
extracting raw materials from the earth, continues through fabrication and assembly, and ends
with fit and finish in the dealer's showroom. When customers buy cars from Ford, they choose
the output of the entire supply chain and pay
all the participants. For Ford to be successful,
the entire supply chain must work effectively. Ford should develop methods to manage the
supply chain from its roots in basic materials such as iron ore, sand, and crude oil all the way
to the dealer network
. That does not mean ownership or even direct control, but it does imply
mechanisms that coordinate actions, influence decision
-
making, and impact performance.
Supplier relations and development are critical to success in product development, quality
impro
vement efforts, and JIT (Handfield & McNichols, 1999; Senter & Flynn, 2000; Traccy
& Vondercmbsc, 2000).


In today’s environment, suppliers are often selected on the basis of quality, delivery reliability,
and flexibility. The benefits of consistent quali
ty and JIT deliveries are often more valuable
than a few cents off the piece
-
part price. In many cases, supplier customer relationships
governed by strategic partnerships lead to lower prices than competitive bidding
(Vonderembse & Tracey, 1999; Vonderembs
e, Tracey, Tan, & Bardi, 1995). Joseph Juran
developed a framework for distinguishing between adversarial and teamwork relationships
among customers and suppliers (see Table 2). These partnerships allow suppliers to become
an extension of the world
-
class m
anufacturer's operations. The benefits can include integrated
information and quality systems and cross
-
company problem solving efforts Quran, 1981a,
198Ib).


Product Development


Companies and their associated supply chains vie with competitors to be fir
st with innovative
new products. As the rate of technological advance increases and as competition between
domestic and foreign company’s heats up, it becomes increasingly important to bring new and
improved products to market quickly. Many world
-
class man
ufacturers have set clear targets
for improving speed and quantity of new product introduction. Quality Function Deployment
(QFD) and Concurrent Engineering are tools that help world
-
class manufacturers quickly
deliver the right product to the customer.


QFD is a broad
-
based product development tool that combines aspects of value analysis with
market research. The primary objective of QFD is to specify the product and the process
correctly from the outset. QFD translates the voice of the customer into prod
uct specifications
by associating customer wants with appropriate technical requirement at each stage of product
development and production. It bridges the gap between customer
-
driven specifications and
concurrent engineering constraints. QFD enables manag
ers and engineers to make trade
-
offs
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between conflicting objectives in a way that maximizes the benefits to the customer
(American Supplier Institute, 1989; Vondereinbs1, Van Foss1n, & Raghunathan, 1997).


Concurrent Engineering is a nonlinear approach to

product design where all phases of
engineering and manufacturing operate at the same time. It is a process where engineering
and manufacturing professionals, both in
-
house and supplier, provide input during the entire
design cycle. It reduces downstream p
roblems and builds quality, cost reduction, and
reliability into the process. When combined with QFD, concurrent engineering brings
problems to the surface early and creates an environment where better decisions can be made
in less time (Sanderson, 1992; S
usman & Dean, 1992). Concurrent engineering is based on
the following principles:


(1) Concurrence: Product and process design run in parallel


(2) Constraints: Process constraints are considered part of the product design. This
ensures parts that are e
asy to fabricate, handle, and assemble and facilitates the use of simple,
cost
-
effective process, tooling, and material handling solutions (also known as Design for
Manufacture and Assembly).


(3) Coordination: Product and process are closely coordinated

to achieve optimal
matching of requirements for effective cost, quality, and delivery.


(4) Consensus: High
-
impact product and process decision
-
making involves the full team's
participation and consensus.


Quality


Formal quality systems play an impor
tant role in organizing a company to support quality as a
key business objective (Deining, 1986, 2000; Juran, 1981a, 1981h). In the 1990s, the United
States saw a large increase in the number of companies pursuing quality systems registration
to the ISO 90
00 and QS
-
9000 standards. In particular, QS9000 has been a major focus of the
automobile industry (Schlickman, 1998). In addition, many companies are using Six Sigma to
achieve better quality and thus better 'bottom line' results. Six Sigma applies importa
nt quality
tools such as experimental design and total productive maintenance to the quality control
process (Evans &r Williams, 2002; Pyzdek, 2003). In addition to helping secure future
business, formal quality systems benefit companies by:


(1) definin
g authority and responsibility within the quality system,


(2) clearly communicating the objective of the quality system,


(3) promoting continuous improvement throughout the organization,


(4) monitoring quality system continuously, and

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(5) en
suring consistent performance within the quality system.


