Identical Twins

kissimmeemisologistBiotechnology

Dec 14, 2012 (4 years and 7 months ago)

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Nature and
Nurture in
Psychology

Module 3


Behavior Genetics
: the study of the
relative power and limits of genetic and
environmental influences on behavior.


Genes:

the biochemical units of heredity
that make up the chromosomes; a
segment of DNA.


Environment:
Every non
-
genetic
influence, from prenatal nutrition to the
people and things around us.

Predisposition


Chromosome:

Thread like structures mad of DNA
molecules that contain the genes.


DNA:

A complex molecule containing the genetic
information that makes up the chromosomes.
(A,T,C, or G)


Genome:

The complete instructions for making an
organism, consisting of all the genetic material in
its chromosomes.


Mutation:

Random errors in gene replication that
lead to a change in the individual’s genetic code;
the source to all genetic diversity.

Genetic Makeup


Fruit Fly has 15,000 genes


Human has 30,000 genes


99.9 percent of your four letter DNA
sequences match that of every other
human

Some of the controversy
surrounding cloning involves
whether or not parents could
choose different traits for their
unborn children. Critics of cloning
fear that parents could engineer
“the perfect child,” creating a child
with only desirable qualities who is
resistant to disease and the ill
effects of aging.

Cloning


Should parents be allowed to craft their ideal
child? Why or Why not?


What qualities would you consider to be
ideal? Do others share you ideas? Why or
why not?


How would culture affect genetic
engineering of children?


What if parents chose traits that actually
affected their child adversely from an
evolutionary standpoint?

Twin Studies


Identical Twins
: Twins who are genetically
identical organisms, Helps to understand
impact of genes on behavior. Same egg
that splits.


Fraternal Twins
: Twins who develop from
separate eggs. Helps to understand
impact of environment on behavior.

Many states do not allow
adoptees to learn information
about their biological parents in
order to protect the privacy of
people who put up children for
adoption.

Adoption


What would be the benefits of confidentiality
laws that favor biological parents? What are
the disadvantages?


Should adoptees be allowed to find out all
information about their biological parents?
Why or why not?


What compromise could you propose that
would enable adoptees to learn about their
biological heritage and protect the privacy of
biological parents?

Environment
Matters

Key Environmental
Influences

Cultural Influences



Culture:

The shared attitudes, beliefs, norms and
behaviors of a group communicated from one
generation to the next.


Norms:

Understood rules for accepted and
expected behavior; norms prescribe “proper”
behavior.


Collectivism:

Giving priority to the goal of one’s
group and defining one’s identity accordingly.


Individualism:

Giving priority to one’s own goals
over group goals, and defining one’s identity in
terms of personal attributes rather than group
identification.


Questions


What is the most obvious trait you’ve inherited
from your parents? What is the most obvious thing
you’ve learned from them?


At this point in your life, which has more influence
over you morals and values: Parents or peers?
Why? Which has more influence over your
personality? Why?


How is life in the U.S. different from life in you native
culture?


How much of the culture in the U.S. have you
adopted as your own, and what native cultural
traditions have you kept? How do other family
members balance the two cultures?