Leveraging ITS for

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Nov 23, 2013 (3 years and 8 months ago)

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© 2012 Copyright Southwest Research Institute

Leveraging ITS for
Environmental Gains







Jesus Martinez

Co
-
Authors: Lynne Randolph, Roger Strain,
Josh Johnson and Steve Dellenback

October 2012


Transpo

1

© 2012 Copyright Southwest Research Institute

Agenda


The Case for ITS and the Environment


Environmental Management Demonstration


Going Forward


Questions






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October 2012

Transpo

© 2012 Copyright Southwest Research Institute

The Case for ITS and the Environment

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October 2012

Transpo

© 2012 Copyright Southwest Research Institute

Case for ITS and the Environment


Transportation is
the 2
nd

largest
producer of CO
2

emissions from
fossil fuels


CO
2

emissions
account for nearly
85% of vehicle
emissions


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October 2012

Transpo

Source: U.S. Greenhouse Gas
Emissions Inventory

© 2012 Copyright Southwest Research Institute

Case for ITS and the Environment


Political Tide


Internationally


Kyoto protocol being slowly adopted


Goal to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to
pre
-
1990 levels


United States


Executive: President Obama expressed support for
creating policies to help reach Kyoto protocol
standards


Legislative: Lack of meaningful legislative action yet
to be enacted


Judicial: “Massachusetts v. Environmental Protection
Agency” granted EPA regulatory responsibility over
Carbon Dioxide (CO
2
) and other GHGs.

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October 2012

Transpo

© 2012 Copyright Southwest Research Institute

Case for ITS and the Environment


Recent US Environmental Regulation


Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)


New attainment regulations for GHG released in December
2010


Reduced GHG (particularly CO
2
)


Reduced Ozone (O
3
)


State Implementation Plans (SIP) for air quality will be
changing


Municipal Planning Organizations will develop new
strategies


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October 2012

Transpo

© 2012 Copyright Southwest Research Institute

Case for ITS and the Environment


Nonattainment to EPA standards results in
increased efforts for compliance


State Implementation
Plan (SIP) development


Impact on industry for emissions reduction


Costs passed onto consumer


ITS poised to play new role in environmental
management


ITS systems can be used to provide meaningful
environmental data at the microscopic level


Environmental integrated ITS will enable


Real
-
time monitoring


Operational
mitigation


Quantifying
environmental
impact


Verification of performance measures




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October 2012

Transpo

© 2012 Copyright Southwest Research Institute

SwRI Environmental Management
Demonstration

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October 2012

Transpo

© 2012 Copyright Southwest Research Institute

System Concept


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October 2012

Transpo

© 2012 Copyright Southwest Research Institute

Data Gathering


Interfaces with vehicle
CANbus data


Connects to OBD
-
II Port (On
-
Board Diagnostic Port)


RPMs


Speed


Fuel efficiency


Mass air flow rate


Mass air flow rate is not
standardized OBD
-
II data


No tail pipe emissions
collection system utilized


Cost $200,000
-
$300,000 USD

10

October 2012

Transpo

© 2012 Copyright Southwest Research Institute

Calculating Emissions


Fuel flow calculations


Calculated with air flow to fuel flow ratio 14.7 to 1


CO
2

emissions calculations


EPA assumes 99% oxidation (burning) of the fuel


Gallon of gasoline has 2.421 kg of carbon


A little chemistry with atomic weights:


Carbon: 12.011


Oxygen: 15.9994


CO
2
: 44.0098


Determines that one Gallon of regular gas results in 8.8 kg or
19.4 pounds of CO
2
emissions


Accuracy fluctuates based on


Engine type and performance


Engine age and mechanical issues


Fuel quality




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October 2012

Transpo

© 2012 Copyright Southwest Research Institute

In
-
Vehicle Display

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October 2012

Transpo

Prototype Display

Final Display

© 2012 Copyright Southwest Research Institute

In
-
Vehicle Display


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October 2012

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Connected Vehicles


GPS collection of location
data


Latitude, longitude, and
altitude


Speed


Heading (direction)


Connected Vehicles On
-
Board Equipment (OBE)


Sends vehicle probe data
message modified to include
CO
2

emissions


Sent once per second

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October 2012

Transpo

© 2012 Copyright Southwest Research Institute

SunGuide
®

Integration


Orlando Road Side Equipment
(RSE) Network


Twenty five 5.9 MHz RSE radios
collect probe data and basic safety
messages


RSEs have range of up to 1 km


SunGuide is Florida’s traffic
management system


SunGuide integrated with
Connected Vehicles to


Uses vehicle probe data and basic
safety messages


Sends traveler advisory messages
to vehicles



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October 2012

Transpo

© 2012 Copyright Southwest Research Institute

SunGuide Integration

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October 2012

Transpo


SunGuide enhanced to
include environmental
data


Average emissions


Total emissions calculated
from traffic volume


Number of samples


Data aggregated by
roadway segments


Only requires a sample of
emissions data to
calculate overall
emissions impact

© 2012 Copyright Southwest Research Institute

Going Forward

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October 2012

Transpo

© 2012 Copyright Southwest Research Institute

Next Steps and Lessons Learned


Improve in
-
vehicle data collection


Enhanced algorithms accounting for
vehicle model and age


Vehicle classification


Shrink in
-
vehicle hardware profile


Connected Vehicles standards
need to be updated to explicitly
include emissions data elements


Use alternative wireless
communication short
-
term to
replace Connected Vehicles


Improve traffic management
system to use vehicle
classifications for calculating
total emissions



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October 2012

Transpo

Low Emissions
Zones
Alternative
Fuel Vehicles
Eco Signals
Eco Lanes
AERIS Concepts
Traveler Info
Integrated Corridor
Management
/
Traveler Information
© 2012 Copyright Southwest Research Institute

Applications for the Environment:
Real
-
time Information Synthesis


Eco
-
Signal
Operations


Low Emissions
Zones


Eco
-
Lanes


Eco
-
Integrated
Corridor
Management


Eco
-
Traveler
Information


Support
Alternative Fuel
Vehicle
Operations

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October 2012

Transpo


SunGuide Integration

Source: USDOT AERIS Program http://www.its.dot.gov/aeris/pdf/Draft_Transformative_Concepts.pdf

© 2012 Copyright Southwest Research Institute

Questions

20

October 2012

2012 Transpo

Jesus Martinez

Southwest Research Institute

jamartinez@swri.org

(305) 986
-
2596