Just
-
In
-
Time


Many different manufacturing techniques have been developed to improve production. Each
technique has it own benefits such as reducing lot size, increasing machine availability, or
u
sing computers to run part programs. The goal is to improve process control capability while
reducing manufacturing time and cost. JIT is a systematic approach to eliminate waste and
reduce throughput time. JIT can be accomplished by using a combination of

manufacturing
techniques, including setup redesign, cellular manufacturing, total productive maintenance,
and synchronous manufacturing/pull production (Koufteros, Vonderembse, &r Doll, 1998;
Monden, 1983; Womack & Jones, 1996; Sakakibara, Flynn, & Schroe
der, 1993).


Each of these techniques may require substantial changes in manufacturing practices. All
employees affected by the changes need to be open to changes, willing to learn, and involved
in the planning process. Overcoming the resistance to change
s is often the most difficult part
of successfully implementing an advanced manufacturing technique such as JIT.


Metrics


The old saying "you can't manage something if you can't measure it" holds true for the live
manufacturing competencies. Davics and
Kochhar (2000, 2002) claim that the disappointing
results from the implementation of best practices are caused by a failure to link practices to
specific measurable objectives. As shown in Figure 2, defining metrics for these elements is
critical. Companie
s need to know how well they are achieving the goals they laid down for
customer satisfaction and business results. It is important to choose a small number of
pertinent performance measures that enable the company to assess progress continuously.
Employee
s concentrate on what the organization measures and how they are evaluated.
Normally, when a firm measures, reports, and rewards the results of an employee's work, that
person will be motivated to improve those dimensions of their work.


There is no absol
ute set of WCM Metrics because different customers in different industries
expect and emphasize different outcomes. Table 3 contains a list of metrics that may he
helpful in getting started. As metrics are selected from this list and new ones are created,
it is
critical to understand how these metrics contribute to the organizations overall business and
profitability goals. Metrics were selected from readings and cases found in the following
references (Blackburn, 1991 ; Deming, 1986, 2000; Dettmer, 1998; H
andlicld & Nichols,
1999; Hoop &r Spearman, 2000; Schonberger, 1996; Womack & Jones, 1996).


Benchmarks


Benchmarking, the next step in Figure 2, is an external locus on internal activities, functions,
or operations that enables a firm to improve perform
ance. The objective is to understand
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existing processes and to identify points of reference or standards by which activities can be
measured or judged. Selecting practices to benchmark is an important one and it should be
based on the relationship between
practices and performance objective (Davies & Kochhar,
2000, 2002). Benchmarking continuously measures product characteristics, service
capabilities, and management practices against industry leaders. It is externally focused, and it
is action generating.
Benchmarking signals management's willingness to pursue a philosophy
that embraces change in a proactive rather than a reactive manner. It can establish meaningful
goals and performance measures that reflect an external customer focus foster quantum leaps
in thinking, and concentrates on high
-
payoff opportunities. IL promotes teamwork that is
based on competitive need and driven by data, not intuition.


Benchmarking begins with an understanding of unmet customer needs and/or performances
gaps. Armed with t
his information, management identifies core processes that determine the
firm's ability to meet those needs and close those gaps. As these core processes are identified,
process flow maps help to identify current operating practices and to establish baseli
ne
performance levels for critical outcomes such as percent of on
-
time delivery to customers and
labor turnover rate. Data are gathered from outside the organization to provide comparison
points for these key performance attributes. The internal and extern
al data are analyzed and
the results of the benchmarking studies are used as input to the process of setting targets and
developing plans and programs to achieve the targets.


Targets


Setting targets is not as simple as benchmarking competitors, determi
ning the best performer
for each metric, and selecting that performance level as the target. Benchmarking studies are
useful inputs when setting targets, but benchmarking can only tell management what other
companies have achieved not what might be achieve
d. In fact, setting targets that are equal to
other firm's current achievements may lead an organization to set low targets. Even if the
company achieves the target at some point in the future, it may still be behind the competition
because the competition

has gotten better. Setting targets is a matter of investigation,
judgment, and risk taking. The investigation is part benchmarking and part understanding the
capabilities of the firm. Judgment is using experience and knowledge to have a feel for what
is p
ossible. Risk taking means setting stretch goals that test the limits of the firm's creativity.


These targets cannot be imposed from the top of the organization. To build commitment, the
process for setting these targets must involve a cross
-
section of em
ployees working together.
Marketing has knowledge of customer expectations; engineering understands the technology
and the important elements old product and process design, and manufacturing makes it work
on the factory floor. Without the involvement of m
anufacturing managers, supervisors, and
shop
-
floor employees, firms may be unable to build the support needed to reach its targets.


