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kitlunchroomAI and Robotics

Nov 21, 2013 (3 years and 6 months ago)

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Part I



A Coded Text



Introduction





Our text is based on readings as found in the King James Bible; however, the Bible text has
been rendered in what we are calling the
Glossolalia Code

based on what is called “speak
-
ing in tongues” or glossolalia. What is glossolalia? It is the generally incomprehensible
speech of ecstatic religious believers and is often dismissed as incoherent hysterical ranting.
One Minute please! Just because you cannot understand something does n
ot mean it is
meaningless. We’ve all heard someone use the expression “That is all Greek on me!” when
they cannot understand what is being said. Well, suppose it actually was Greek. While they
might not understand there are millions of people who speak Gre
ek would know what was
being said. Similarly, Chinese seems impossibly complicated to many people, yet millions of
little children are mastering it even as we read this text.



In addition to the many recognized national languages there are numerous minor
ities
speaking distinct dialects and tribal languages as well as cultural groups and societies that
use various codes to keep their discussions from outsiders understanding. Archeologists
have decoded many ancient writings such as Egyptian hieroglyphics, M
esopotamian cune
-
iform and Minoan Linear B; however, Etruscan, Minoan Linear A and many other ancient
languages remain to be decoded. The Black Hand of Serbia, the Holy Vehm, the Bavarian
Illuminati, La Cosa Nostra, the Free Masons, political plotters and
those engaged in alc
-
hemy and magic have all used ciphers and codes to evade authorities and avoid having
their secrets revealed. Gangs often use coded messages in criminal or street slang. In
thieves cant (special speech) bung = targeted purse, foin = pic
kpocket, stale = victim and
stricking = the art of picking a pocket. British gangland mobspeak includes examples such
as gaff / crib = home, lifters = hands, do bird = go to prison, Uncle Bill = police, to top =
kill. Jonathon Green’s
Crooked Talk

reviews

“five hundred years of the language of
crime.” A few examples Green offers for words identifying squealers are budgie, chirper,
pigeon, singer, squawker and whistler. In Cockney Rhyming slang a word or expression is
used that rhymes with the intended word
, such as bread & honey = money, frog & toad =
road, dog & bone = telephone. Klezmer
-
loshn is Yiddish for “musician’s tongue” a secret
or “professional argot” that dates to the 15
th
century. Geshvin = quickly, shetel = village
and zikres = eyes in Klezmer.

Shelta is thought to date from the 13
th
century and is an
English
-
Irish cant related to the language of the Romany gypsies called Romani or Roma.
Dorahoag = twilight, greetchyath = sicknes and swurkin = melody in Shelta. In hip
-
hop 187
= murder (from the
California penal code), gravy = good, whip = car, jazin’ = lying, biter =
4


rapper who steals another’s lyrics and boffer / duck = ugly woman. American hobo cant
includes such words as accommodation car = caboose on a train, crumbs = lice, spear bis
-
cuits =
look for food in garbage cans and yegg = a professional thief. In the past flowers,
fans, stained glass, pictures all have been used to relay secret messages to those in the
know. You are all familiar with signed languages such as smoke signals, flags, Mor
se code,
sports signals, etc. A hobo code also had an elaborate sign language to identify “poor
people live here,” “Danger!”, “A fence lives here,” and “good people live here.”



We all use codes every day when we roll our eyes to a friend as reaction to another’s state
-
ment, kick someone’s shin under a table or make silent gestures behind someones back!
The Dial Code is accessible to all right on your phone keyboard. The number 2
= abc, 3 =
def, etc while 1 and 0 have no letters on the dial. To write the Dial Code let 1 stand for Q
and 0 for Z and then let each of the three letters at each number be represented by a slat
line. The 2 = A = /, B = | and C =
\
. Similarly, another exam
ple of a familiar cipher that
leaves most adults in the dark but is clear to teenage readers is telephone text messaging, it
is a code wherein ‘rotfl’ = rolling on the floor laughing, ‘tmi’ = to much information, ‘asl’ =
age, sex, location, and ‘tyl’ = tal
k to you later.



Therefore let us understand that what at first appears confusing or crazy might actually be
a code or cipher. Never fear, words in a text that has been scrambled to make it impossible
to understand can, with some effort and skills, be dec
oded and read.



Writing an uncoded message is called using plaintext, writing in code is called
steganography
. With a coded message you normally would not have any idea what the
plaintext related. Our coded text will be known in advance as a key is offere
d so you can
work out the message if you are truly stumped. Our text is a serious presentation drawn
from the King James texts in a version of glossolalia; we chose this version of the Bible as it
is based upon outstanding scholarship, and when read decode
d is a literary master piece in
Shakespearean period English.



Many people say it is impossible to get young people to read text. However, it might simply
be a matter of finding a motivating approach to traditional material. While not approved
by everyone

difficult reads such as J.R.R. Tolkien’s
The Hobbit
and
Lord of the Rings,

as
well as
J.K. Rowlings’
Harry Potter
books were enthusiastically read by millions of young
people. Certainly the young people interested in computers often invest countless hours

solving inane mysteries and slaying monsters and zombies. The Gospels rendered in
glossolalia code can therefore be viewed as simply a challenging game to crack the codes
(for there are many different variations of codes in our text) or the text can be us
ed as a se
-
rious study format and a teaching aid to motivate reading the Bible. We certainly hope few
believers would say it was wrong to read the Bible as a challenging exercise. I suspect many
first time Bible readers might be enlightened by discovering
what has been revealed in this
literary masterpiece. OK, our text in tongues is not just a meaningless jumble. The material
coded as glossolalia is presented as an intellectual challenge, a brain teaser or even a game,
if you will, to spark curiosity. Hope
fully it offers more meaning to computer users than fan
-
tasy games and provides an aid to teachers and even clergy seeking unique contemporary
motivational opportunities for study the Bible.

5




Codes and ciphers have played important roles in history from t
he beginning of picture
messages. Once actual writing was established and there were many literate people it be
-
came necessary to code plaintext. Until recently salacious portions of text translated into
English were often printed in French, Latin or Greek

so only educated people could savor
the naughty bits! A secret cipher was used by Julius Caesar to send messages from his dis
-
tant military operations to supporters in Rome; he wrote in Greek and then encoded the
Greek into what is called the Caesar Code
which will be explained later below. Other fam
-
ous codes include the Babington Code was used by conspirators plotting to kill Queen Eliz
-
abeth I of England, the Da Vinci Code employed by the artist so that his personal notes
would remain obscure to the cas
ual viewer and the code used by Samuel Pepys in his most
personal diary entries so they could not be read by his wife!



War and peace have been decided on the revelations of decoded messages as in the example
of the Zimmerman Telegram. As Sutherland and
Koltko
-
Rivera observed “deciphering of
the Zimmerman Telegram changed the course of history.” The story is related at length in
The Code Book

by Simon Singh; but, in brief, during WW I a telegram was sent by the
German Foreign Minister Arthur Zimmerman to
the German Embassy in Mexico using
German diplomatic code 0075. It was intercepted and decoded by the English who ma
-
naged to secretly pass on the contents to the United States. The telegram revealed German
plans to revise unrestricted submarine warfare. I
t also offered Mexico parts of the Ameri
-
can southwest if Mexico jointed Germany and attacked the United States if America en
-
tered WW I on the British side. When the British arranged to have the message revealed in
American newspapers it tipped the balanc
e making America join the Allies one month
later.



Secret writings and codes have long been employed by authors and playwrites. Edgar Allen
Poe used codes and ciphers in many of his stories such as the “Gold Bug” as well as in ar
-
ticles he wrote that app
eared in Philadelphia’s
Alexander’s Weekly Messenger.
Codes were
employed by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle in several of his Sherlock Holmes mysteries including

The Adventure of the Dancing Men.” The so
-
called “agony columns”
that were often men
-
tioned as a source of interest to Holmes in many stories also provided titillating examples of
code in real life. Rudyard Kipling wrote “The First Letter” in his book for children:
Just
So Stories

that dealt with code. Dorothy L. Sayers has her fictional d
etective Lord Peter
Whimsey solve what is known as a Platfair cipher in her mystery story
Have His Carcase
.
Jules Verne used ci
phers as a plot element in
Mathew Sandorff

and the deciphering of a
runic code prompts the first steps in Verne’s
Journey to the

Center of the Earth.
In
Shakespeare’s
Hamlet

a simple message in clear serves as a fatally unreadable code to the
illiterate message bearers. Such a message instructing the recipient to murder the
messenger remains named a “bellonophonic” message after th
e message in the
Iliad

by
Homer instructing the recipient to kill the bearer who was named Bellonophon; however, it
is not known if Homer’s mes
sage was in plain and Bellonophon was illiterate or if the
message was in cipher or code.



One of the earliest

know ciphers for military purposes was used by the Spartans in 7
th
cen
-
tury BC who employed a
scytale

or
bathon

and wrapped it with a strip of paper or leather
6


as a base to write a message. Sent unwrapped the strip of letters could only be read when
the m
essage was re
-
wrapped around an identically thick rod. In the 2
nd
century BC the
Greek historian Polybius devised a system that was used for centuries. He devised a
checker board grid with the letters identified by the number place where it appears. In thi
s
code an “A” is ciphered as “1”, a “B” as “2” etc. One of the most famous ciphers in history
is the substitution code used by Julius Caesar noted above. The use of codes and ciphers
has a long history in diplomacy.



After the fall of Rome we know little

of codes and ciphers used in the West but they appar
-
ently were continued to be employed by the Byzantines and later by the Arabs. Fred B.
Wrixon notes in
Codes Cipers & other Cryptic & Clandestine Communications
that the
word cipher is derived from the A
rab
sifr
, meaning “nothing.” In the 7
th
century AD during
the period of the Abbasid caliphate books were written in Arabic on cryptanalysis, that is
breaking codes and ciphers. The 9
th
century Arab writer Abu Yusuf Ya’qubibn Is
-
haqibn
as
-
Sabbahibn ‘omranib
n Ismail al
-
Kindi wrote books on various subjects including “
A
Manuscript on Deciphering Cryptographic Messages”

that explained decoding by noting the
frequency of letters or symbols in a message. It is a method which remains fundamental to
breaking coded
material. In the 10
th
century the administrative manual
Adad al
-
Kutab

or
“The Secretaries’ Manual” devoted sections to cryptography. The Chinese used military
codes based on poems and a single word might stand for a brief message; even the Indian
Kama Sutr
a

includes cryptography especially for women.



Arab theologians began intensive study of the
Hadith
which consists of the Prophet’s daily
utterances, in search of the exact words spoken by Mohammed. These studies led on to
breakthroughs in cryptanalysis. The Old Testament was discovered to have deliberate and
obvious examples of coded material employing
atbash

a traditional Hebrew substitution
cipher. Jewish scholars in the 13
nd
Century AD devised the Kabbalah in efforts to “decode”
Torah using numerical equivalents of Hebrew letters to detect secret passages in the Bible.
Kabbalah is still studied today
by many people interested in mysterious codes and secret
messages they believe are contained in the Bible. (See:
Kabbalah For Dummies

by Arthur
Kurweil.).



In the late Middle Ages monks began to focus of secret writings and messages. These codes
were emp
loyed by the Church for diplomatic correspondence. In the 14
th
century the au
-
thor
-
diplomat Geoffrey Chaucer wrote his
Treatise on the Asthonlabe

and “The
Equathonrie of the Planetis” which dealt with encryption. By the 15
th

century many West
-
ern nations e
mployed large numbers of coders and decoders and established “Black
Chambers” to handle diplomatic correspondence. Louis XIII hired Antoine Rosignol as
France’s first full
-
time cryptologist. The most famous of these Black Chambers was the
Austrian Geheime
Kabinets
-
Kanzlei established by Empress Maria Theresa. Remaining
repositories such as the Venetian and Vatican archives contain thousands of pages of coded
secret documents gathered over the centuries.



