Index of Human Development - SmartMap.us

kitefleaUrban and Civil

Nov 15, 2013 (3 years and 11 months ago)

84 views


Goals for this PowerPoint presentation:


1. Extract and amplify key concepts from chapters 7
-
10 in the
textbook
;

2.
Integrate with current news
media;

3. Serve as a study guide for Quiz #3
.


Geography 1400


Human Geography

Section 001


April 9, 2013

All anecdotes and graphic images are courtesy of Wikimedia, unless otherwise noted.

Preface: The following terms are referenced in the textbook, but not fully defined. They
can help create a framework for understanding why conflict occurs with globalization.
(Students can suggest alternate definitions, or alternate key words.)


Intolerance


> abnormal sensitivity, resistance to contrary position, lack of breadth in acceptance of
deviation


Orthodoxy


> conformance to approved doctrine or mode, meeting expectations, following the rules


Secular


> societal separation of government from religion


Sectarian


> narrowly defined, limited interest,
bigoted or narrow
-
minded.
(Allred suggests that
‘sectarian’ does not have to be bigoted, nor does it have to mean conflict
-
oriented, just different)


Humanist


> focus on human interests and values outside a religious context


So, the United States can be considered:


-

humanist (as per separation of church & state);



and


-

sectarian (as “
In God We Trust
”).


This apparent duality may seem ‘normal’ to Americans, but suggests that other nations could wonder
if there
is
a
difference between “pluralist” and “oxymoronic”?


(
Brittanica
, Colliers, Wikimedia,
Websters
, etc.)

Economic Sectors

Primary



extractive
(“basic” industry


mining, fishing, gathering)

Secondary



industrial, assembly
(value
-
added)

Tertiary



trade and services

Quaternary

-

information

Quinary



decision
-
makers


“execs”

Are these sectors evolutionary? Is one sector ‘better’ than
another? Are any of them relevant criteria for

“Index of Human Development”
?

Is
TRADE

possibly the most valuable criterion


quality of
relationships the highest element of human development?
<trade
as trust

--

a vital human trait or capability>

What
are
Economic
Growth

&
Economic
Development?


Growth

is about change in production, output, quantity and
total
volume.


Development

is about quality or nature of economic activity


more normative, such as greater choice, freedom from
oppression, literacy, life expectancy, health, conservation, more
balance, fairness.
Tends to refer to “higher
paying” jobs, or
more diversified economy, or higher value
-
added
.


Development includes rising complexity and sophistication


technology in every sense. These point to
globalization

and
urbanization
.


China has partially integrated its 2
nd

World society to the global economy

10% economic growth per year for > 10 years

(p249)

The result is that a former cluster of poor, somewhat self
-
sufficient
societies becomes:


diversified

(specialization


productivity)



interdependent
(specialization


vulnerability)




uneven
(business cycles and widening gap between haves & have
-
nots)


more wealthy
(net community prosperity
-

GNI, GDP, and PPP all need normalization,
p251
)



more urban



more globally oriented


Allegedly, the root cause of world prosperity is in international
trade and finance


globalization, based on ‘technology in
relationships’
<Allred>.




Popular news media stories in April
2014 :


1. A
new avian flu outbreak is being addressed by a
Chinese/US
CDC cooperative


technology
transfer across all previous
borders.


2.
Time
(TM
)

magazine said that international finance is at low ebb
due to
lack
of trust. Too many debts are in default or
renegotiation
.


3. California’s Governor seeks Chinese (communist) funding for
high
-
speed rail. California has been a bastion of diversity,
innovation and free enterprise. China already has widely
developed high
-
speed rail.


Are
supranationals

and
transnationals
‘warfare by
other means?’

Is it just
more refined domination
through ‘softer’ weapons?

Have IMF and World Bank
produced stability and
reduced poverty?

April 2013


Egypt negotiating
with IMF for a loan


“strings”
include reducing market
-
distorting food and energy
subsidies, at the risk of riots by
the poor who depend on
subsidized food & fuel.

