Technology in Action

kissimmeemisologistBiotechnology

Dec 14, 2012 (4 years and 10 months ago)

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© 2009 Prentice
-
Hall, Inc.


1

Technology in Action

Technology in Focus:


Information Technology Ethics

© 2009 Prentice
-
Hall, Inc.


2

Ethics Defined


Study of morals and moral choices


Match established ideas of right and wrong


Fairness


Equity


Guidelines for decision making

© 2009 Prentice
-
Hall, Inc.


3

Ethics Defined


Systems of ethical conduct


Moral relativism


No universal moral truth


Situational ethics


Based on situation


Religious traditions

© 2009 Prentice
-
Hall, Inc.


4

Ethics Defined


Unethical behavior


Not conforming to a set of approved standards


Social or professional

© 2009 Prentice
-
Hall, Inc.


5

Personal Ethics


Checklist of personal decisions


May be well
-
defined


May be applied inconsistently

© 2009 Prentice
-
Hall, Inc.


6

Personal Ethics


How do they develop?


Family and cultural bias


Religious affiliation


Life experiences

© 2009 Prentice
-
Hall, Inc.


7

Define Your Personal Ethics


Describe yourself


What kind of a person do you want to be?


List your beliefs


Identify external influences


Consider “why”


Prepare a statement of values

© 2009 Prentice
-
Hall, Inc.


8

Personal Ethics


Benefits of ethical living


Obeying laws


Less stress and anger


Increased happiness

© 2009 Prentice
-
Hall, Inc.


9

Personal Ethics in the

World View


Do your ethics match the workplace?


Are you ethics away from work a concern
for your employer?

© 2009 Prentice
-
Hall, Inc.


10

Technology and Ethics


Technology is all around us


Technology moves quickly


Rules governing technology move more
slowly


Use of technology left to personal ethics

© 2009 Prentice
-
Hall, Inc.


11

Social Justice: Can Technology

Be Used to Benefit Everyone?


Can we use technology to achieve social
justice?


Can we apply these technologies to poor
areas?


Solar energy


Genetic engineering


Internet access

© 2009 Prentice
-
Hall, Inc.


12

Social Justice: Can Technology

Be Used to Benefit Everyone?


Point: Technology Provides Economic
Opportunity for All


Could be used to eliminate poverty


Could improve quality of life in poor countries


Could be an ethical force

© 2009 Prentice
-
Hall, Inc.


13

Social Justice: Can Technology

Be Used to Benefit Everyone?


Counterpoint: Technology Doesn’t Provide
Economic Opportunity for All


No one can solve the problem of poverty


Should not be addressed by technologists


Potential risks of new technologies


Threats to existing world economies

© 2009 Prentice
-
Hall, Inc.


14

Intellectual Property: What Is

Fair About Fair Use?


Copyright laws protect intellectual property


Fair use


Allows for exceptions to copyright laws


Fair use criteria


What is the purpose of the work?


What is the nature of the proposed work?


How much copyrighted material is being
used?


What is the effect on the original material?

© 2009 Prentice
-
Hall, Inc.


15

Intellectual Property: What Is

Fair About Fair Use?


Point: Liberal Fair Use Standards Are
Beneficial


Encourages wide dissemination of information


Allows the most democratic, free society


Existing laws not up
-
to
-
date with technology

© 2009 Prentice
-
Hall, Inc.


16

Intellectual Property: What Is

Fair About Fair Use?


Counterpoint: Strict Fair Use Standards Are
Beneficial


Existing laws should not be changed because
technology has changed


Copyright holders should control their own work

© 2009 Prentice
-
Hall, Inc.


17

Privacy: Is Personal Privacy

a Casualty of the Modern Age?


Privacy is a basic human right


Many of our transactions are recorded


Debit, credit cards


Loyalty cards


Electronic toll passes


Cell phones

© 2009 Prentice
-
Hall, Inc.


18

Privacy: Is Personal Privacy

a Casualty of the Modern Age?


Point: Protect Personal Privacy


No reason to watch me


Government misuse of data


Government control of population


National ID cards remind people of Nazis


Privacy controls are expensive

© 2009 Prentice
-
Hall, Inc.


19

Privacy: Is Personal Privacy

a Casualty of the Modern Age?


Counterpoint: Reduced Privacy Is a
Fact of Modern Life


Should have nothing to hide


Help enhance the detection of terrorists


Protect citizens from being abused


National ID card worth the cost

© 2009 Prentice
-
Hall, Inc.


20

Commerce: Should Online Gambling
Be Banned or Regulated?


Multi
-
billion dollar industry


Already illegal in U.S.


Facilitates addictive gambling

© 2009 Prentice
-
Hall, Inc.


21

Commerce: Should Online Gambling
Be Banned or Regulated?


Point: Ban Online Gambling


Easy access for minors and compulsive
gamblers


Could support criminal activities


No regulation: who keeps the house honest?


Allows gamblers to hide their addiction

© 2009 Prentice
-
Hall, Inc.


22

Commerce: Should Online Gambling
Be Banned or Regulated?


Counterpoint: Legalize Online Gambling


Protect consumers


Allow for scrutiny of all transactions


Standardize the industry


Generate tax revenues


Regulated in other countries


Easier to regulate than prohibit

© 2009 Prentice
-
Hall, Inc.


23

Communication: When Does

Big Business Limit Free Speech?


Google concedes to demands from
Beijing to self
-
censor its search engine


Helps suppress dissent in return for
access to the Chinese market


Cost of doing business in Chinese market


Potential Chinese market is huge

© 2009 Prentice
-
Hall, Inc.


24

Communication: When Does

Big Business Limit Free Speech?


Point: Google Acted Unethically


Sacrificed free speech for business


Violated human rights


No incentive for China to change


Other rights hang in the balance


How far is too far?

© 2009 Prentice
-
Hall, Inc.


25

Communication: When Does

Big Business Limit Free Speech?


Counterpoint: Google’s Actions Were
Justified


Companies should pursue profits


Withdrawing from China would further
restrict free speech


Advances the slow progress toward
democracy

© 2009 Prentice
-
Hall, Inc.


26

Computer Abuse: Does

Restricting Online Information
Protect Children?


Internet allows


Sexual predators to contact potential victims


Distribution of pornography


Cyberbullying


Phishing


Dissemination of hate speech

© 2009 Prentice
-
Hall, Inc.


27

Computer Abuse: Does

Restricting Online Information
Protect Children?


Children are especially vulnerable


Use technology more than adults


More trusting than some adults


May not recognize malicious intent

© 2009 Prentice
-
Hall, Inc.


28

Computer Abuse: Does

Restricting Online Information
Protect Children?


Point: Monitoring Software Protects
Children


Laws have proved ineffective


Make sure libraries and schools are safe


Uphold moral standards of the public


Logical extension of the library screening
process

© 2009 Prentice
-
Hall, Inc.


29

Computer Abuse: Does

Restricting Online Information
Protect Children?


Counterpoint: Monitoring Software
Restricts Access to Information


Blocks informational content


Amounts to censorship


Is not 100% reliable


Widens the “digital divide”


Education is a better alternative

© 2009 Prentice
-
Hall, Inc.


30

Using Computers to Support
Ethical Conduct


Charitable organizations use the Internet
for fund raising


Companies must provide mechanisms to
report unethical behavior anonymously


Intranets and e
-
mail are used to inform
employees of ethics policies


Your personal ethics must guide your
decisions concerning technology