What exactly is meant by a cipher or a code? A ciphe
r involves the replacement of a single
letter by another letter or sign. Ciphers can be as basic as the Caesar Code. In a version of
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the Caesar Cipher the alphabet is shifted two letters to the right: a = c, b = d, c = e. In
Adrian Gilbert’s
Spy Files Code
s and Ciphers
the example given is



THREE ENEMY MISSLES FIRED



Read in code as:

VJTGGGPGOAOKUUKGUHKTGF



Using the Caesar Cipher you can easily decode it whereas he says “It is complete nonsense
to anyone but you!”



A letter substitution cryptogram from
Cracking Codes & Crypthongrahams for Dummies

follows:





Y EQTJCS XJ Y WYT FVC

UTCFJ WCSQ OVYT


VQ OVXTUJ LCG CGMVO

OC. PYGSQTEQ N DQOQS



Hint:E = C

A CENSOR IS A MAN

WHO KNOWS MORE THAN

HE THINKS YOU OUGHT

TO KNOW



The Caesar Cipher is easy to break as it contains letters that appear regularly in every lan
-
gauge

text. (We will stay with decoding English language messages alone, obviously
another language will call for specific variations unique to that tongue. E is also the most
frequent letter in German, French, Italian and Spanish; but, for example, in Russian
O is
the most frequently used letter. In Arabic the letters a and l are the most common because
of the de
finite article al
-
, but the letter j appears only a tenth as frequently. In Hawaiian
there is only a twelve letter alphabet. It is divided equally bet
ween vowels and consonants;
the pre
ponderance of vowels over consonants therefore is enormous.) In English the letter
E is the most common letter followed by T,N,O,R,I,A, and S. Paul Lunde in
The book of
CODES Understanding the World of Hidden Messages
of
fers a slightly different letter
frequency: E,T,A,O and I. He also states E is always the most frequent but then lists
N,S,H,R and D as always in the top ten frequency of letters in English.



The frequency of all letters as used in English are as follows
:



E T A O I N S H R D L U C M W F Y G P B V K X J Q Z.



Any letter can represent another letter however and so if when decoding the letter H ap
-
peared most frequently it probably stands for E. Therefore say the letter G appeared most
8


frequently when you

counted the letters in a message. That would suggest G stood for E.
Once you have found E, the rest becomes much easier to decipher.



Some other clues include: the letter H often occurs before and only rarely after, E as in
THE, THEN, THERE, THEY. Once
E is determined it is posibleto identify H. It is common
practice to eliminate double letters such as S, D, T, L, M and E as they are obvious clues.
When they are not eliminated they are called tooth letters such as in ASSAY, DEEDS,
TEETH, etc. Similarly c
ommon parings of letters in English are also to be looked for and
eliminated such as TH, EA, OF, TH, ON, IN, IT, IS as in many cases the pairs may form a
complete word. Sutherland and Koltko
-
Rivera point out that the twelve most common let
-
ters for the beg
inning of words in English are T A I O T H O N W C M B P H D and the
twelve most common ending letters in English are E S T N R D Y O L A F G. Q is always
followed by U and vowels are most often followed by N as in AN, EN, IN, ON, and UN. The
most frequent
ly found three
-
letter words in English are AND and THE and the four
-
letter
word most common in English is THAT and the most used five=
-
letter words are THERE,
WHERE, or THESE. However, you might also encounter ODD, ADD, INN, EGG or per
-
haps NIECE, OMAHA, N
OSES or IRENE. Gardiner points to pattern word lists to assist
in identifying words such as Fletcher Pratt:
Secret and Urgent
and Jack Levine’s
A List of
Words Containing No Repeated Letters.

There is also a dictionary listing words spelled
backwards: A.F.
Brown:
Normal and Reverse English Word List

in eight volumes!



Transposition ciphers are simple but effective. An example of a transpositional cipher is
presented by Paul Lunde that works by dividing a message such as:



Careful you are being followed



In all codes you eliminate grammatical signs such as periods and question marks and capi
-
tal letters as well as by removing the spaces between words. In a transposition code you
then divide the sentence into two separate lines as follows



Carefulyouarebei
ngfollowed

c
-
r
-
f
-
l
-
o
-
a
-
e
-
e
-
n
-
f
-
l
-
o
-
e


-
a
-
e
-
u
-
y
-
u
-
r
-
b
-
i
-
g
-
o
-
l
-
w
-
d



The second line can be hooked to the end of the first and then replaced when decoded later.



To make the substitution cipher more difficult you can reverse the alphabet:



A B C D E F G H

I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

Z Y X W V U T S R Q P O N M L K J I H G F E D C B A



Each letter stands for the letter above or below. Martin Gardiner used the message:



MYR
TLE HAS BIG FEET



which was written:

9




NBIG OVSZ HYRT UVVG



You can also
use symbols to replace letters such as A = *, I = +,E = ^ either for an entire
alphabet or for a few letters then create a simple cipher text message; however, of course,
the simpler the cipher the easier it is to break!



A slightly more difficult code c
an be created in what is called a “rail fence” of three or
more lines of letters. An example of a three
-
rail fence cipher shown in
Codes, Ciphers and
Secret Writing

by Martin Gardner reads like this:



M M N T


E T E O I H Q Z


E T G X



The Q, X and Z are “nulls” to fill out space. Another three
-
rail fence code is found in Su
-
therland and Koltko
-
Rivera, as follows:



GLNOA CHMHY METE DNTED AHAHTES ALONS ISNM OREOR INTHON



Which decoded quotes Henry Stimson’s observation when he ended
the United States de
-
coding office in 1929:



Gentlemen do not read each other’s mail



Wow! Was he wrong!



A code involves replacing whole words in a clear text with jumbled letters, numbers or
signs and symbols. In a simple substitution code the name “M
ary” therefore might be ren
-
dered as dulwor +*</ and the message is known only to the sender and receiver who must
work with a codebook as a key. There are also book codes which refer two people to the
same book and the code message cites chapters and line
s and words by place numbers to
identify individual words. A coded message might read
-
52
-
12
-
5
-

meaning page 52, line 12
and word 5; you cannot translate the code without knowing and using the same book.



There have been some very simple “codes” that hav
e proven impossible to break! English
officers spoke to each other in Latin during the Boer War as they had all learned Latin in
boarding schools and Latin was unknown to the Boer farmers. Even in the fog of war and
turmoil of combat. such spoken messages
are fast, simple and clear. Similarly, during WW
II the Native
-
American language of Navaho was employed by the US in the Pacific. Navaho
is an unwritten language without alphabet, signs or symbols and the Navaho radiomen
used invented words for such non
-
Na
vaho terms such as iron
-
fish = submarine, whale =
battleship, hummingbird = fighter aircraft and eggs = bombs. The Japanese were never
able to decipher the messages spoken by the Navaho “Windtalkers.”



10


One
-
time pads are another basic alphabet substitutio
n code system. It is explained at
length by Adrian Gilbert and recapped here in brief: Two people have a book with iden
-
tical printed series of numbers. Each page in a code book is used once and then destroyed
(sometimes such books were even printed on fla
sh paper to burn fast and leave no ash).You
write out the alphabet with A = 01, B = 02, etc. to Z = 26. Then create a message using your
alphabet substitution cipher.



I HAVE MADE A CODE



Put the sentence in cipher numbers and run the numbers together:



0908012205130104050103150405



Divide the long number into groups of four numbers:



0908 0122 0513 0104 0501 0315 0405



You begin with a line of pad numbers:



6523 1427 2187 3624 1321 7342 1165 4129



Then you list your message numbers beginning with f
our 0s:



0000 0908 0122 0513 0104 0501 0315 0405














Add the two lists of numbers:



6523 2335 2309 4137 1425 7842 1480 4534



These are your final numbers that make your one
-
time pad code numbers. To decipher the
code you take away the pad
numbers from the one
-
time pad code and you have:



Pad numbers: 6523 2335 2309 4137 1425 7842 1480 4534



One
-
time

pad code: 6523 1427 2187 3624 1321 7342 1165 4129


-------------------------------------------------------



0000 0908 0122 0513 0104 0501 0315 0405



The first 0000 do not count. The next number group represent0908 = 09 =I 08 = H; 0122 =
01 = A 22 = V; etc. as in the message: I HAVE MADE A CODE.



It is essential to use the pad number sets only once or

you open a door to an unbreakable
system. Steven Pincock in
Codebreaker

cites the example of a Russian one
-
time pad with
duplicate numbers that fell into Allied hands during WW II. It enabled Arlington Hall to
crack KGB messages. From some 3,000 decrypts
made the United States learned the Rus
-
11


sian methods of espionage and counter espionage. The decodings eventually lead to the ar
-
rest of Julius and Ethal Rosenberg who were executed for giving the Russians US atomic
secrets that had been passed to them by h
er brother David Greenglass who worked at the
Los Alamos laboratory.





Today codes are extremely complex and demand advanced mathematics, special skills and
machines designed specifically to decode.Possibly the earliest known code “machine” is the
Phais
tos Disk discovered on Crete and dating to the Minoan period centuries before the
Trojan War. The disk is a small terracotta plate about six inches across by ½ inch thick. It
has a total of 241 mysterious hieroglyphic stamps spiraling from the outer edge t
o the cen
-
ter. There are no other surviving examples of the same type symbols being used and there
-
fore the would
-
be deciphers do not have enough material to work with to decide upon the
disks actual purpose. In the 15
th
century Leon Baptista invented a co
ding machine using
cipher discs. Cipher discs were used during the America Civil War on both sides and such
discs became so common they were even used in the 1930s in a promotional scheme by the
Captain Midnight radio program that sent listeners a Code
-
O
-
G
raph to decipher special
messages broadcast to disc holders. The simple disc systems had been replaced by govern
-
ment coding departments about 1900 with rotor systems that used polyalphabetic substitu
-
tion, each letter was substituted every time the wheel
turned to a different letter. An “E”
would be replaced by a “Y” and next by say a “G” etc.



By WW II complex machines were necessary to handle very sophisticated codes. In 1940
the American cryptanalyst Agnes Driscoll broke the Japanese naval code we cal
led JN25.
After the Japanese supply ship Maru code was broken the United States submarines were
able to sink 8.5 million tons of cargo shipping. The Japanese used a code machine called 97
-
shiki oobunInji
-
kior the Alphabetical Typewriter that was called “Pu
rple” by decoders in
the United States. Purple used Latin characters instead of Japanese katakana characters;
American decoders managed to crack Purple in June 1941just before WW II. Editors of
The Chicago Tribune

hated President Franklin D. Roosevelt so m
uch they actually pub
-
lished that we’d broken the Japanese codes! Fortunately the Japanese didn’t believe their
codes could be broken and continued to use it throughout WW II. On Saturday December
6, 1941 the America specialist in Japanese language and cul
ture Dorothy Edgers noted pe
-
culiarities in the Japanese PA
-
K2 communications concerning signal lights in Pearl Harbor
sent by Japanese the consul Nagao Kita in Hawaii to Tokyo. However there was never a
‘smoking gun’ or specific Japanese message reading:
“Attack Pearl Harbor” to decode and
the clock ran out for American decoders before the Japanese struck. The decrypts made
during the war enabled the United States to achieve advanced warning of many Japanese
plans. Decodes played a major role in defeating
the Japanese at the Battle of the Coral Sea
on May 7, 1942 and most spectacularly in achieving the key naval victory of Midway June
3
rd

to 6
th

1942. At Midway the Japanese Imperial Navy suffered a stunning defeat and the
critical loss of four carriers, 322

aircraft and 2,500 highly trained personnel which proved
to be a setback from which they were never able to recover.



The German navy had a skilled code department called the Beobachtungs
-
Dienst. In 1940
B
-
Dienst broke British codes enabling Germany to
successfully invade Norway. In addition
12


they broke many of the British merchant vessels’ codes so that they were sinking one ship
every 16 hours. In 1943 Germany cracked the British merchant shipping codes enabling
the U
-
boats to unleash devastating assaul
ts on the Allied marine supply lines and war ef
-
fort. From March 16 to March 19 the Germans sank 21 vessels totaling 141,000 tons. The
menace was only resolved when American and British cryptanalysts deciphered the Ger
-
man Hydra and Triton codes allowing t
he Allies to interdict the wolf pack attacks on ship
-
ping.