Considering how well we
sometimes

co
-
operate, consider controversy over the
alleged intentions of the IMF and World Bank (1945), the “twin pillars” for world
financial order. Nearly all world countries are members, operating like a credit
union, with the best loan terms going to poorest members. (Wikipedia)

Most IMF workers are in Washington DC


(with some in Paris, New York, Geneva).

Are ‘supranational’ and ‘transnational’ just
other names for neo
-
colonialism or
evangelism?


Does perception trump reality?

No matter what we conclude about motives,
globalization
IS

about uneven results

(Chapter 10
)


For example: with urbanization, humans are either concentrating
weakness or concentrating strength.



Even within a world class city, there are often splinters of great weakness
amidst great strength
.

Mexico City conurbation

20
-
40 million people?

Adjacent neighborhoods in Venezuela

Favela (Brazil)

So, a major theme of the textbook, and a thoroughly
endemic theme in popular news media is the issue of how
globalization creates opportunities as well as divisions.



At the very least, globalization amplifies some differences
along the way toward overall human progress.



Consider how a long
-
past example of perception,
influence and
hegemonism

might illuminate parallel
issues in current world news:


In about 1850 the United States made rather aggressive
moves to pry open Japan to western trade.


How might the U.S. approach to Japan in that era
compare to “Islamist” perceptions about globalization
and supranational influences from the “West” in 2013?


Pre
-
Cursors to World War II

Japanese 19
th

century art depicting U.S. Admiral Perry’s foray to open trade relations.

Shall We Trade,

or Expel the Barbarian?

As
he arrived, Perry ordered
his ships to steam past
Japanese lines towards the
capital of

Edo
, and position
their guns towards the town
of

Uraga
.
[11]

Perry refused to
abide to demands to
leave.
[11]

He then demanded
permission to present a letter
from President

Millard
Fillmore
, and threatened to
use force if the Japanese boats
around the American
squadron did not disperse.
[11]

(Wikipedia)



“Perry
attempted to intimidate the Japanese by presenting them
a

white flag

and a character which told them that in case they
chose to combat, the Americans would necessarily vanquish
them.
[12]
[13]

Perry's ships were equipped with new

Paixhans

shell
guns
, capable of wreaking great destruction with every
shell.
[14]
[15]
The term "
Black Ships
", in Japan, would later come to
symbolize a threat imposed by Western
technology
.”
<hot links in the
original, emphasis added>

Sources: Wikipedia, including
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Matthew_C._
Perry
http://
militaryhistory.about.c
om/od/naval/p/mcperry.htm

Note the rich symbolism in the quotation

The Japanese response to western intrusion on their “backyard” was rapid
industrialization and adoption of western technology, and eventual military
collisions with the West, including World War II.


By 1942, Japan had proffered the “Greater East Asia Co
-
prosperity sphere” to its
Asian neighbors, ostensibly promoting:


-
Economic parity between the West and East

-
Protection of Asian cultures from encroachment

-
Opportunity for east Asia to share Japanese ideals


http
://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Greater_East_Asia_Co
-
Prosperity_Sphere

In our era, compare:


“Make the world safe for
democracy”


to


“Install universal Islam.”


Proposed boundary
between Japanese and
Axis interests in World
War II.

1942 boundary of
Japanese claims

Japanese promotion
of the

East
-
Asia

Co
-
Prosperity Sphere

Source:
https
://www.google.com/search?q=images+for+greate
r+east+asia+co.+prosperity+sphere&hl=en&rlz=1C1AR
AB_enUS497US497&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&s
a=X&ei=43hkUaCIOeWsiQLE3oCYCw&ved=0CC0QsAQ
&biw=1280&bih=899

Ultimately, technology and resource control determined how western or “core”
country culture standards have promoted globalization

According to the textbook
(p202
-
203)
“Perhaps one of the most widespread
cultural counterforces to globalization has been the rise of Islamism, known
incorrectly as Islamic fundamentalism.”