Plens and Programs


As illustrated in Figure 2, organizations should develop plans, programs, and practices that
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influenc
e manufacturing competencies and enable the firm to achieve the targets. World
-
class
manufacturers support employee development through (1) formal learning and training
programs, (2) employee empowerment which enables them to apply that knowledge, (3)
cont
inuous improvement programs that seek better ways to meet objectives, and (4) reward
and incentive programs that focus on systems wide objectives rather than personal goals.
Employees learn problem solving skills, conflict management and resolution skills,

and how
to conduct meetings effectively.


Supplier development involves working closely with vendors to develop supportive
relationships that create win
-
win opportunities. In many cases, larger companies are able to
offer training to groups of suppliers
who do not have the resources to develop these training
programs on their own. Supplier certification programs, supplier involvement in continuous
improvement and product development activities, and strategic partnerships provide
opportunities to manage th
e supply chain in ways that benefit the final customer as well as the
suppliers.


In this environment, product development shuts from an internal, functional, and sequential
process to a process that focuses on customers. It attempts to achieve system lev
el objectives
through cross
-
functional activities. QFD gathers customer requirements and drives them from
design requirements, to part characteristics, to manufacturing process, and finally, to
production requirements. QFD focuses the product development p
rocess on customer
expectations and attempts to cut time and cost while enhancing product design (American
Supplier Institute, 1989; Vonderembse, Van Fossen, &r Raghunathan, 1997).


Quality improvement efforts involve a wide variety of programs from emplo
yee
empowerment to statistical process control charts. There are many books and articles that can
help to define a set of actions. Some that are certainly important are Design old Experiments
(DOE), Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FEMA), error proofing,

cause and effect
diagrams, quality improvement teams, and supplier certification efforts (Deming, 1986,
2000).


JIT attempts to strip time and cost from the production process by the elimination of waste
and responsiveness to customer demands. JIT involv
es employees in setup redesign,
manufacturing cells, preventive maintenance, and quality improvement efforts to achieve pull
production (Koufteros, Vonderembse, & Doll, 1998; Monden, 1983; Sakakibara, Flynn, &
Schroeder, 1993).


Organize and Manage the Imp
lementation Process


Implementation is the key to success. The efforts and coordination for achieving WCM
should be driven from the top of the organizations (Hammer, 1996). In most cases, the shift to
WCM involves significant changes in policies, procedur
es, and method of operations. Product
development efforts, supplier relations, quality improvement activities, and JIT create
complex changes. To cope with this, coordinated actions must take place across multiple
《管理信息系统导论》双语教学

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functions in order for these efforts to be

successful. The only group that can drive these
changes is top management. That does not mean that top management makes the decisions
and imposes them on the organization. Top management provides overall direction, makes
resources available including the
time of key participant, and champions the efforts. Top
management walks a delicate balance, insisting that these changes take place and
communicating the important roles for middle managers, first
-
line supervisors, and shop
-
floor
employees.


These are tw
o other important aspects. It may be necessary to develop a phased approach so
that everything is not changing at once. This can occur across several dimensions. In larger
companies with many products, product lines, and manufacturing facilities, it may be

possible
to consider the change to WCM in one group, division, product line, or plant. In this way,
what is learned can be shared as WCM is rolled out to other parts of the organization? Within
these pilot operations and in small firms, it is possible to
break the process into even smaller
parts. In examining the manufacturing competencies, employee development is a prerequisite
for success in product development, quality improvement, and JIT. If employees are expected
to participate in decision
-
making, th
ey must have a positive attitude and the training to do the
job well. Supplier development is important for quality improvement and JIT. Implementing
JIT when key suppliers have poor quality and unreliable deliveries negates many of its
benefits. Product d
evelopment may not be important in firms that focus on manufacturing and
have limited design responsibility. The second aspect is the application of project
management tools to determine who is responsible for performing tasks and when those tasks
should b
e complete. This approach should focus activities and increase the probability of an
on
-
time delivery.


Evaluate Performance and Revise the Systems


Feedback is a fundamental element of any continuous improvement activity. Performance
enhancement involve
s setting goals, evaluating actions, providing information about
performance, and revising actions to improve outcomes. So, becoming a world
-
class
manufacturer requires feedback loops that enable the organization to enhance learning and
focused on improvem
ent efforts. Customer requirements are monitored because they drive the
process. Competitor's actions and performance outcomes should be assessed to determine the
firm's competitive position. Monitoring competitors' actions on a continuing basis allows the

firm to assess progress, to understand and create new metrics, to set new target levels for
these metrics, and to develop new plans and programs for the next cycle of continuous
improvement.