The Germans were clever at inventing codes but in both WW I and WW II the French and
British were cleverer and broke the principal German codes. Those intelligence decrypts
contributed significan
tly toward the Allied victories. Late in WW I the Germans used their
ADFGVX cipher introduced on March 5, 1918; the German cipher was broken by a
French cryptanalyst named Georges Paithein by that June. It was only after WW I the
Germans learned their code
s had been deciphered. They adopted a new machine called
Enigma that was originally invented by Arthur Scherbius for commercial transactions. It
was modified by the German military and used during WW II. Beginning in 1931 a
German traitor named Hans
-
Thilo
Schmidt was selling information to the French
concerning the Enigma machine codes. The French passed on this data to the Poles who
had been working decoding German ciphers beginning in the 1920s. The Polish military
did basic research on Enigma beginning i
n 1932 and Marian Rejewski, Jerzy Rozycki and
Henryk Zygalskihad made major strides toward breaking the codes. In 1939 they passed
their information on to the British at the start of WW II. Enigma was finally broken by
English mathematician Alan Turing who

built a decoding machine called Colossus; it was
specifically designed to break the Ger
man ciphers, which when decrypted was known to
the Allies as ULTRA. During WW II over 9,000 people worked at Bletchley Park north of
London to decipher German coded me
ssages and again the German’s never realized that
their codes had been broken. So val
uable were the decoded messages that Churchill
referred to the decoders as the geese that laid golden eggs and never cackled.



Two introductory books on codes are Gary
Blackwood’s
Mysterious Messages

and Martin
Gardiner’s
Codes, Ciphers and Secret Writing
. Fred B. Wrixon’s encyclopedic tome
Codes
Ciphers & Other Cryptic & Clandestine Communications

is a very complete and dense
work on the subject and Chey Cobb’s
Cryptology for Dummies

offers directions for secu
-
rity methods you can use today.



Today, Steven Pincock writes, cryptography moves into the area of quantum physics and
chaos theory, and quantum cryptology is thought of as being uncrackable. He asks: “Wil
l it
mean the end of codebreakers?” However, people have asked similar questions in the past
and we have gone on to entirely new worlds of experience. Sutherland and Koltko
-
Rivera
advise that if you are “interested in cryptography . . . work hard at those
math courses!”





We are using variations on relatively simple substitution codes and while we employ many
of the deceptive techniques described above you will not need a machine to break the Glos
-
solalia Code. Many serious readers will be able to crack the code and make their own
translation from the jumbled text; however, when the going gets tough the clear text is at
13


hand in the King James Bible as our reader’s codebook. Those familiar with the N
ew Tes
-
tament might immediately guess which book of the New Testament we have chosen first to
render in tongues. The most “cheating” you can do to decipher the Glossolalia Code is to
refer to the Bible text. You simply cannot lose out trying your hand at b
reaking our glos
-
solalia codes!























Pd+N+r+h>p*/j/bO>*jpF/djpd+V+r*j+




HIEQIQRDMGCHCMFQBGBAIEGBMHIGAIFCRFDIQGHHIEIGKHIEBIQHGHHIEIGBBQEI
DHMBMIGHFBHIGAIKGBMBICEMRRACKQHIEDDBDHRIQBQHMDHRBGFHGMGQRGMBRIGB
DHFQRGHHIEIGBBQEIDHMFCIHHICBDEQEQACERCMHIHCERCMFCRDHRCMHIMQBMGKC
HRCMFQBGBAIEGBMDHRCMDRRMIGHFBMIDMIQBDHBRQBQRGBIQMIDMERKRQMIDHRHI
RMIDMIRKEHIHCERBCMMIGBDECDIQARDHRCQDMICBQMIGHFBHIGAIDEQHEGMQHHIE
QGHMCEHIMGKQGBDMIDHRFCIHHIEHIBQIQHAIGEAIQBHIGAIDEQGHDBHAFEDAQBQG
HHIERCGDHRDRKAQMECKIGKHIGAIGBDHRHIGAIHDBDHRHIGAIGBHIEACKQDHRMECK
HIBQIQHBDGEGMBHIGAIDEQBQMCEQIGBMIECHQDHRMECKFQBGBAIEGBMHICGBHIMD
GMIMGRHGMHQBDHRHIMGEBMBQFCMQHCMHIRRKRDHRHIDEGHAQCMHICGHFBCMHIRKE
MIGHHIEIGKMIDMRCIQRGBDHRHDBIQRGBECKCGEBGHBGHIGBCHHBRCRDHRIDMIKDR
QGBCGHFBDHRDEGQBMBHHIEFCRDHRIGBMDHIEHIEIGKBQFRCERDHRRCKGHGCHMCEQ
IQEDHRQIQEDKQHBQICRRIQACKQMIHGMIARCGRBDHRQIQERQRQBIDRRBQIGKDHR

H
IRDRCHIEHIGAIDGQEAQRIGKDHRDRRCGHREQRBCMHIRKEMIBIDRRHDGRBQADGBQC
MIGKQIQHCHIEDKQHGDKDRDIDDHRCKQFDHIQFGHHGHFDHRHIQHRGHFBDGMIHIRCER
HIGAIGBDHRHIGAIHDBDHRHIGAIGBHIEACKQHIDRKGFIMRGFCIHHICDRCHIEDKRCG
EBECHIEDHRACKDDHGCHGHMEGBGRDMGCHDHRGHHICGHFRCKDHRDDMGQHAQCMFQBGB
A
IEGBMHDBGHHIGBRQMIDMGBADRRQRDDMKCBMCEHIHCERCMFCRDHRMCEHIMQBMGKC
HRCMFQBGBAIEGBMGHDBGHHIBDGEGMCHHIRCER
'
BRDRDHRIRKERBQIGHRKQDFERKM
ICGAQDBCMDMEGKDQMBDRGHFGDKDRDIDDHRCKQFDHIMGEBMDHRHIRDBMDHRHIDMMI
CGBQBMHEGMQGHDBCCDHRBQHRGMGHHIEHIBQIQHAIGEAIQBHIGAIDEQGHDBHAGHHI
E
QDIQBGBDHRGHHIEBKREHDDHRGHHIEDQEFDKCBDHRGHHIEMIRDMGEDDHRGHHIEBD
ERGBDHRGHHIEDIGRDRQRDIHADHRGHHIERDCRGARKDHRGMGEHQRHIEBQHIICGAQMI
DMBDDCQHGMIKQDHRBQGHFMGEHQRGBDHBQIQHFCRRQHADHRRQBMGACBDHRGHHIKGR
BMCMHIBQIQHADHRRQBMGACBCHQRGCQGHHIEHICHIEHCMKDHARCHIRHGMIDFDEKQH
M
RCHHHIEHIMCMDHRFGEMDBCGMHIDDDBHGMIDFCRRQHFGERRQIGBIRKRDHRIGBIDG
EBHQEQHIGMQRGCQHCRDBHIGMQDBBHCHDHRIGBQRQBHQEQDBDMRDKQCMMGEQDHRIG
14


BMQMRGCQGHHIEMGHQBEDBDBGMHIRBGEHQRGHDMGEHDAQDHRIGBICGAQDBHICHIEG
HRCMKDHRHDMQEBDHRIQIDRGHIGBEGFIMIDHRBQIQHBMDEBDHRCGMCMIGBKCGMIHQ
H
MDBIDEDMHCQRFQRBHCERDHRIGBACGHMQHDHAQHDBDBHIBGHBIGHQMIGHIGBBMEQ
HFMIDHRHIQHGBDHIGKGMQRRDMIGBMQMDBRRKRDHRIQRDGRIGBEGFIMIDHRGDCHKQ
BDRGHFGHHIEKQMRKEHCMGDKHIMGEBMDHRHIRDBMGDKIQMIDMRGIQMIDHRHDBRRKR
DHRBQICRRGDKDRGIQMCEQIQEKCEQDKQHDHRIDIQHICQRBCMIQRRDHRCMRRKMIHEG



MQHIMIGHFBHIGAIMICGIDBMBQHDHRHIMIGHFBHIGAIDEQDHRHIMIGHFBHIGAIBID
RRBQIQERKMMQEHIKRBMQERCMHIBQIQHBMDEBHIGAIMICGBDHQBMGHKREGFIMIDHR
DHRHIBQIQHFCRRQHADHRRQBMGACBHIBQIQHBMDEBDEQHIDHFQRBCMHIBQIQHAIGE
AIQBDHRHIBQIQHADHRRQBMGACBHIGAIMICGBDHQBMDEQHIBQIQHAIGEAIQBGHH
IE
HIDHFQRCMHIAIGEAICMQDIQBGBHEGMQHIBQMIGHFBBDGMIIQMIDMICRRQMIHIBQI
QHBMDEBGHIGBEGFIMIDHRHICHDRCQMIGHHIKGRBMCMHIBQIQHFCRRQHADHRRQBMG
ACBGCHCHMIRHCECBDHRMIRRDBCGEDHRMIRDDMGQHAQDHRICHMICGADHBMHCMBRKE
HIKHIGAIDEQQIGRDHRMICGIDBMMEGQRHIKHIGAIBDRHIRDEQDDCBMRQBDHRDEQ
HC
MDHRIDBMMCGHRHIKRHAEBDHRIDBMBCEHQDHRIDBMDDMGQHAQDHRMCEKRHDKQ
'
BBD
CQIDBMRDBCGEQRDHRIDBMHCMMDGHMQRHQIQEHIRQBGIDIQCHIEKQHIDMDFDGHBMH
IBQADGBQMICGIDBMRQMMMIRMGEBMRCIQEQKQKBQEHIEQMCEQMECKHIQHAQMICGDE
MMDRRQHDHREQDQHMDHRRCHIMGEBMHCECBCEQRBQGHGRRACKQGHHIEHINGGACRR
DH
RHGRREQKCIQMIRADHRRQBMGACCGMCMIGBDRDAQQQAQDMMICGEQDQHMBGMMIGBMIC
GIDBMMIDMMICGIDMQBMHIRQRBCMHIHGACRDGMDHQBHIGAIGDRCHIEIDMQIQMIDMI
DMIDHRKERQMIGKIRKEHIDMHIBDGEGMBDGMIGHHIEHIAIGEAIQBHIEIGKMIDMCIQE
ACKQMIHGRRGFGIQHIERKMCMHIMEQCMRGMQHIGAIGBGHHIKGRBMCMHIDDEDRGBQ
CM
FCRDHRGHHIEHIDHFQRCMHIAIGEAIGHBKREHDHEGMQHIBQMIGHFBBDGMIHIMGEBMD
HRHIRDBMHIGAIHDBRRKRDHRGBDRGIQGCHCHMIRHCECBDHRMEGBGRDMGCHDHRDCIQ
EMR
(
BGMMICGDEMEGAI
)
DHRGCHCHHIBRDBDIQKRCMHIKHIGAIBDRHIRDEQFQHBDHR
DEQHCMBGMDEQHIBRHDFCFGQCMBDMDHMRKEHCHQCMMICBQMIGHFBHIGAIMICGBI
DR
MBGMMQEBQICRRHIRQIGRBIDRRADBMCHIEKQCMRCGGHHIEDEGCHIEHMIDMRQKDRBQ
MEGQRDHRRQBIDRRIDIQMEGBGRDMGCHMQHRDRBBQMICGMDGMIMGRGHHIERRKMIDHR
GHGRRFGIQHIDAECHHCMRGMQIQMIDMIDMIDHRKERQMIGKIRKEHIDMHIBDGEGMBDGM
IGHHIEHIAIGEAIQBIQMIDMCIQEACKQMIBIDRRHCMBQIGEMCMHIBQACHRRRKMID
HR
HIEHIDHFQRCMHIAIGEAIGHDQEFDKCBHEGMQHIBQMIGHFBBDGMIIQHIGAIIDMIHIB
IDEDBHCERHGMIMHCQRFQBGCHCHMIRHCECBDHRHIQEQMICGRHQRRQBMQIQHHIQEQB
DMDH
'
BBRKMGBDHRMICGICRRQBMMDBMKRHDKQDHRIDBMHCMRQHGQRKRMDGMIQIQHG
HMICBQRDRBHIQEQGHDHMGDDBHDBKRMDGMIMGRKDEMREHICHDBBRDGHDKCHFRCG
HI
QEQBDMDHRHQRRQMIBGMGIDIQDMQHMIGHFBDFDGHBMHIBQADGBQMICGIDBMHIEQHI
KMIDMICRRHIRCAMEGHQCMBDRDDKHICMDGFIMBDRDAHIEADBMDBMGKBRGHFBRCACB
QMCEQHIAIGRREQHCMGBEDQRHIERKMMIGHFBBDAEGMGAQRGHHIEGRCRBDHRHIEACK
KGMMCEHGADMGCHCHIEIDBMMICGDRCHIEHIKMIDMICRRHIRCAMEGHQCMHIHGACR
DG
MDHQBHIGAIMIGHFGIDMQEQDQHMCEQRBQGHGRRACKQGHHIEHINGGACRRDHRHGRRMG
FIMDFDGHBMHIKHGMIHIBHCERCMKRKCGMIIQMIDMIDMIDHRKERQMIGKIRKEHIDMHI
BDGEGMBDGMIGHHIEHIAIGEAIQBHIEIGKMIDMCIQEACKQMIHGRRGFGIQHIERKMCMH
IIGRQHKDHHDDHRHGRRFGIQIGKDHIGMQBHIEHQDHRGHHIBHIEHQDHQHHDKQHEGM
QH
HIGAIHCKDHCHCHQMIBDIGHFIQMIDMEQAQGIQMIGMDHRGHHIEHIDHFQRCMHIAIGEA
IGHMIRDMGEDHEGMQHIBQMIGHFBBDGMIHICHIEHCMFCRHICIDMIIGBQRQBRGCQGHH
IEDMRDKQCMMGEQDHRIGBMQMDEQRGCQMGHQBEDBGCHCHMIRHCECBDHRAIDEGMRDHR