“Whereas
fundamentalism

is a general term that describes the desire to
return to strict adherence to the fundamentals of a religious system, Islamism
is an anti
colonial
, anti
-
imperial

and anti
-
core

political movement. Islamists
tend to resist western forces of
globalization
,
modernization

and
secularization
.”


“Islamists may be the most militant among Muslims, but not all Muslims are
Islamists. Islamism tries to create a model of society that protects the purity
and centrality of Islamic precepts through the return to a universal Islamic
state, unified in religion and politics. Islamists resist modernization as a
corrupting influence of the core that elevates the rights of individuals over
the common good.

Jihad is a struggle against the enemies of Islam,
sometimes rising to ‘holy war’, but often peaceful effort to convert non
-
believers.”

“Islamism should not be regarded as synonymous with the
practices of Islam, any more generally than Christian
fundamentalism is with Christianity. Islam is not monolithic, and
specific practices vary widely, with some allowing integration
with Western culture, while others strongly do not.”
(p202)


Note: Wikipedia and other sources also view Christian fundamentalism as having a militant
tendency, and resistance to “modernity” or the erosion of traditional, or long
-
standing practices.


In reference to “orthodoxy”


meaning conformance to belief,
norm, attitude, practice. Who decides what is orthodox for the
purpose of global relations?


“The economic success of the U.S. entertainment
industry has also helped reinforce the idea of an
emerging
g
lobal culture based on Americanization
.” (p 209)


(However)
-

-

“Neither the widespread consumption of
U.S. (or Western) products nor the world
-
wide familiarity
with brand names adds up to the emergence of a single
global culture. Instead, the world is becoming familiar
with a common set of products, symbols, myths,
memories, events and cult figures.”
(p 209)




Daily news: Japan has been in economic recession for more than
a decade. Car sales are dipping to a new
low for many reasons:


1. Aging
population


less need for driving (commentator opined that
Japanese population may actually be in decline
).


2. End
of subsidies for ‘green’ technology, so cost of commuting from
countryside is high enough to encourage return to
urban

life.


3. Continuing
dispersion
(globalization) of
auto production to lower
-
cost
locations
-

migration
of low
-
cost production from U.S. to Japan, to Taiwan,
Korea, Indonesia
-
Malaysia . . . .


4. Unresolved animosity
between Japan and China over old
hegemonism

(!)
and hence Chinese resistance to buying Japanese products.


5. Declining
value of the Japanese Yen, making Japanese
-
made products less
expensive, but not enough to turn the
tide of dispersed manufacturing
.

Commodity Concentration


key to export instability
(p265
)


A key indicator of country economic stability is the degree to which exports
are balanced or spread across product sectors. For instance, the United
States exports: machines, electronics, vehicles, aircraft, medical, gems,
plastics, chemicals, pharmaceuticals
(almost all high valued
-
added)


U.S. food stuff exports add more than $50B additional export revenue.
Software and intellectual property and information are not shown here, and
to that must be included entertainment products.


In contrast, African countries and other low
-
latitude regions tend to be the
most “commodity
-
concentrated” or least stable or balanced, with exports
being concentrated in a few sectors. Core countries tend to be the most
balanced (
the least concentrated in one area, and ostensibly the least likely to
experience oscillation in demand & price
)

Map of Commodity Concentration

?

I could not find a good world map that illustrates commodity concentration.
Can you?

Oddly, for the measure “debt as a percentage of exports” for most core countries and many LDCs
showed “no data” (p265)


Would debt as percent of exports be a valid criterion for

“Index of Human Development”
?


IMF


International Monetary Fund. Is IMF activity genuine economic support of
“phantom investment”? Cynically, the IMF has been alleged to mean “imposing
misery and famine”.


In any case, is philanthropy or aid an indicator of ‘human development’? If so,
then northern Europe leads the way in percentage of GNI
(normalized)
while U.S. and
Germany lead in absolute terms: U.S. at almost twice as much as 2
nd

place
Germany.