Building Commitment


Becoming a WCM company requires vision fr
om top management as well as continuous
improvement. Top managements vision initiates the process and drives it to a successful
conclusion. Edonsomwan (1996) outlines six steps that keep management committed to the
continuous improvement efforts needed to
become a WCM company.

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Step 1: Train top management on continuous improvement tools and techniques, managing
change, and creating a total quality culture. Involve top managers in continuous improvement
training for middle managers, supervisors, and other
professionals.


Step 2: Make continuous quality, productivity, and total customer satisfaction improvement
the chief executive officers personal mission. Encourage executive participation in the
continuous improvement steering committee to oversee continu
ous improvement project
plans, allocate resources, and monitor progress.


Step 3: Require annual continuous improvement plans from line executives and managers.
Such plans should depict a blueprint for comprehensive implementation of specific
improvement
projects. The plan should include specifics on training requirements, customer
satisfaction improvement, supplier management, information analysis, process control and
data management, employee job satisfaction and human resources issues, benchmarking of
c
ompetitors, and a cost
-
of
-
quality estimate for each business unit.


Step 4: Include discussion about continuous improvement projects in all staff meetings. Top
managers should participate in continuous improvement projects, recognition events for
quality
excellence, and the enterprise suggestion program for continuous improvement.


Step 5: Put executives and top managers in touch with outside customers, suppliers, and
professional organizations. An executive will have a greater appreciation of the require
ments,
needs, and problems of customers and suppliers if one
-
on
-
one contact is made. Such contact
also provides a unique opportunity for the executive to share and exchange ideas on
continuous improvement goals and on specific projects. The outside contact

with professional
organizations also provides positive exposure for the enterprise and professional validation of
new ideas.


Step 6: Provide opportunity for top management to participate in benchmarking projects. This
will enhance their knowledge of wor
ld
-
class improvement initiatives and programs.


Conclusion and Future Research


This paper describes a process for successfully implementing WCM. The process begins with
top management commitment to pursue WCM and to provide the resources to support its
activities. It also requires top management to communicate the importance of these efforts as
well as break down the barriers to change. It must include a planning process that links
business goals, customer expectations, and organizational capabilities. T
he process should
define essential manufacturing competencies to achieve these goals, and it should select
metrics to measure the competencies. Benchmarks may be used to help the organization set
target levels for each metric. To institute change, firms sh
ould develop plans and programs to
achieve these target levels, and they should organize and manage the implementation process.
Periodically, the process change should be evaluated and the system should be revised.

《管理信息系统导论》双语教学

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This paper also provides a method for b
uilding commitment for this change. This method
requires active participation in the process from all levels of management as well as
supervisors and shop
-
floor employees. It clearly identifies top management as the driving
force for these changes includin
g involvement in training efforts, service on steering
committees, and participation in continuous improvement projects.


Future efforts could involve empirical research to develop valid and reliable measures of
WCM and to test the models described in Fig
ure 1 and Figure 2. The development of in
-
depth
case studies of the implementation process would be helpful for practicing managers.


Real World Case

3
:

Three trends in enterprise information portals


Organizations have long sought to provide employees wi
th consolidated desktop access to the
various applications, business processes, and sources (both technology and human) required
performing knowledge
-
based work.


But as recently as five years ago, the desktop environment was still woefully inadequate to
this task. The ability to access aggregated enterprise information on
-
demand required a more
reflective, process
-
centric model of desktop computing
-
that is, if someone were to look over
your shoulder as you work, would their view of your desktop reflect th
e nature of the work
(i.e., the business processes) in which you're engaged? The classic desktop computing
interface did not allow this kind of on
-
demand access
-
much of the integration between
information, enterprise apps, and business process still occurr
ed in the "gray matter" between
the ears of knowledge workers.