15





BQEIGAQDHRMDGMIDHRMIRDDMGQHAQDHRMIRHCECBDHRHIRDBMHIEBQKCEQMIDHHI
MGEBMHCMHGMIBMDHRGHFGIDIQDMQHMIGHFBDFDGHBMHIBQADGBQMICGBGMMQEQBM
MIDMHCKDHFQGQBQRHIGAIADRRQMIIQEBQRMDDECDIQMQBHIEMRKAIDHRHIEBQRGA
QKRBQEIDHMBHIEACKKGMMCEHGADMGCHDHRHIERKMMIGHFBBDAEGMGAQRGHHIEGRC
RBDHRGFDIQIQEBDDAQHIEEQDQHMCMIQEMCEHGADMGCHDHRBIQEQDQHMQRHCMBQIC
RRGHGRRADBMIQEGHHIEDBQRDHRHIKMIDMACKKGMDRGRMQERHGMIIQEGHHIEFERKM
MEGBGRDMGCHQQAQDMHIREQDQHMCMHIGERQRBDHRGHGRRCGRRIQEAIGRREQHHGMIR
RKMIDHRDRRHIAIGEAIQBBIDRRCHCHMIDMGDKIQHIGAIBRKEAIQMIHIEQGHBDHRIR
KEMBDHRGHGRRFGIQGHHIEQIQERCHQCMRCGDAACERGHFHIERCGEHCECBBGMGHHIER
CGGBDRDHRGHHIEHIEQBMGHMIRDMGEDDBKDHRDBIDIQHCMMIGBRCAMEGHQDHRHIGA
IIDIQHCMCHCHHHIRQDMIBCMBDMDHDBHIRBDRKCGHGRRDGMGDCHRCGHCHQCHIEBGE
RQHBGMMIDMHIGAIRQIDIQDRERKRRICRRMDBMMGRRGACKQDHRIQMIDMCIQEACKQMI
DHRCQDQMIKRHCECBGHHIEHIQHRHIEIGKHGRRGFGIQDCHQECIQEHIHDMGCHBDHRIQ
BIDRREGRQHIKHGMIDECRCMGECHDBHIIQBQRBCMDDCMQEBIDRRHIRBQBECCQHHIEB
IGIQEBQIQHDBGEQAQGIQRCMKRMDHIEDHRGHGRRFGIQIGKHIKCEHGHFBMDEIQMIDM
IDMIDHRKERQMIGKIRKEHIDMHIBDGEGMBDGMIGHHIEHIAIGEAIQBDHRGHHIEHIDHF
QRCMHIAIGEAIGHBDERGBHEGMQHIBQMIGHFBBDGMIIQMIDMIDMIHIBQIQHBDGEGMB
CMFCRDHRHIBQIQHBMDEBGCHCHMIRHCECBMIDMMICGIDBMDHDKQMIDMMICGRGIQBM
DHRDEMRRKRBQHDMAIMGRDHRBMEQHFHIHHIMIGHFBHIGAIEQKDGHMIDMDEQERKRRH
IERGQMCEGIDIQHCMMCGHRMIRHCECBDQEMQAMBQMCEQFCREQKQKBQEHIEQMCEQICH
MICGIDBMEQAQGIQRDHRIRKERDHRICRRMDBMDHREQDQHMGMHIEQMCEQMICGBIDRMH
CMHDMAIGHGRRACKQCHHIDBDMIGQMDHRMICGBIDRMHCMCHCHHIDMICGEGHGRRACKQ
GDCHHIMICGIDBMDMQHHDKQBQIQHGHBDERGBHIGAIIDIQHCMRQMGRQRHIGEFDEKQH
MBDHRHIRBIDRRHDRCHGMIKQGHHIGMQMCEHIRDEQHCEMIRIQMIDMCIQEACKQMIHIB
DKQBIDRRBQARCHIRGHHIGMQEDGKQHMDHRGHGRRHCMBRCMCGMIGBHDKQCGMCMHIBC
CCMRGMQBGMGHGRRACHMQBIGBHDKQBQMCEQKRMDHIEDHRBQMCEQIGBDHFQRBIQMID
MIDMIDHRKERQMIGKIRKEHIDMHIBDGEGMBDGMIGHHIEHIAIGEAIQBDHRHIEHIDHFQ
RCMHIAIGEAIGHDIGRDRQRDIHAHEGMQHIBQMIGHFBBDGMIIQMIDMGBICRRIQMIDMG
BMEGQIQMIDMIDMIHICQRCMRDIGRIQMIDMCDQHQMIDHRHCKDHBIGMQMIDHRBIGMQM
IDHRHCKDHCDQHQMIGCHCHMIRHCECBBQICRRGIDIQBQMBQMCEQHIDHCDQHRCEDHRH
CKDHADHBIGMGMMCEMICGIDBMDRGMRQBMEQHFMIDHRIDBMCQDMKRHCERDHRIDBMHC
MRQHGQRKRHDKQBQICRRGHGRRKDCQHIKCMHIBRHDFCFGQCMBDMDHHIGAIBDRHIRDE
QFQHBDHRDEQHCMBGMRCRGQBQICRRGHGRRKDCQHIKHIEACKQDHRHCEBIGDBQMCEQM
IRMQMDHRHIECHCHMIDMGIDIQRCIQRHIBQADGBQMICGIDBMCQDMHIHCERCMKRDDMG
QHAQGDRCHIEHGRRCQDHIMECKHIICGECMMQKDMDMGCHHIGAIBIDRRACKQGDCHDRRH
IHCERRHIEMERHIKMIDMRHQRRGDCHHIRKEMIBQICRRGACKQNGGACRRICRRMIDMMDB
MHIGAIMICGIDBMMIDMHCKDHMDCQMIRAECHHIGKMIDMCIQEACKQMIHGRRGKDCQDDG
RRDEGHHIMQKDRQCMKRFCRDHRIQBIDRRFCHCKCEQCGMDHRGHGRRHEGMQGDCHIGKHI
HDKQCMKRFCRDHRHIHDKQCMHIAGMRCMKRFCRHIGAIGBHQHFQEGBDRQKHIGAIACKQM
IRCHHCGMCMIRKIQHMECKKRFCRDHRGHGRRHEGMQGDCHIGKKRHQHHDKQIQMIDMIDMI
DHRKERQMIGKIRKEHIDMHIBDGEGMBDGMIGHHIEHIAIGEAIQBDHRGHHIEHIDHFQRCM
HIAIGEAICMHIRDCRGARKHBHEGMQHIBQMIGHFBBDGMIHIDKQHHIMDGMIMGRDHRMEG
QHGMHQBHIBQFGHHGHFCMHIAERKMGCHCMFCRGCHCHMIRHCECBMIDMMICGDEMHQGHI


16



EACRRHCEICMGHCGRRMICGHQEMACRRCEICMCHIEHIHBQADGBQMICGDEMRGCQHD
EKD
HRHQGHIEACRRHCEICMGHGRRBDGQHICGMCMKRKCGMIBQADGBQMICGBDRQBMGDKEGA
IDHRGHAERKBQRHGMIFCRBDHRIDIQHQRCMHCMIGHFDHRCHCHQBMHCMMIDMMICGDEM
HEQMAIQRDHRKGBQEDBRQDHRDCEDHRBRGHRDHRHDCQRGACGHBQRHIHIEBGRCMKQFC
RRMEGQRGHHIMGEQMIDMMICGKDRQBMBQEGAIDHRHIGMQEDGKQHMMIDMMICGKDR
QBM
BQARCHIRDHRMIDMHIBIDKQCMMIRHDCQRHQBRCHCMDDDRKEDHRDHCGHMMIGHQQRQB
HGMIQRQBDRIQMIDMMICGKDRQBMBQDBKDHRDBGRCIQGEQBGCQDHRAIDBMQHBQGRKR
CGBHIEQMCEQDHREQDQHMBQICRRGBMDHRDMHIRCEDHRCHCACGMDHRKDHIRKEKRICG
AQDHRCDQHHIRCEGHGRRACKQGHHIEIGKDHRHGRRBGDHGMIIGKDHRIQHGMIKQHI
EIG
KMIDMCIQEACKQMIHGRRGFEDHMHIEBGMHGMIKQGHKRMIECHQQIQHDBGDRCHIECIQE
ADKQDHRDKBQMRCHHHGMIKRMDHIEGHIGBMIECHQIQMIDMIDMIDHRKERQMIGKIRKEH
IDMHIBDGEGMBDGMIGHHIEHIAIGEAIQBDMMQEMIGBGRCCQRDHRBQICRRDRCEHDBCD
QHQRGHIRKIQHDHRHIMGEBMICGAQHIGAIGIRKERHDBDBGMHQEQCMDMEGKDQMMD
RCG
HFHGMIKQHIGAIBDGRACKQGDIGHIEDHRGHGRRBIQHHIMIGHFBHIGAIKGBMBQIQERK
MMQEDHRGKKQRHAMQRRGHDBGHHIBDGEGMDHRBQICRRDMIECHQHDBBQMGHIRKIQHDH
RCHQBDMCHHIMIECHQDHRIQMIDMBDMHDBHIERCCGDCHRGCQDFDBDQEDHRDBDERGHQ

BHIEHQDHRHIEQHDBDEDGHBCHECGHRDBCGMHIMIECHQGHBGFIMRGCQGHHIEDH
QKQE



DRRDHRECGHRDBCGMHIMIECHQHQEQMCGEDHRMHQHMRBRKMBDHRGDCHHIBRKMBGBDH
MCGEDHRMHQHMRQRRQEBBGMGHFARCHIRGHHIGMQEDGKQHMDHRHIRIDRCHHIGEIRKR
BAECHHBCMFCRRDHRCGMCMHIMIECHQDECAQRQRRGFIMHGHFBDHRMIGHRQEGHFBDHR