(p267)


Does economic aid come with unfair strings attached? Up to 90% of aid is
“phantom” wherein it goes into the pockets of contractors from the lender
countries.
(p 267)


A
pril, 2013 news item*: Egypt


running out of money for food and fuel


needs
cash


IMF wants energy reform


reduce subsidies for energy


affects poor the
most


subsidies disturb the market.


*(Sources: April, 2013 broadcasts by National Public Radio and BBC through KUER, KCPW and others)



Consider the reverse side of “commodity
concentration.”


Market and trade pressures can produce
asymmetric policy distortions when any
strategic raw material is concentrated in
one country.



-
Superconductors

-
Microwave filters

-
Energy
-
efficient lamps

-
Camera lenses

-
Cat cracker catalyst

-
High
-
power magnets

-
Lasers & masers

-
Oxidizers

-
Ceramic capacitors

-
MRI contrast agent

-
Tracer elements

-
X
-
ray tubes

-
Welding goggles

-
Nuclear batteries

-
Reducing agents

-
PET scanners

-
Refractive glass

-
Military uses
(!)

-
Lighter flints

-
High
-
strength steel

Uses of “rare earth metals”

Source: http
://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rare_earth_element

NIMBY
(p287)


Should we close

Kennecott,
MagCorp

and oil refineries?

No new refineries in U.S. since 1970s?


Magcorp

Utah was the worst U.S. air
polluter until bankruptcy and
reinvestment in cleaner processes

Titanium sponge process added in 2008


Social media I viewed suggested strongly polarized views on
MagCorp
:


-

close it down as an inefficient, subsidized, polluting industry in
favor of Chinese lower cost (off
-
shore pollution)

or

-

preserve and support the vitality of American self
-
sufficiency
and employment in strategically vital extractive industries,
especially those, like
MagCorp
, that are powered (in part) by
renewable (solar) energy.

World food prices are set in stock markets
(p297)

Could WTC attacks relate to extremist resistance to
external control?

2008 crisis caused by oil
-
based cost of fertilizers,
drought, core
-
country bio
-
fuels, trend toward
resource
-
intensive food by more prosperous people
(beef, etc.), financial speculation
(don’t use my food to build your retirement
plan


investment returns are part of food cost)


Rice prices rose more than 200% in 2006
-
08, then eased during 2009 recession.


Longer term, if the true cost of food production were added to prices, then
acute stress from food prices would become chronic in many countries.


What is
“Fair Trade?”

More or less, consumers voluntarily paying a more full or
fair cost for products, based on fair wages and more environmental sensitivity in
production processes
.

Green Revolution

Meteoric rise in agricultural production


Human development leaped when agricultural surplus allowed
people to:


-

specialize

(by urbanizing)

-
invest

in technology

-

rapidly
advance

in prosperity and opportunity


The post
-
war “Green Revolution” is the most salient of many
“leaps” in agricultural technology. In fact, has agriculture moved
from a “primary” activity to a “secondary” or
industrial

activity?


A contrarian view is that agri
-
business puts small farms
out of business, displaces women workers, introduces
GMOs, reduces genetic variety, leads to massive
population growth, presses hard on soil and water
resources, requires massive fossil fuel inputs, distorts
markets and promotes involuntary migration, displaces
bio
-
mass fuels (no net CO
2
), reduces self
-
sufficiency in
favor of global markets and invites financial market
manipulation (speculation).

<summary from textbook and Web sources>


Both points of view appear to be true.

Local Examples of “Industrial Agriculture”

aka “factory farming”

(Undeniably,
ag

operations on a vast scale are cost
-
competitive)


In Oakley, Idaho, a family farming
community
has been largely “plowed
under” in favor of large scale migrant
-
based factory farms.

Meanwhile, in nearby Burley, Idaho, voters rejected a proposed hog farm
operation that would have been similar to the Delta (Utah) area where from
odors are detectable for 20 miles

(
Most U.S. food travels at least 1,500 miles, so why not the smell?)
(page 284)


Blue
Revolution

On land, humans have become relatively stable experts. On
water, humans are still ‘hunter
-
gatherers’.


