Ecological Design Principles

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Nov 15, 2013 (3 years and 8 months ago)

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Ecological Design Principles
and Biomimicry

Defne Apul

Department of Civil Engineering

University of Toledo


Traditional Sustainable

Ecology

Biology

Economics

Humanities

Policy

Business

Chemistry

Math

Microbiology

Hydrology

Geology

Engineering design

Chemistry

Math

Microbiology

Hydrology

Geology

Engineering design

Linear thinking


Reductionist approach


Near future


Regional analysis

Non
-
linear thinking


Holistic approach (systems thinking)


Future generations


Global analysis

The problems that exist in the world today cannot

be solved by the level of thinking that created them. Einstein

Environmental Engineering


Engineering applications of ‘environmental
things’


Water


Air


Soil


Nutrients, metals, chemicals


Waste (not a sustainability word)


Disparity Between Ecology and
Engineering

“People (hydrologists, engineers, and water
manager) who design and manage the
water infrastructures are rarely taught about
management consequences to ecosystems,
nor are ecologists trained to think about the
critical role of water in human society.”


Ecological Design Principles

Ecological Design Themes

Water Infrastructure: Exercise

Re
-
Conceptualization of System

Economic Perspective of
Ecological Design Principles

Direct:

S6: Physically and economically accessible

Indirect environmental ideas:
Energy efficiency, elimination of
waste, design for commercial afterlife

Indirect social ideas:
Healthy, beautiful, socially just buildings

Ecological Design Principles

What is biomimicry?


From


bios, meaning “life” + mimesis, meaning
“to imitate”


Biomimicry = to imitate life

Biomimicry Definition


Term first made popular by Janine Benyus in
her book,
Biomimicry: Innovations Inspired
by Nature
(1997)


Viewing nature as role model/teacher


nature has already solved many of the
technological and sustainability problems
that we face today
-

learning
from

nature, not
about

nature


Imitate nature’s processes, not products

Airplane

Imitated not the bird (product)

but the air flow around the wings (process)

Learning from nature not about
nature

Nature as Teacher


When faced with a problem, ask the
question “What organism needs to solve
the same problem to survive….What
Would Nature Do?”

N

N

Nature as Teacher
(cont’d)


Inspiration
-

look to nature to transform
society


water


energy


materials


food


Invention
-

original processing starting with a
natural process that solves a similar problem


Information
-

life adds info in the form of
shape/structure

Us vs. “Them”


Us


Linear


Centralized


Individualistic


Independent


Inflexible


Singular





Them


Circular


Decentralized


Cooperative


Interdependent


Adaptive


Redundant

Our Results


Depleted natural resources


Habitat loss


Climate change


Endangered/extinct species


Persistent bioaccumulative toxins


Dependence on petroleum


Problems!



Their Results


Life creates conditions conducive to life


Energy only from sunlight


Materials synthesized at ambient
temperatures using local materials


No toxic pollution


only a few of all of chemically possible
structures are synthesized (humans use the
entire periodic table!)


No waste


No problem!

Biomimicry Principles

Nature…..

B1: Runs on sunlight

B2: Uses only the energy it needs

B3: Fits form to function

B4: Recycles everything

B5: Rewards co
-
operation

B6: Banks on diversity

B7: Demands local expertise

B8: Curbs excesses within

B9: Taps the power of limits


Food: 1cal

10cal

Water/wastewater

420kcal
per person per day

Information
-

life adds info in
the form of
shape/structure

Examples of fitting form into
function


Sticky Gecko Feet

The “tail” of Velcro….

Humpback Whales

Kingfishers

Bionic Car from Box fish

20 % less gas consumption

Termites
(No air conditioning…)

Shark skin swim suit


V
-
shaped ridges on shark skin

Shark skin Michael Phelps



Three types of biomimicking

1. Mimicking form: What’s the design?


Physical form can be inspired: velcro inspired
from burs

2. Mimicking process: How is it made?


-

blue mussel manufactured glue


-

orb weaver spider’s strong fiber

3. Mimicking ecosystems: How does it fit?


-
water infrastructure





Treatment Plants versus Wetlands


Maumee River Lucas
County WWTP

Olentangy River Wetland
Research Park

Free Water Surface Wetlands


Kadlec, R.H. and Knight, R.L, 2008, Treatment Wetlands, CRC Press


Kadlec, R.H. and Knight, R.L, 2008, Treatment Wetlands, CRC Press

Horizontal Subsurface Flow

Stranahan Arboretum Mesocosms


Stranahan Arboretum Lysimeters


Vertical Flow Wetlands


Kadlec, R.H. and Knight, R.L, 2008, Treatment Wetlands, CRC Press

Summary


We are facing increasing pressures:


Energy, Water, Materials, Food


Nature has already “figured out” how to
avoid these problems


Look to nature as a teacher/role model


Use ecological design principles to
inspire engineering projects

Acknowledgements



Slide #4
www.wisebread.com/hitching
-
a
-
ride
-
on
-
an
-
airplane


Slide #5
http://estrip.org/elmwood/users/matthew/images/1105/burr3857.jpg



http://www.kidsgardening.com/2005.kids.garden.news/may/burrs.jpg


Slide #6 Benyus, Janine. 1997.
Biomimicry: Innovations Inspired by Nature
.

HarperCollins Publishers, Inc. New York, NY, 320 pp.


Slide #8
http://www.marykayemusic.com/images/Illustrations/BigBadWolf.jpg


Slide #9 http://greenasathistle.files.wordpress.com/2007/03/forks.jpg


Slide #12http://www.stpatricksguild.com/prodimg/401530.JPG


Slide #14
http://www.leopardgeckoguide.com/wp
-
content/gallery/geckos/gecko
-

feet.jpg


Slide #15
http://earthfirst.com/wp
-
content/uploads/2008/03/whale
-
bump.jpg
,



http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/07/080707222315.htm



www.
animals.nationalgeographic.com


Slide#16
http://www.bioteams.com/images/nature_as_desig.jpg


Slide #17
http://www.dancewithshadows.com/auto/mercedes
-
benz
-
bionic
-
car
-


gallery.asp


Slide #18 http://www.inhabitat.com/2007/12/10/building
-
modelled
-
on
-
termites
-
eastgate
-
centre
-
in
-
zimbabwe/

Acknowledgements
(cont’d)


Slide #19
http://www.allposters.com/
-
sp/Seashell
-
on
-
Beach
-
Posters_i1100827_.htm


http://www.virginpacificwater.com/whole_pipe_op_800x786.jpg


Slide #20 UN Environmental Program


http://www.unep.org/Documents.Multilingual/Default.asp?DocumentID=535&ArticleI
D=5816&l=en


Slide #21
http://farm2.static.flickr.com/1107/1435241752_a20d75347f.jpg?v=0



http://www.aerosil.com/pub/NR/rdonlyres/65199EEB
-
DD68
-
422A
-
A27F
-

F91AF82BA85E/0/lotuseffect0005.jpg



Lotus Effect:http://biodsign.wordpress.com/2008/08/27/lotus
-
effect
-

efecto
-
lotus/


Slide #24
http://www.tc.umn.edu/~gambl007/geckos/gekko_gecko_mo2.jpg

http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/2008/04/biomimetics/tom
-
mueller

text/8