ICGAQBDHRHIEQHQEQBQIQHRDKDBCMMGEQBGEHGHFBQMCEQHIMIECHQHI
GAIDEQHI
BQIQHBDGEGMBCMFCRDHRBQMCEQHIMIECHQHIEQHDBDBRKCMFRDBRGCQGHHIEAERB
MDRDHRGHHIKGRBMCMHIMIECHQDHRECGHRDBCGMHIMIECHQHQEQMCGEBRKBMBMGRR
CMQRQBBQMCEQDHRBQIGHRDHRHIMGEBMBRKBMHDBRGCQDRGCHDHRHIBQACHRBRKBM
RGCQDADRMDHRHIMIGERBRKBMIDRDMDAQDBDKDHDHRHIMCGEMIBRKBMHD
BRGCQDMR
RGHFRKFRQDHRHIMCGEBRKBMBIDRRKAICMHIKBGQHGHFBDBCGMIGKDHRHIRHQEQMG
RRCMQRQBHGMIGHDHRHIREQBMHCMRDRDHRHGFIMBDRGHFICRRICRRICRRRCERFCRD
RKGFIMRHIGAIHDBDHRGBDHRGBHIEACKQDHRHIQHMICBQBRKBMBFGIQFRCERDHRIC
HCGEDHRMIDHCBHIEIGKMIDMBDMCHHIMIECHQHICRGIQMIMCEQIQEDHRQ
IQEHIMCG
EDHRMHQHMRQRRQEBMDRRRCHHBQMCEQIGKMIDMBDMCHHIMIECHQDHRHCEBIGDIGKM
IDMRGIQMIMCEQIQEDHRQIQEDHRADBMHIGEAECHHBBQMCEQHIMIECHQBDRGHFMICG
DEMHCEMIRCRCERHIEEQAQGIQFRCERDHRICHCGEDHRDCHQEMCEMICGIDBMAERKMQR
DRRMIGHFBDHRMCEMIRDRRKBGEQHIRDEQDHRHQEQAERKMQRDHRGBDHGHH
IEGFIMID
HRCMIGKMIDMBDMCHHIMIECHQDBCCHEGMQHHGMIGHDHRCHHIBDACBGRQBRKRQRHGM
IBQIQHBRKRBDHRGBDHDBMECHFDHFQRDECARDGKGHFHGMIDRCGRICGAQHICGBHCEM
IRHIECDQHHIBCCDHRHIERCBQHIBRKRBHIEQCMDHRHCKDHGHIRKIQHHCEGHRKEMIH
QGHIEGHRQEHIRKEMIHDBDBRQHIECDQHHIBCCHQGHIEHIERCCHIEQCHDH
RGHQDMKG
AIBQADGBQHCKDHHDBMCGHRHCEMIRHIECDQHDHRHIEERKRHIBCCHQGHIEHIERCCHI
EQCHDHRCHQCMHIQRRQEBBDGMIGHHIEKQHQDHCMBQICRRHIRGCHCMHIMEGBQCMFGR
DHIECMCMRDIGRIDMIDEQIDGRQRHIECDQHHIBCCDHRHIERCBQHIBQIQHBRKRBHIEQ
CMDHRGBQIQRRDHRRCGHHIKGRBMCMHIMIECHQDHRCMHIMCGEBRKBMBDHR
GHHIKGRB
MCMHIQRRQEBBHIERDRDKBDBGMIDRBQHBRDGHIDIGHFBQIQHICEHBDHRBQIQHQRQB
HIGAIDEQHIBQIQHBDGEGMBCMFCRBQHMMCEMIGHHIEDRRHIRKEMIDHRIQADKQDHRH
IECHIBCCCGMCMHIEGFIMIDHRCMIGKMIDMBDMGDCHHIMIECHQDHRHIQHIQIDRMDCQ
17


HHIBCCHIMCGEBRKBMBDHRMCGEDHRMHQHMRQRRQEBMQRRRCHHBQMCEQHI
RDKBIDIG
HFQIQERCHQCMHIKIDEDBDHRFCRRQHIHARBMGRRCMCRCGEBHIGAIDEQHIDEDRQEBC
MBDGHMBDHRHIRBGHFDHQHCHIEHFBDRGHFMICGDEMHCEMIRHIEMDCQHIBCCDHRHIE
CDQHHIBRKRBHIEQCMMCEMICGHDBMBRDGHDHRIDBMEQRQKQRGBHIEFCRBRMIRBRCR
CGMCMQIQERCGHREQRDHRHIEHFGQDHRDQCDRQDHRHDMGCHDHRIDBMKDRQ
GBGHHIEC
GEFCRCGHFBDHRDEGQBMBDHRHQBIDRREQGFHCHHIRKEMIDHRGBQIQRRDHRGIRKERH
IICGAQCMKDHRDHFQRBECGHRDBCGMHIMIECHQDHRHIBRKBMBDHRHIQRRQEBDHRHIH
GKBQECMHIKHDBMQHMICGBDHRMGKQBMQHMICGBDHRDHRMICGBDHRBCMMICGBDHRB

BDRGHFHGMIDRCGRICGAQHCEMIRGBHIRDKBMIDMHDBBRDGHHIEEQAQGIQ
DCHQEDHR
EGAIQBDHRHGBRCKDHRBMEQHFMIDHRICHCGEDHRFRCERDHRBRQBGHFDHRQIQERAER
KMGEQHIGAIGBGHIRKIQHDHRCHHIRKEMIDHRGHRQEHIRKEMIDHRBGAIDBDEQGHHIB
RKDHRDRRMIDMDEQGHHIKIRKERGBDRGHFBRQBGHFDHRICHCGEDHRFRCERDHRDCHQE
BQGHHIEIGKMIDMBGMQMIGDCHHIMIECHQDHRGHHIEHIRDKBMCEQIQEDHR
QIQEDHRH
IMCGEBRKBMBBDGRDKQHDHRHIMCGEDHRMHQHMRQRRQEBMQRRRCHHDHRHCEBIGDDQR
IGKMIDMRGIQMIMCEQIQEDHRQIQEDHRGBDHHIQHHIRDKBCDQHQRCHQCMHIBRKRBDH
RGIRKERDBGMHQEQHIHCGBQCMMIGHRQECHQCMHIMCGEBRKBMBBDRGHFACKQDHRBQ


DHRGBDHDHRBQICRRDHIGMQICEBQDHRIQMIDMBDMCHIGKIDRDBCHDHRD
AECHHHDBF
GIQHGHHIEIGKDHRIQHQHMMCEMIACHNGQEGHFDHRHIEACHNGQEDHRHIQHIQIDRCDQ
HQRHIBQACHRBRKRGIRKERHIBQACHRBRKBMBDRACKQDHRBQDHRHIEQHQHMCGMDHCH
IEICEBQMIDMHDBEQRDHRDCHQEHDBFGIQHHIEIGKMIDMBDMHIEQCHHIEMDCQDRKAQ
MECKHIRKEMIDHRMIDMHIRBICGRRCGRRCHQDHCHIEDHRHIEQHDBFGIQH
GHHIEIGKD
FERKMBHCERDHRHIQHIQIDRCDQHQRHIMIGERBRKRGIRKERHIMIGERBRKBMBDRACKQ
DHRBQDHRGBQIQRRDHRRCDBRDACICEBQDHRIQMIDMBDMCHIGKIDRDDDGECMBDRDHA
QBGHIGBIDHRDHRGIRKERDICGAQGHHIKGRBMCMHIMCGEBRKBMBBDRDKRKBGEQCMHI
RKMMCEDDQHHRDHRMIEQKRKBGEQBCMBDERQRMCEDDQHHRDHRBQMICGIG
EMHCMHICG
RDHRHIHGHQDHRHIQHIQIDRCDQHQRHIMCGEMIBRKRGIRKERHIICGAQCMHIMCGEMIB
RKBMBDRACKQDHRBQDHRGRCCQRDHRBQICRRDDDRQICEBQDHRIGBHDKQMIDMBDMCH

IGKHDBRRKMIDHRIQRRMCRRCHQRHGMIIGKDHRDCHQEHDBFGIQHGHHIEHIKCIQEHIM
CGEMIDDEMCMHIRKEMIHIECGRRHGMIBHCERDHRHGMIIGHFQEDHRHGMIR
RKMIDHRHG
MIHIBRKBMBCMHIRKEMIDHRHIQHIQIDRCDQHQRHIMGMMIBRKRGBDHGHRQEHIDRMDE
HICHIEGRBCMHIKMIDMHQEQBRDGHMCEHIHCERCMFCRDHRMCEHIMQBMGKCHRHIGAIH
IRIQRRDHRHIRAEGQRHGMIDRCGRICGAQBDRGHFICHRCHFCRCERICRRDHRMEGQRCBM
MICGHCMFGRFQDHRDIQHFQCGEBRCRCHHIKMIDMRHQRRCHHIRKEMIDHRH
IGMQECBQB
HQEQFGIQHGHHIEQIQERCHQCMHIKDHRGMHDBBDGRGHHIEHIKMIDMHIRBICGRREQBM
RQMMCEDRGMRQBRKCHIEHGHMGRHIGEMQRRCHBQEIDHMBDRCHIEDHRHIGEBEQMIEQH
MIDMBICGRRBQCGRRQRDBHIRHQEQBICGRRBQMGRMGRRQRDHRGBQIQRRHIQHIQIDRC
DQHQRHIBGQMIBRKRDHRRCHIEQHDBDFERKMRKEMINGDCQDHRHIBGHBQA
DKQBRDACD
BBDACARCMICMIDGEDHRHIKCHBQADKQDBBRCRDHRHIBMDEBCMIRKIQHMQRRGHHIE

HIRKEMIQIQHDBDMGFMEQADBMQMIIQEGHMGKQRRMGFBHIQHBIQGBBIDCQHCMDKGFI
MRHGHRDHRHIIRKIQHRQDDEMQRDBDBAECRRHIQHGMGBECRRQRHIEFQHIEDHRQIQER
KCGHMDGHDHRGBRDHRHQEQKCIQRCGMCMHIGEDRDAQBDHRHICGHFBCMHI
RKEMIDHRH
IFERKMKQHDHRHIEGAIKQHDHRHIAIGQMADDMDGHBDHRHIKGFIMRKQHDHRQIQERBCH
RKDHDHRQIQERMEQKDHIGRHIKBQRIQBGHHIRQHBDHRGHHIECACBCMHIKCGHMDGHBD
HRBDGRHIEHIKCGHMDGHBDHRECACBMDRRCHGBDHRIGRQGBMECKHIMDAQCMIGKMIDM
BGMQMICHHIMIECHQDHRMECKHIHEDMICMHIRDKBMCEHIFERKMRDRCMIG
BHEDMIGBA
CKQDHRHICBIDRRBQDBRQHIEBMDHRDHRDMMQEHIBQMIGHFBGBDHMCGEDHFQRBBMDH
18