Fish farming is often maligned, but is still developing, with a goal
to produce results in productivity similar to “green revolution”


How do we manage world’s oceans, divided between so many
nations? Who owns the ocean? Can side effects be managed?

GMO technology is now moving into aquaculture


Source: Summation from chapters 8 and 10.

Ag summation (lecture points)


-

human populations reap (no pun) tremendous economic benefits from industrial
agriculture, yet we complain about the severe and unevenly distributed environmental
and community (fracture) effects of global agribusiness.


Meanwhile, it is not clear if “
locovore
” (local production and consumption) just means
another form of urban sprawl, such as is seen in China, where thousands of square
miles are occupied by endless series of fish ponds, apartment buildings, factories and
truck gardens.


Either way, it is impossible to deny the hugely uneven economic development effects
of technology in agriculture and the heavy consumption of natural resources, most of
which are not renewable in any near
-
term scale.

Fast Food (nation)

McDonalds feeds 50 million people in U.S
. (p325)

Alleged to be energy
-
dense and nutrition
-
poor, the addictive

French fry is the most commonly eaten vegetable in U.S.A.
(starch and fat)


Allred observation is that excessive packaging (foam, paper,
plastic) is the real crime of fast food.


Textbook says that U.S. fast food results in rain forest
destruction

Side note: same allegation about U.S. pet food


vast quantities
of protein imported at expense of rain forest clearing


exposed
soils degrade rapidly


similar to slash and burn

T

extbook

argues that globalization (interdependency) reduces
food “sovereignty”


an externality, or side effect of
globalization.
(p331)


Jose
Bove

-

France

French Fry

Urban Food Production

World urban population growth is twice the rate of rural
growth.

Yet up to 30% of US food grown in urban areas (p334)


Agribusiness involves vertical
vs

horizontal integration
(P328)

-
Vertical


control all the inputs (Simplot)

-
Horizontal



control the suppliers (own all the farms and
retailers)

Are capitalists more oriented to globalization while LDCs
and China are more for “
locovore
”?

Grasslands
-

Breadbaskets

Source: php.radford.edu

Tropics and sub
-
tropics have poor farm soils.
Severe climates have soil for humans.

Mid
-
latitude,
“severe”
climates where
grasslands
(grain
production) is
high

U.S. “Breadbasket”

-
shifts westward with
BuRec

investment (1902)

and may shift northward (?) with global warming

For wheat, but
applies to most
U.S. most farm
products

Geog.nau.edu

For water
depletion, dry
farming is an
option for
grains

For fertilizer and
energy, current
trends suggest long
-
term decline in
natural capability of
farm soils

US “breadbasket” strongly
depletes groundwater and
soil resources

U.S. finance and
engineering tech
vastly expanded the
natural ‘breadbasket’

Dry
Farming

Another example of western technology adapting to opportunities and constraints.


Should
Ogalalla

water be preserved, instead of exporting
grain? World trade is growing faster than world
production of goods, the U.S. needs trade balance.


Meanwhile, China now exports grain even though millions
are calorie
-
deficit.


Catalan
-

Spain

Eastern Washington

General Reference


compare to “Bread Baskets”

General Reference


Most of land area is above the equator

G20 nations

Source: Wikipedia (Google maps for
world population)

Islam

BRIC


mid
-
latitude
?


How does BRIC differ from Islam? <BRIC is part of G20, Islam is not. More?

General Reference Map

Source:

wikipedia
-
desertification

Muslim world is most vulnerable,
but also Australia and western US

World Poverty


The Trouble with Thematic Maps

(compare the U.S. portion of this map to the next slide)

Colors are not very intuitive, shape distortions occur due to map projection,
data is not normalized for cost of living.

Poverty is clearly associated with lower latitudes. Missing data for some of the
poorest. In
-
country distinctions are completely lost.

Poverty in the United States

Remnants of tribal reservations?

Is this map ‘normalized’?
<partially: county comparisons fail on population density, but regional distinctions still
show. Aggregating to country by country is a real problem for most countries
.>
Source: Wikimedia

Recreation
-
related up
-
scale enclaves?

