Unit 4 Notes Kingdom Plantae - Effingham County Schools

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Dec 14, 2012 (5 years and 22 days ago)

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Unit 4 Notes

Kingdom Plantae



Plant Characteristics


Eukaryotic Plant Cells


Heredity and Genetics


Future Technology

Kingdom Plantae


Complex, multi
-
cellular
autotrophs

(producers)

Kingdom Plantae


Use
photosynthesis

to make their own food












































Kingdom Plantae


Have a cell wall, chloroplast and large vacuole
that animals cells do not have


Kingdom Plantae


Eukaryotic


Kingdom Plantae

Reproduce Asexually:

Rhizomes, tubers,
runners

& plantlets

Reproduce Sexually:

Requires female and male sex cells

Plants role in an Ecosystem

Plants are producers


they are the first
biotic

factor in all land
-
based food chains






sun


plant


worm


turtle


eagle

(abiotic) (biotic) (biotic) (biotic) (biotic)

Plants make and store energy through
photosynthesis


they take in water and
carbon
dioxide
and in the presence of sunlight make
sugar/glucose and
oxygen
.

Plants also release energy through
cellular
respiration
. The sugar/glucose and oxygen go in
to their mitochondria which turns these
products into
ATP

(energy); water and carbon
dioxide are released in this process


Plant Basics

Plants have
adapted

to living on land


they live
everywhere on earth


from the icy arctic to the
tropics to deserts…


Plant Basics

Plants are complex multi
-
cellular organisms that
are organized into the following:



Cells



(plant cell)


Tissues


(vascular tissue)


Organs


(leaf)


Organ systems

(shoot system)


Organism


(rose bush)


Cell

Cell is the basic unit of life


the building blocks
of complex, multi
-
cellular organisms


Tissue

A group of similar cells working together to do
the same job

Organs

Similar tissue working together to do the same
job

Organ Systems

Groups of similar organs all working together to
do the same job

Organism

A living thing capable of surviving on its own


made up of two or more organ systems working
together

Plant Basics


Humans depend on plants for survival: they are
a source of food; they provide us
oxygen
; and
we get natural gas, coal and soil from them.

Plant Cells are Eukaryotic

Plant cells have the following organelles and they do the
following jobs:



Nucleus



(controls all activities / DNA)


Mitochondria


(cellular respiration / energy)


Ribosomes



(makes proteins)


Lysosomes



(cleans waste)


Cell membrane


(allows diffusion & osmosis)


Cell wall



(
strength

and support)


Chloroplasts


(
photosynthesis
)


Large vacuoles


(storage of water & minerals)

Heredity and Genetics

Gregor Mendel studied thousands of pea plants
to up with the basic principles of
heredity

that
we still use today



Heredity and Genetics

These principles all start with
sexual
reproduction


where two prents combine sex
cells (each with ½ of their DNA) to create new
organisms
-

now with a combination of traits
from each parent

Heredity and Genetics

Chromosomes

are coiled pieces of DNA and
protein that carry genes (which code for a
specific trait). Each form of a gene is called an
allele. Alleles can be dominant or recessive.


Heredity and Genetics

Dominant

alleles will always present


or show
(RR or Rr), while a
recessive

trait will only show
itself if two recessive alleles are present (rr).

Heredity and Genetics


An organism’s geneotype is represented by the
letters


RR, Rr, or rr
. The phenotype for these
genotypes is either round or wrinkled.



Heredity and Genetics


Reginald Punnett developed a tool called the
Punnett Square


it is a way to predict all of
the possible
genotypes

offspring could have
.



Each box in the Punnett Square shows a way
the
alleles

from each parent could combine in
potential offspring.


Plant Cell Division


Plants are
complex

organisms that grow
throughout their lifetime. Cells inside these
organisms divide in two ways for two different
purposes

Plant Cell Division

In order to make new
body

cells (somatic) cells


plant cells undergo mitosis. In this process the
nucleus divides and forms two new identical
cells.



Plant Cell Division

In order to make new
sex

cells (gametes)


plant cells
go through meiosis. In this process the nucelus divides
twice and you end up with 4 new cells


each with only
½ of the genetic material as the parent cell.


Modern Technology and Plants

Selective
breeding

has allowed farmers to select
and breed two parent plants to produce offspring
with the traits they choose
.







Examples
include sweeter corn, bigger tomatoes
and round peas.

Modern Technology and Plants

Genetic engineering
has allowed farmers to get the
traits they want, this time by taking a section of
DNA from one organism and inserting it into
another organism






Example
: glow in the dark tobacco plant


Modern Technology and Plants


While the benefits to these two processes seem
obvious


some scientists worry that unforseen
problems might arise


what if a genetically
altered plant accidently crossbreeds with
something harmful (like a weed) and a super
strain of weeds takes over?


Plants and Evolution


Some
scientists think that modern plants
evolved

from ancient plant
-
like protists. These
same scientists think that plant
-
like protists
evolved from ancient cyanobacteria and
archaebacteria.