RGHFCHHIMCGEACEHQEBCMHIRKEMIICRRGHFHIMCGEHGHRBCMHIRKEMIMIDMHIHGH
RBICGRRHCMBRCHCHHIRKEMIHCECHHIBRKHCECHDHRMEQDHRGBDHDHCHIEDHFQRDB
AQHRGHFMECKHIRKBMIDIGHFHIBRKRCMHIRGIGHFFCRDHRIQAEGQRHGM
IDRCGRICG
AQHIEHIMCGEDHFQRBHIEHICKGMHDBFGIQHHIEIGEMHIRKEMIDHRHIBRKBDRGHFIG
EMHCMHIRKEMIHQGHIEHIBRKHCEHIMEQBMGRRHQIDIQBRKRQRHIBQEIDHMBCMCGEF
CRGHHIGEMCEQIRKRBDHRGIRKERHIHGKBQECMHIKHIGAIHQEQBRKRQRDHRHIEQHQE
QBRKRQRDHIGHREQRDHRMCEMRDHRMCGEMICGBDHRCMDRRHIMEGBQBCMH
IAIGRREQH
CMGBEDQRCMHIMEGBQCMFGRDHQEQBRKRQRMHQRIQMICGBDHRCMHIMEGBQCMEQGBQH
HQEQBRKRQRMHQRIQMICGBDHRCMHIMEGBQCMFDRHQEQBRKRQRMHQRIQMICGBDHRCM
HIMEGBQCMDBQEHQEQBRKRQRMHQRIQMICGBDHRCMHIMEGBQCMHQDIMIDRGKHQEQBR
KRQRMHQRIQMICGBDHRCMHIMEGBQCMKDHDBQBHQEQBRKRQRMHQRIQMIC
GBDHRCMHI
MEGBQCMBGKQCHHQEQBRKRQRMHQRIQMICGBDHRCMHIMEGBQCMRQIGHQEQBRKRQRMH
QRIQMICGBDHRCMHIMEGBQCMGBDAIDEHQEQRKRQRMHQRIQMICGBDHRCMHIMEGBQCM
GDBGRCHHQEQBRKRQRMHQRIQMICGBDHRCMHIMEGBQCMFCBQDIHQEQBRKRQRMHQRIQ
MICGBDHRCMHIMEGBQCMBQHFDKGHHQEQBRKRQRMHQRIQMICGBDHRDMMQ
EMIGBGBQI
QRRDHRRCDFERKMKGRMGMGRQHIGAIHCKDHACGRRHGKBQECMDRRHDMGCHBDHRCGHRE
QRBDHRDQCDRQDHRHIEHFGQBBHIERBQMCEQHIMIECHQDHRBQMCEQHIRDKBARCHIRH
GMIHIGMQECBQBDHRDDRKBGHHIGEIDHRBDHRAEGQRHGMIDRCGRICGAQBDRGHFBDRI
DMGCHHIECGEFCRHIGAIBGMQMIGDCHHIMIECHQDHRGHHIEHIRDKBDHRD
RRHIDHFQR
BBHIERECGHRDBCGMHIMIECHQDHRDBCGMHIQRRQEBDHRHIMCGEBRKBMBDHRMQRRBQ
MCEQHIMIECHQCHHIGEMDAQBDHRHCEBIGDDQRFCRBDRGHFDKQHBRQBGHFDHRFRCER
DHRHGBRCKDHRMIDHCBFGIGHFDHRICHCGEDHRDCHQEDHRKGFIMBQGHHIECGEFCRMC
EQIQEDHRQIQEDKQHDHRCHQCMHIQRRQEBDHBHQEQRBDRGHFGHHIEKQHI
DMDEQHIBQ

HIGAIDEQDEEDRQRGHHIGMQECBQBDHRHIQHAQADKQHIRDHRGBDGRGHHIEIGKBGEMI
CGCHCHQBMDHRIQBDGRHIEKQHIBQDEQHIRHIGAIADKQCGMCMFERKMMEGBGRDMGCHD
HRIDIQHDBIQRHIGEECBQBDHRKDRQHIKHIGMQGHHIBRCRCMHIRDKBHIEQMCEQDEQH
IRBQMCEQHIMIECHQCMFCRDHRBQEIQIGKRDRDHRHGFIMGHIGBMQKDRQ
DHRIQMIDMB
GMQMICHHIMIECHQBIDRRRHQRRDKCHFHIKHIRBIDRRIGHFQEHCKCEQHQGHIEMIGEB
MDHRKCEQHQGHIEBIDRRHIBGHRGFIMCHHIKHCEDHRIRKMMCEHIRDKBHIGAIGBGHHI
KGRBMCMHIMIECHQBIDRRMQRHIKDHRBIDRRRRKRHIKGHHIERGIGHFMCGHMDGHBCMH
DMQEBDHRFCRBIDRRHGDQDHDRDRRMRKEBMECKHIGEQRQBDHRHIQHIQI
DRCDQHQRHI
BQIQHMIBRKRHIEQHDBBGRQHAQGHIRKIQHDBCGMHIBDDAQCMIDRMDHICGEDHRGBDH
HIBQIQHDHFQRBHIGAIBHIERBQMCEQFCRDHRHIEHIKHQEQFGIQHBQIQHMEGKDQMB


DHRDHCHIEDHFQRADKQDHRBHIERDMHIDRMDEIDIGHFDFCRRQHAQHBQEDHRHIEQHDB
FGIQHGHHIEIGKKGAIGHAQHBQMIDMIQBICGRRCMMQEGMHGMIHIDEDR
QEBCMDRRBDG
HMBGDCHHIFCRRQHDRMDEHIGAIHDBBQMCEQHIMIECHQDHRHIBKCCQCMHIGHAQHBQH
IGAIADKQHGMIHIDEDRQEBCMHIBDGHMBDBAQHRQRGDBQMCEQFCRCGMCMHIDHFQR
'
B
IDHRDHRHIDHFQRHIECHIAQHBQEDHRMGRRQRGMHGMIMGEQCMHIDRMDEDHRADBMGMG
HHIEHIRKEMIDHRHIEQHQEQICGAQBDHRMIGHRQEGHFBDHRRGFIMHGH
FBDHRDHRKEM
INGDCQDHRHIBQIQHDHFQRBHIGAIIDRHIBQIQHMEGKDQMBDEQDDEQRHIKBQRIQBHI
ECHIEGHRHIMGEBMDHFQRCHIEGHRQRDHRHIEQMCRRCHQRIDGRDHRMGEQKGHFRQRHG
MIBRCRDHRHIRHQEQADBMGDCHHIRKEMIDHRHIMIGERDDEMCMMEQBHDBBGEHMGDDHR
DRRFEQHFEDBHDBBGEHMGDDHRHIBQACHRDHFQRCHIEGHRQRDHRDBGM
HQEQDFERKMK
CGHMDGHBGEHGHFHGMIMGEQHDBADBMGHHIEHIBRKDHRHIMIGERDDEMCMHIBRKBQAD
KQBRCRDHRHIMIGERDDEMCMHIAERKMGEQBHIGAIHQEQGHHIBRKDHRIDRRGMQRGQRD
HRHIMIGERDDEMCMHIBIGDBHQEQRQBMECRQRDHRHIMIGERDHFQRCHIEGHRQRDHRHI
19


EQMQRRDFERKMBMDEMECKIRKIQHBGEHGHFDBGMHQEQDRDKDDHRGMMQ
RRGDCHHIMIG
ERDDEMCMHIEGIQEBDHRGDCHHIMCGHMDGHBCMHDMQEBDHRHIHDKQCMHIBMDEGBADR
RQRHCEKHCRDHRHIMIGERDDEMCMHIHDMQEBBQADKQHCEKHCRDHRKDHRKQHRGQRCMH
IHDMQEBBQADGBQHIRHQEQKDRQBGMQEDHRHIMCGEMIDHFQRCHIEGHRQRDHRHIMIGE
RDDEMCMHIBGHHDBBKGMQHDHRHIMIGERDDEMCMHIKCHDHRHIMIGERD
DEMCMHIBMDE
BCHIEDBHIMIGERDDEMCMHIKHDBRDECQHQRDHRHIRDRBICHQHCMMCEDMIGERDDEMC
MGMDHRHIHGFIMRGCQHGBQDHRGBQIQRRDHRIRKERDHDHFQRMRRGHFMIECGFIHIKGR
BMCMIRKIQHBDRGHFHGMIDRCGRICGAQHCQHCQHCQHIEHIGHIDBGMQEBCMHIRKEMIB
RERKCHIEHCMHICHIEICGAQBCMHIMEGKDQMCMHIMIEQDHFQRBHIGAI
DEQRQMHIECH
IEGHR
!
DHRHIMGMMIDHFQRCHIEGHRQRDHRGBDHDBMDEMDRRMECKIRKIQHGHHIEHIR
KEMIDHRHIEIGKHDBFGIQHHICQRCMHIBCHIEKRQBDGMDHRIQCDQHQRHIBCHIEKRQB
DGMDHRHIEQDECBQDBKCCQCGMCMHIDGMDBHIBKCCQCMDFERKMMGEHDAQDHRHIBGHD
HRHIDGEHQEQRDECQHQRBRERKCHIEHCMHIBKCCQCMHIDGMDHRHIEQA
DKQCGMCMHIB
KCCQRCAGBMBGDCHHIRKEMIDHRGHHIEHIKHDBFGIQHDCHQEDBHIBACEDGCHBCMHIR
KEMIIDIQDCHQEDHRGMHDBACKKDHRQRHIKMIDMHIRBICGRRHCMIGEMHIFEDBCMHIR
KEMIHQGHIEDHRFEQHMIGHFHQGHIEDHRMEQBGMCHRRMICBQKQHHIGAIIDIQHCMHIB
RKRCMFCRGHHIGEMCEQIRKRBDHRHIEHIKGMHDBFGIQHMIDMHIRBICG
RRHCMCGRRHI
KBGMMIDMHIRBICGRRBQHIEEKQHMQRMGIQKCHMIBDHRHIGEHIEEKQHMHDBDBHIHIE
EKQHMCMDBACEDGCHHIQHIQBMEGCQMIDKDHDHRGHMICBQRDRBBIDRRKQHBQCRRKMI
DHRBIDRRHCMMGHRGMDHRBIDRRRQBGEQHIERGQDHRRRKMIBIDRRMRQMECKHIKDHRH
IBIDDQBCMHIRCAGBMBHQEQRGCQGHHIEICEBQBDEQDDEQRGHHIEBDM
RQDHRCHHIGE
IRKRBHQEQDBGMHQEQAECHHBRGCQFCRRDHRHIGEMDAQBHQEQDBHIMDAQBCMKQHDHR
HIRIDRIDGEDBHIIDGECMHCKQHDHRHIGEMQMIHQEQDBHIMQMICMRGCHBDHRHIRIDR
BERKBMDRDMQBDBGMHQEQBERKBMDRDMQBCMGECHDHRHICHIEGHRCMHIGEHGHFBHDB
DBHICHIEGHRCMAIDEGCMBCMKDHRICEBQBEGHHGHFHIEBDMRQDHRHI
RIDRMDGRBRG
CQGHHIEBACEDGCHBDHRHIEQHQEQBMGHFBGHHIGEMDGRBDHRHIGEDCHQEHDBHIEIG
EMKQHMGIQKCHMIBDHRHIRIDRDCGHFCIQEHIKHIGAIGBHIDHFQRCMHIBCHIEKRQBD
GMHICBQHDKQGHHIIQBEQHHIEHFGQGBDBDRCHBGMGHHIFEQCHIEHFGQIDMIIGBHDK
QDDCRRRCHCHQHCQGBDDBMDHRBQICRRHIEQACKQMHCHCQBKCEQIQER
KMMQEDHRHIB
GQMIDHFQRCHIEGHRQRDHRGIRKERDICGAQMECKHIMCGEICEHBCMHIFCRRQHDRMDEH
IGAIGBBQMCEQFCRBDRGHFHIEHIBGQMIDHFQRHIGAIIDRHIMEGKDQMRCBQHIMCGED
HFQRBHIGAIDEQBCGHRGHHIFERKMEGIQEQGDIEDMQBDHRHIMCGEDHFQRBHQEQRCBQ
RHIGAIHQEQDEQDDEQRMCEDHICGEDHRDRDRDHRDKCHMIDHRDRRKEMC
EHIEBRDRHIM
IGERDDEMCMKQHDHRHIHGKBQECMHIDEKRCMHIICEBQKQHHQEQMHCIGHREQRMICGBD
HRMICGBDHRDHRGIRKERHIHGKBQECMHIKDHRMIGBGBDHHIICEBQBGHHIIGBGCHDHR
HIKMIDMBDMCHHIKIDIGHFBERKBMDRDMQBCMMGEQDHRCMFDAGHMIDHRBEGKBHIEHQ
DHRHIIRKRBCMHIICEBQBHQEQDBHIIRKRBCMRGCHBDHRCGMCMHIGEK
CGMIBGBGQRM
GEQDHRBKCCQDHRBEGKBHIEHQBRHIBQMIEQHDBHIMIGERDDEMCMKQHCGRRQRBRHIM
GEQDHRBRHIBKCCQDHRBRHIBEGKBHIEHQHIGAIGBGQRCGMCMHIGEKCGMIBMCEHIGE
DCHQEGBGHHIGEKCGMIDHRGHHIGEMDGRBMCEHIGEMDGRBHQEQRGCQGHHIEBQEDQHM
BDHRIDRIRKRBDHRHGMIHIKHIRRCIGEMDHRHIEQBMCMHIKQHHIGAIH
QEQHCMCGRRQ
RBRHIBQDRDFGQBRQMEQDQHMQRHCMCMHIHCECBCMHIGEIDHRBMIDMHIRBICGRRHCM