The enterprise information portal (EIP) addresses this need. At their core functional level,
EIPs are all about access
-
a single point of personalized, on
-
line access to business
information a
nd knowledge sources, as well as, increasingly, real
-
time access to core
applications and processes. Key enabling technologies here include advances in security
(including sophisticated directory/authentication services), the proliferation of "portlets" or

"gadgets" (API
-
like chunks of code for plugging enterprise apps into the portal), as well as the
maturation and widespread adoption of XML (for "active" or "intelligent" content). As the
technology behind portals evolves, so do the ways in which enterpris
es are using enterprise
portals to achieve their business goals. Originally adopted by small departments and subsets
of employees, the portal concept has expanded to encompass virtually all employees as well
as the extended organization's partners and supp
liers. Enterprise portals are reaching all the
way out to individual customers, providing them with a personalized view of the organization
or enterprise.


Today, enterprise portals are increasingly evolving to meet enterprise's technology and
strategic r
equirements. How enterprises will leverage and extend their EIP investments in the
future will depend largely upon three emerging trends: Tighter integration with other
applications, increasingly in the context of business processes; adoption of the portal

as a core
《管理信息系统导论》双语教学

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computing platform; and applying the portal metaphor to customer
-
facing operations.

Although "single sign
-
on" portal capability represented a major advance by automatically
firing up a set of windows personalized to address knowledge workers' in
dividual preferences
or roles, such an approach ultimately only served to perpetuate the walls between those
windows. Data was integrated only in terms of presentation to the user, with still no true
aggregation from the back
-
end. The true value of the por
tal will only be realized when the
implicit relationships between windows are rendered via a single, increasingly integrated
point of access.


The evolution of portals did not take place in a vacuum, however, and the parallel maturation
of enterprise appl
ication integration (EAI) and business process integration (BPI)
--
in terms of
both software and services
--
has laid much of the groundwork for the next stage of portal
development. And the promise of Web services is fundamentally one of application
interope
rability and process transparency. Indeed, the macro trends identified by recent
Delphi market research in the portal space support the notion of the convergence of these
trends, with vendors of portal platforms
--
software that incorporates the full spectru
m of portal
infrastructure and applications
--
steadily supplanting vendors more tightly focused on portal
infrastructure or applications alone.

The end
-
to
-
end platform approach will be perceived as a
way to lower implementation risk while leveraging existin
g investments in systems
architecture and applications. Platform vendors' strong competencies in EAI and BPI are
obviously compelling to end users as well
-
Delphi projects significant growth in the services
sector.


The bar is being dramatically raised in terms of both user requirements and competitive
dynamics, and portal platforms must now offer comprehensive architectures embracing all of
the key areas of portal functionality: integration, categorization, search, p
ublishing and
distribution, process, collaboration, personalization, and presentation. Over the next two years,
Delphi research projects that platform portal products (offered by the likes of IBM/Lotus,
Sun/iPlanet, SAP, BEA, Microsoft, and Sybase) will be
come a foundation component in
mainstream corporate IT portfolios. All of this, of course, represents a tremendous investment
in application, transaction, collaboration, and content technologies
-
the very technologies that
determine the quality of customer
interaction. Accordingly, the latest trend in portals is to
provision specific groups of customers, partners, or suppliers with highly customized portal
views designed to add value to the Web interface.


As the business portal becomes the new "face" of th
e organization in a growing proportion of
business interactions, personalization is the most consistent source of customer value. But it's
a far more sophisticated type of personalization than afforded by first
-
generation portal
technologies. Today, EIPs c
an display taifored slices of relevant data, application functionality,
and process interaction to supercharge the customer's experience at the portal and increase
their sense of organizational competence and effectiveness. This is the kind of technology t
hat
finally enables marketing's vision of replacing "brand loyalty" with "loyal brands."


Increasingly, portals will be tasked with "anywhere, any time, any device" wireless support,
《管理信息系统导论》双语教学

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dynamic modes of collaboration and community
-
building, and the integrati
on of "active"
content
-
not only text
-
based pages, but highly graphical, rich
-
media content as well. Portals
will also be called upon to deliver the benefits of Web services, once this emerges from the
current atmosphere of vendor hype and sky
-
high promises
. With the growing need to
aggregate, disperse and control vast amounts of information inside and outside of the
enterprise, enterprise information portals
--
once considered an obscure IT pure
-
play
-
are now a
mainstream enterprise platform, and clearly the d
ominant metaphor for unifying the extended
enterprise
.


Reference
Answer
s
:


Multiple Choice Quizzes


1.
B
; 2.
C
; 3.B; 4.A

5..
D;6.B;7.B


Fill in the Blank Quiz


1.

Operational; 2.

Scheduled; 3. Consolidation; 4. Optimization; 5.

Neural; 6
.
Fuzzy


True or false


1.

F

2.
T
; 3.
T
; 4.
T

5.
T
; 6.
F