Migrant communities
and unassimilated
native or immigrant
populations?




Mason
-
Dixon Line

Symbolizes a cultural boundary


not

the Missouri compromise line that marked the
boundaries of “slave states”. Was it really about labor costs for cotton or a perception
about northern political control?

World Religions


Source:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Major_religious_groups

Chinese religions have been “pluralistic” for thousands of years:
Buddhism & Taoism (30%, but perhaps are not religions, but
philosophies); 60
-
70 % of Chinese are avowedly atheist or agnostic.

Not a really bad map, except perhaps for generalizing about China

Source: google.com/wp.patheos.com

Religion in the United States

Native
American

Tribal
remnants


Spanish influence

French
influence

Scandinavia and/or Germany

Colors keyed
to counties
wherein one
religion
reported
adherents
totaling at
least half of
county
population

Are colors intended
to represent
liberal/conservative?

LDS

Northern Ireland

There is no generally accepted term to describe what Northern Ireland is:
province, region, country or something else
.

The choice of term can be
controversial and can reveal the writer's political
preferences.

This has been noted
as a problem by several writers on Northern Ireland, with no generally
recommended solution
.

Owing in part to the way in which the United Kingdom and Northern Ireland came
into being, there is no legally defined term to describe what Northern Ireland '
is
'.
There is also no uniform or guiding way to refer to Northern Ireland amongst the
agencies of the UK government.


Northern Ireland
-

a province, region,
country or nation? The choice of
terms is controversial. Nationalists
see themselves as Irish and mostly
Catholic; Unionists see themselves as
British and mostly Protestant.


Wikipedia.org/wiki/
Northern_Ireland

Index of Human Development

Ecological

Commod

Depend

Core

1980

2005

Latitude

Race

Religion

Climate

Language

Footprint

Concent

Ratio

Country?

Switzerland

Iceland

60

Caucasian

Christian

Vigorous

Germanic

Highest







United States

Norway

60

Caucasian

Christian

Vigorous

Germanic

High







Iceland

Australia

30

Caucasian

Christian

Vigorous

Germanic

Highest







Norway

Canada

60

Caucasian

Christian

Vigorous

Germanic

High





Yes

Canada

Ireland

50

Caucasian

Christian

Vigorous

Germanic

High







Japan

Sweden

60

Caucasian

Christian

Vigorous

Germanic

High







Netherlands

Switzerland

50

Caucasian

Christian

Vigorous

Germanic

High







Denmark

Netherlands

50

Caucasian

Christian

Vigorous

Germanic

High







Sweden

Japan

40

Asian

Shinto

Vigorous

Japanese

High





Yes

France

Finland

60

Caucasian

Christian

Vigorous

Uralic

High







Belgium

France

40

Caucasian

Christian

Vigorous

Romance

High







Australia

United States

40

Caucasian

Christian

Vigorous

Germ/Rom

Highest





Yes

life expectancy, education, personal income. ELSE?

Assignments 3 & 4

Expand the definition of

Index of Human development


Populate a spreadsheet with relevant criteria and rankings

Provide map images in a PowerPoint

Options:

Use a spreadsheet (or not), a PowerPoint (or not), omit any/all previous
criteria, redefine the meaning of human development, present findings to class (or
not), include maps or graphic images.


Possible topics to add to


“Index of Human Development”


-
ecological
footprint

-
human rights

-
rights of
women relative to men

-
leisure
time

-
tenure (ownership and stability)

-
military strength

-
social service expenditures

-
poverty
(
moving target or absolutes?)

-
family
stability
(stable, nuclear)

-
internet usage

-
household dependency ratio

-
expenditures on health care?

-
commodity export dependency

-
religious freedom

-
freedom from religion (agency)

-
sustainability

-
economic independence
vs

interdependence (trade)

-

Economic sectors (primary, etc.)

The textbook and/or any Web
search will show hundreds of
potentially useful categories
that can help sort and rank
countries in terms of how you
choose to define an
“Index of
Human Development”

The End