HCEBIGDRQIGRBDHRGRCRBCMFCRRDHRBGRIQEDHRBEDBDHRBHIEHQDHRCMHCRHIGA
IHQGHIEADHBQHCEIRKEHCEHDRCHQGHIEEQDQHMQRHIRCMHIGEKGERQEBHCECMHIG
ECHIEEAQEGQBHCECMHIGEMCEHGADMGCHHCECMHIGEHIMMBDHRGBD
HDHCHIEKGFIM
RDHFQRACKQRCHHMECKIRKIQHARCHIRHGMIDARCGRDHRDEDGHBCHHDBGDCHIGBIRK
RDHRIGBMDAQHDBDBGMHQEQHIBGHDHRIGBMQMDBDGRRDEBCMMGEQDHRIQIDRGHIGB

20




IDHRDRGMRQBCCCDQHDHRIQBQMIGBEGFIMMCMGDCHHIBRKDHRIGBRQMMMCMCHHIRK
EMIDHRAEGQRHGMIDRCGRICGAQDBHIQHDRGCHECDEQMIDHRHIQ
HIQIDRAEGQRBQIQ
HMIGHRQEBGMQEQRHIGEICGAQBDHRHIQHHIBQIQHMIGHRQEBIDRGMQEQRHIGEICGA
QBGHDBDBCGMHIEHEGMQDHRGIRKERDICGAQMECKIRKIQHBDRGHFGHHIEKQBRKRGD

MICBQMIGHFBHIGAIHIBQIQHMIGHRQEBGMQEQRDHRHEGMQHIKHCMDHRHIDHFQRHIG
AIGBDHBMDHRGDCHHIBRKDHRGDCHHIRKEMIRGMMQRGDIGBIDHR
HIEIRKIQHDHRBHD
EQBRIGKMIDMRGIQMIMCEQIQEDHRQIQEHICAERKMQRIRKIQHDHRHIMIGHFBMIDMHI
EQGHDEQDHRHIRKEMIDHRHIMIGHFBMIDMHIEQGHDEQDHRHIBRKDHRHIMIGHFBHIGA
IDEQHIEQGHMIDMHIEQBICGRRBQMGKQHCRCHFQEBGMGHHIRDRBCMHIICGAQCMHIBQ
IQHMIDHFQRHIQHIQBIDRRBQFGHHIECHIEGHRHIKRBMQERCMFC
RBICGRRBQMGHGBI
QRDBIQIDMIRQARDEQRHIEIGBBQEIDHMBHIDECDIQMBDHRHIICGAQHIGAIGIRKERM
ECKIRKIQHBDDCQGHHIEKQDFDGHDHRBDGRFCDHRMDCQHIRGMRQBCCHIGAIGBCDQHG
HHIIDHRCMHIDHFQRHIGAIBMDHRQMIGDCHHIBRKDHRGDCHHIRKEMIDHRGHQHMGHHI
EHIDHFQRDHRBDGRGHHIEIGKFGIQKQHIRGMRQBCCDHRIQBDGRG
HHIEKQMDCQGMDHR
RKMGMGDDHRGMBIDRRKDCQMIRBQRRRBGMQEBGMGMBIDRRBQGHMIRKCGMIBHQMDBIC
HQRDHRGHIECHIRGMRQBCCCGMCMHIDHFQR
'
BIDHRDHRDMQGMGDDHRGMHDBGHKRKCG
MIBHQMDBICHQRDHRDBCHIEHDBGIDRRKMQHGMKRBQRRRHDBBGMQEDHRIQBDGRGHHI
EKQMICGKGBMDECDIQBRDFDGHBQMCEQKDHRDQCDRQBDHRHDMGC
HBDHRHIEHFGQBDH
RCGHFBDHRHIEQHDBFGIQHKQDEQRRGCQGHHIEDECRDHRHIDHFQRBHIERBDRGHFEGB
QDHRKRKBGEQHIMQKDRQCMFCRDHRHIDRMDEDHRHIKMIDMHCEBIGDHIEQGHBGMHIAC
GEMHIGAIGBHGMICGMHIMQKDRQRRKIQCGMDHRKRKBGEQGMHCMMCEGMGBFGIQHGHHI
EHIFQHMGRQBDHRHIICRRAGMRBIDRRHIRMERKRGHRQEMCMMCEM
RDHRMHCKCHMIBDH
RGHGRRFGIQDCHQEGHHIEKRMHCHGMHQBQBDHRHIRBIDRRDECDIQBRDMICGBDHRMHC
IGHREQRDHRMIEQBACEQRDRBARCHIRGHBDACARCMIHIBQDEQHIMHCCRGIQMEQBDHR
HIMHCADHRRQBMGACBBMDHRGHFBQMCEQHIFCRCMHIRKEMIDHRGMDHRKDHHGRRIGEM
HIKMGEQDECAQRQMICGMCMHIGEKCGMIDHRRQICGEQMIHIGEQHQ
KGQBDHRGMDHRKDH
HGRRIGEMHIKIQKGBMGHMIGBKDHHQEBQCGRRQRHIBQIDIQDCHQEHIEBIGMIRKIQHM
IDMGMEDGHHCMGHHIRDRBCMHIGEDECDIQARDHRIDIQDCHQECIQEHDMQEBHIEMGEHH
IKHIEBRCRDHRHIEBKGMQHIRKEMIHGMIDRRDRDFGQBDBCMMQHDBHIRHGRRDHRHIQH
HIRBIDRRIDIQMGHGBIQRHIGEMQBMGKCHRHIBRKBMMIDMDBAQH
RQMICGMCMHIBCHI
EKRQBDGMBIDRRKDCQHDEDFDGHBMHIKDHRBIDRRCIQEACKQHIKDHRCGRRHIKDHRHI
GERRKRBCRGQBBIDRRRGQGHHIBMEQMCMHIFERKMAGMRHIGAIBDGEGMGDRRRGBADRR
QRCHIERCKDHRQFRDMHIQEQDRCHIECGERCERHDBAEGAGMGQRDHRHIRCMHIDQCDRQD
HRCGHREQRBDHRHIEHFGQBDHRHDMGCHBBIDRRBQHIGERRKRBCR
GQBMIEQRDRBDHRD
HIDRMDHRBIDRRHCMBGMMQEHIGERRKRBCRGQBHIEBQDGMGHFEDIQBDHRHIRMIDMRH
QRRGDCHHIRKEMIBIDRREQFCGAQCIQEHIKDHRKDCQKQEERDHRBIDRRBQHRFGMMBCH
QHIEDHCHIEBQADGBQHIBQMHCDECDIQMBHIEEKQHMQRHIKMIDMRHQRMCHHIRKEMI


DHRDMMQEMIEQRDRBDHRDHIDRMHIBDGEGMCMRGMQMECKFCRQH
MQEQRGHHIEHIKDHR
HIRBHIERGDCHHIGEMQMDHRFERKMMRKEMQRRGDCHHIKHIGAIBDHHIKDHRHIRIRKER
DFERKMICGAQMECKIRKIQHBDRGHFGHHIEHIKACKQGDIGHIEDHRHIRDBAQHRQRGDHI
EIRKIQHGHDARCGRDHRHIGEQHQKGQBBQIQRRHIKDHRHIBDKQICGEHDBHIEQDFERKM
RKEMINGDCQDHRHIMQHMIDDEMCMHIAGMRMQRRDHRGHHIRKEMI
NGDCQHQEQBRDGHCM
KQHBQIQHMICGBDHRDHRHIEQKHDHMHQEQDMMEGFIMQRDHRFDIQFRCERHIEHIFCRCM
IRKIQHHIBQACHRHCQGBDDBMDHRBQICRRHIMIGERHCQACKQMINGGACRRDHRHIBQIQ
21


HMIDHFQRCHIEGHRQRDHRHIEQHQEQFERKMICGAQBGHIRKIQHBDRGHFHICGHFRCKBC
MMIGBHCERRDEQBQACKQHICGHFRCKBCMCGERCERDHRCMIGBAI
EGBMDHRIQBIDRREQ
GFHMCEQIQEDHRQIQEDHRHIMCGEDHRMHQHMRQRRQEBHIGAIBDMBQMCEQFCRCHHIGE

BRKMBMQRRGDCHHIGEMDAQBDHRHCEBIGDDQRFCRBDRGHFHQFGIQHIMIDHCBCRCERF
CRDRKGFIMRHIGAIDEMDHRHDBMDHRDEMHIEACKQBQADGBQMICGIDBMMDCQHHIEHIM
IRFERKMDCHQEDHRIDBMEQGFHQRDHRHIHDMGCHBHQEQDHFER
DHRMIRHEDMIGBACKQ
DHRHIMGKQCMHIRRKRMIDMHIRBICGRRBQFGRFQRDHRMIDMMICGBICGRRQBMFGIQEQ
HDERGHHIEMIRBQEIDHMBHIDECDIQMBDHRHIEHIBDGHMBDHRHIKMIDMMRKEMIRHDK
QBKDRRDHRFERKMDHRBICGRRQBMRQBMECRHIKHIGAIRQBMECRHIRKEMIDHRHIMQKD
RQCMFCRHDBCDQHQRGHIRKIQHDHRHIEQHDBBQHGHIGBMQKDR
QHIDECCMIGBMQBMDK
QHMDHRHIEQHQEQRGFIMHGHFBDHRICGAQBDHRMIGHRQEGHFBDHRDHRKEMINGDCQDH
RFERKMIDGRDHRHIEQDDDRKEQRDFERKMHCHRQEGHIRKIQHDHCKDHARCHIRHGMIHIB
GHDHRHIKCHGHRQEIQEMQMDHRGDCHIQEIRKRDAECHHCMMHQRIQBMDEBDHRBIQBQGH
FHGMIAIGRRAEGQRMEDIDGRGHFGHBGEMIDHRDDGHQRHIEBQR
QRGIQEQRDHRHIEQDD
DRKEQRDHCHIEHCHRQEGHIRKIQHDHRBQICRRDFERKMEQRREDFCHIDIGHFBQIQHIRK
RBDHRMQHICEHBDHRBQIQHAECHHBGDCHIGBIRKRBDHRIGBMDGRREQHHIMIGERDDEM
CMHIBMDEBCMIRKIQHDHRRGRADBMHIKHIEHIRKEMIDHRHIREDFCHBHIERBQMCEQHI
HCKDHHIGAIHDBERKRRHIEBQRQRGIQEQRMCEHIERQICGEIQE
AIGRRDBCHIEHDBGMH
DBBCEHDHRBIQBECGFIMMCEMIDKDHAIGRRHICHDBHIEEGRQDRRHDMGCHBHGMIDECR
CMGECHDHRIQEAIGRRHDBADGFIMGDGHHIEFCRDHRHIEIGBMIECHQDHRHIHCKDHMRQ
RGHHIEHIHGRRQEHQBHIQEQBIQIDMIDDRDAQDEQDDEQRCMFCRMIDMHIRBICGRRMQR
IQEHIEQDMICGBDHRMHCIGHREQRDHRMIEQBACEQRDRBDHRHI
EQHDBHDEGHIRKIQHK
GAIDQRDHRIGBDHFQRBMCGFIMDFDGHBMHIREDFCHDHRHIREDFCHMCGFIMDHRIGBDH
FQRBDHRDEQIDGRQRHCMHQGHIEHDBHIGEDRDAQMCGHRDHRKCEQGHIRKIQHDHRHIFE
RKMREDFCHHDBADBMCGMMIDMCRRBQEDQHMADRRQRHIRQIGRDHRBDMDHHIGAIRQAQG
IQMIHIHICRQHCERRIQHDBADBMCGMGHHIEHIRKEMIDHRIGBD
HFQRBHQEQADBMCGMH
GMIIGKDHRGIRKERDRCGRICGAQBDRGHFGHIRKIQHHCHGBACKQBDRIDMGCHDHRBMEQ
HFMIDHRHICGHFRCKCMCGEFCRDHRHIDCHQECMIGBAIEGBMMCEHIDAAGBQECMCGEBE
QMIEQHGBADBMRCHHHIGAIDAAGBQRHIKBQMCEQCGEFCRRDRDHRHGFIMDHRHIRCIQE
ADKQIGKBRHIBRCRCMHIRDKBDHRBRHIHCERCMHIGEMQBMGKC
HRDHRHIRRCIQRHCMH
IGERGIQBGHHIEHIRRKMIHIEQMCEQEQFCGAQRQIRKIQHBDHRRQMIDMRHQRRGHHIKH
CQHIEHIGHIDBGMQEBCMHIRKEMIDHRCMHIBRK
!
MCEHIRQIGRGBACKQRCHHGHHIERC
GIDIGHFFERKMHEDMIBQADGBQIQCHCHQMIMIDMIQIDMIBGMDBICEMMGKQDHRHIQHH
IREDFCHBDHMIDMIQHDBADBMGHHIEHIRKEMIIQDQEBQAGMQR
HIHCKDHHIGAIBECGF
IMMCEMIHIKDHAIGRRDHRHIEHIHCKDHHQEQFGIQHMHCHGHFBCMDFERKMRKFRQMIDM
BIQKGFIMMRRGHHIEHIHGRRQEHQBGHHIEIQEDRDAQHIQEQBIQGBHCGEGBIQRMCEDM
GKQDHRMGKQBDHRIDRMDMGKQMECKHIMDAQCMHIBQEDQHMDHRHIBQEDQHMADBMCGMC
MIGBKCGMIHDMQEDBDMRCRDMMQEHIHCKDHMIDMIQKGFIMADG
BQIQEHIEBQADEEGQR
DHDRCMHIMRCRDHRHIRKEMIIQRDQRHIHCKDHDHRHIRKEMICDQHQRIQEKCGMIDHRBH
DRRCHQRGDHIMRCRHIGAIHIREDFCHADBMCGMCMIGBKCGMIDHRHIREDFCHHDBHECMI
HGMIHIHCKDHDHRHQHMHIEKDCQHDEHGMIHIEQKHDHMCMIQEBQRHIGAICQDHIACKKD
HRKQHMBCMFCRDHRIDIQHIMQBMGKCHRCMFQBGBAIEGBMDHRG
BHIERGDCHHIBDHRCM
HIBRKDHRBDHDBRKBMEGBQGDCGMCMHIBRKIDIGHFBQIQHIRKRBDHRMQHICEHBDHRG
DCHIGBICEHBMQHAECHHBDHRGDCHIGBIRKRBHIHDKQCMBRDBDIQKRDHRHIBRKBMHI
GAIGBDHHDBRGCQGHHIEDRQCDDERDHRIGBMQMHQEQDBHIMQMCMDBRKEDHRIGBKCGM
IDBHIKCGMICMDRGCHDHRHIREDFCHFDIQIGKIGBDCHQEDHRI
GBBRKMDHRFERKMDGM
ICEGMRDHRGBDHCHQCMIGBIRKRBDBGMHQEQHCGHRQRHIERRKMIDHRIGBRRKRRRHCG
22


HRHDBIRKRQRDHRDRRHIHCERRHCHRQEQRDMMQEHIBRKBMDHRHIRHCEBIGDDQRHIRE
DFCHHIGAIFDIQDCHQEGHHIEHIBRKBMDHRHIRHCEBIGDDQRHIBRKBMBDRGHFHICGB
RGCQGHHIEHIBRKBMHICGBDBRQHIEKDCQHDEHGMIIGKDHRHI
EQHDBFGIQHGHHIEIG
KDKCGMIBDRKCGHFFERKMMIGHFBDHRBRDBDIQKGQBDHRDCHQEHDBFGIQHGHHIEIGK
HIEACHMGHGQMCEMRDHRMHCKCHMIBDHRIQCDQHQRIGBKCGMIGHBRDBDIQKRDFDGHB
MFCRHIEBRDBDIQKQIGBHDKQDHRIGBMDBQEHDARQDHRHIKMIDMRHQRRGHIRKIQHDH
RGMHDBFGIQHGHHIEIGKHIEKDCQHDEHGMIHIBDGHMBDHRHIE
CIQEACKQHIKDHRDCH
QEHDBFGIQHIGKCIQEDRRCGHREQRBDHRHIEHFGQBDHRHDMGCHBDHRDRRMIDMRHQRR
GDCHHIRKEMIBIDRRHCEBIGDIGKHICBQHDKQBDEQHCMHEGMQHGHHIBCCCMRGMQCMH
IRDKBBRDGHMECKHIMCGHRDMGCHCMHIHCERRGMDHRKDHIDIQDHRKERQMIGKIRKEIQ
MIDMRRKRQMIGHHIEADDMGIGMRBIDRRFCGHHIEADDMGIGMRI
QMIDMCGRRQMIHGMIH
IBHCERKGBMBQCGRRQRHGMIHIBHCERIQEQGBHIDDMGQHAQDHRHIMDGMICMHIBDGHM
BDHRGBQIQRRDHCHIEBRKBMACKGHFGDCGMCMHIRKEMIDHRIQIDRMHCICEHBRGCQDR
DKBDHRIQBDDCQDBDREDFCHDHRIQQQQEAGBQMIDRRHIDCHQECMHIMGEBMBRKBMBQM
CEQIGKDHRADGBQMIHIRKEMIDHRHIKHIGAIRHQRRHIEQGHHI
EHCEBIGDHIMGEBMBR
KBMHICBQRRKRRRHCGHRHDBIRKRQRDHRIQRCQMIFERKMHCHRQEBCHIEMIDMIQKDCQ
MIMGEQACKQRCHHMECKIRKIQHCHHIRKEMIGHHIBGFIMCMKQHDHRRQAQGIQMIHIKMI
DMRHQRRCHHIRKEMIBRHIKRKHBCMMICBQKGEDARQBHIGAIIQIDRDCHQEHIERCGHHI
BGFIMCMHIBRKBMBDRGHFHIEHIKMIDMRHQRRCHHIRKEMIMID
MHIRBICGRRKDCQDHG
KDFQHIEHIBRKBMHIGAIIDRHIHCGHRBRDBHCERDHRRGRRGIQDHRIQIDRDCHQEHIEF
GIQRGMQGHHIEHIGKDFQCMHIBRKBMMIDMHIGKDFQCMHIBRKBMBICGRRBCMIBDRKCD
HRADGBQMIDMDBKDHRDBHCGRRHCMHCEBIGDHIGKDFQCMHIBRKBMBICGRRBQCGRRQR


DHRIQADGBQMIDRRBCMIBKDRRDHRFERKMEGAIDHRDCEMEQDHRBCHRHIEEQAQGIQDK
DECGHHIGEEGFIMIDHRCEGHHIGEMCEQIRKRBDHRMIDMHCKDHKGFIMBGRCEBQRRBDI
QIQMIDMIDRHIKDECCEHIHDKQCMHIBRKBMCEHIHGKBQECMIGBHDKQIQEQGBHGBRCK
RQMIGKMIDMIDMIGHRQEBMDHRGHFACGHMHIHGKBQECMHIBRKBMMCEGMGBHIHGKBQE
CMDKDHDHRIGBHGKBQEGBBGQIGHREQRMIEQBACEQDHRBGQDHRGRCCQRDHRRCDRDKB
BHIERCHHIKCGHMBGCHDHRHGMIIGKDHIGHREQRMCEMRDHRMCGEMICGBDHRIDIGHFI
GBMDHIE
'
BHDKQHEGMQHGHHIGEMCEQIRKRBDHRGIRKERDICGAQMECKIRKIQHDBHII
CGAQCMKDHRHDMQEBDHRDBHIICGAQCMDFERKMMIGHRQEDHRGIRKERHIICGAQCMIDE
DQEBIDEDGHFHGMIHIGEIDEDBDHRHIRBGHFDBGMHQEQDHQHCHIEHFBQMCEQHIMIEC
HQDHRBQMCEQHIMCGEBRKBMBDHRHIQRRQEBDHRHCKDHACGRRRRKEHMIDMCHIEHFBG
MHIIGHREQRDHRMCEMRDHRMCGEMICGBDHRHIGAIHQEQEQRQKQRMECKHIRKEMIHIBQ
DEQHIRHIGAIHQEQHCMRQMGRQRHGMIHCKQHMCEHIRDEQIGEFGHBHIBQDEQHIRHIGA
IMCRRCHHIRDKBHIGHIECHIEQIQEIQFCQMIHIBQHQEQEQRQKQRMECKDKCHFKQHBQG
HFHIMGEBMMEGGMBGHHIEFCRDHRHIEHIRDKBDHRGHHIGEKCGMIHDBMCGHRHCFGGRQ
MCEHIRDEQHGMICGMMDGRMBQMCEQHIMIECHQCMFCRDHRGBDHDHCHIEDHFQRMRRGHH
IKGRBMCMIRKIQHIDIGHFHIQIQERDBMGHFFCBDQRHIEDERKAIGHHIEHIKMIDMRHQR
RCHHIRKEMIDHRHIEQIQERHDMGCHDHRCGHREQRDHRHIEHFGQDHRDQCDRQBDRGHFHG
MIDRCGRICGAQMRKEFCRDHRFGIQFRCERHIEIGKMCEHIICGECMIGBFGRFKQHMGBACK
QDHRHCEBIGDIGKMIDMKDRQIRKIQHDHRRKEMIDHRHIBRKDHRHIMCGHMDGHBCMHDMQ
EBDHRHIEQMCRRCHQRDHCHIEDHFQRBDRGHFBDBRRCHGBMDRRQHGBMDRRQHMIDMFER
KMAGMRBQADGBQBIQKDRQDRRHDMGCHBREGHCCMHIHGHQCMHIHEDMICMIQEMCEHGAD
MGCHDHRHIMIGERDHFQRMCRRCHQRHIKBDRGHFHGMIDRCGRICGAQGMDHRKDHHCEBIG
DHIBRKBMDHRIGBGKDFQDHREQAQGIQIGBKDECGHIGBMCEQIRKRCEGHIGBIDHRHIBD
KQBIDRRREGHCCMHIHGHQCMHIHEDMICMFCRHIGAIGBDCGEQRCGMHGMICGMKGQMGEQ
23


GHHIEHIAGDCMIGBGHRGFHDMGCHDHRIQBIDRRBQHIEEKQHMQRHGMIMGEQDHRBEGKB
HIEHQGHHIDEQBQHAQCMHIICRRDHFQRBDHRGHHIDEQBQHAQCMHIRDKBDHRHIBKCCQ
CMHIGEHIEEKQHMDBAQHRQMIGDMCEQIQEDHRQIQEDHRHIRIDIQHCEQBMRDRHCEHGF
IMHICHCEBIGDHIBRKBMDHRIGBGKDFQDHRHICCHIEQIQEEQAQGIQMIHIKDECCMIGB

HDKQ