BIOTECHNOLOGY AND GENETIC ENGINEERING

kissimmeemisologistBiotechnology

Dec 14, 2012 (5 years and 23 days ago)

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Part 3

BASICS OF INHERITANCE


DNA

is the
hereditary
molecule


BLUE PRINT

for
all traits


Universal and
Interchangeable

DNA EXTRACTION LAB


HUMAN CHROMOSOMES


Coiled strands of
DNA


23 pairs of
chromosomes


23 from


egg


23 from


sperm

I. Sexual reproduction


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II. Hybrid


Offspring produced by the mating of
different species.


Every cell contains DNA from both species


Can you name some hybrid animals?
Peekenese and a poodle = peek
-
a
-
poo


Horse and a donkey= mule



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Wolf/dog hybrid

Liger or tigon


Zonkey or zedonk






Llamal llama/camel hybrid

III Chimera



Produced in the laboratory


EMBRYO FUSION
-

see article on "GEEP"


Draw diagram of hybrid and chimera


IV IN VITRO FERTILIZATION



Test tube babies


Procedure


female injected with hormones to cause
ovulation of many eggs


Male donates sperm


Egg and sperm are mixed in a dish in a
lab to create embryos


Embryo implanted in surrogate mother

Test Tube Babies


In Vitro
Fertilization
(IVF)

and
Embryo
Transfer
(ET)


20%
success rate


Can be used for :


Infertile couples


Experimentation


Increase the population of
endangered species


QUESTION? What do we do with
the left over human embryos?

V. Surrogate Motherhood


Make it exciting


Twins: Identical vs. Fraternal


Diagram in your notes.

Identical


Fraternal


Ethics:

Theory of right and wrong.
Defines what is good for the individual
and society



Morals:

Practicing right and wrong

Questions from Article


1. What is the danger of being able to
create embryos?


2. Advantage / Disadvantage of IVF and
ET?


3. What is an ethical question raised w/
frozen embryos?


4. What was the problem raised w/ the
death of the American who died and left 2
frozen embryos?

VI Genetic Engineering and
Moving Genes


-
Human Genome Project (video) HGP
READ pg. 236


-
(HGP)sequence all the base pairs in
the human genome (2
-
3 billion pairs)







(100,000
genes)


-
genome

-
all the possible bases in a
species or individual


gene
-

DNA sequence that codes for a
protein. The protein may lead to a
visible trait (I.e. eye color, hair texture,
blood type etc)


Genetic Disease
-

disease caused by
a defective or mutant gene.
Considered hereditary, if it can be
passed on to the next generation (i.e.
Huntingtons, Sickle Cell are major
examples)

MOVING GENES
(the basics)


Recombinant DNA involves 4 steps


Procedure


1. DNA is cut and desired gene is removed


2. gene is attached to a vector for delivery
into another cell


3. cloning
-

multiple copies of the gene are
made by allowing the host cell to multiply


4. screening
-

cells with the new gene are
sorted from the multitude produced

BT Corn

Insulin
from

bacteria

Artificial
insemination
or embryo
transfer

How is the DNA cut?


Restriction enzymes
-

recognize a
specific DNA sequence and cuts
it at every location


How is the DNA delivered? Viruses,
yeast or plasmid can be used.


A plasmid is a loop of DNA that are
independent of the main DNA of a
bacteria cell.


The same restriction enzyme is used to
open the plasmid.


Nucleotide pairs on the end of the gene
and plasmid join in a complimentary
fashion.


The gene is now part of the host’s DNA

How is the DNA separated?


electrophoresis

KIDS, CARS AND $$$$$

VIII Moral and Ethical issues


WHY IS THIS BEING DONE?


HOW IS THIS BEING DONE?


WHO OR WHAT CAN IT BE DONE
TO?

Cloning Around



(reproductive cloning)


All
SOMATIC CELLS

(body cells) contain DNA
blueprint for the individual
organism


Any cell can behave like a
ZYGOTE to produce an
entire individual

HISTORY OF CLONING



1953

frog


1996

sheep

277


2002

cat


82


2003

horse

841


2005

dog


ATTEMPTS BEFORE
SUCCESS


CLONING BASICS



Reproductive
Cloning is
expensive and
inefficient


CC cost $50,000


Horse 1/841 .12%


Sheep 1/277 .36%

STEM CELL RESEARCH


What’s so special
about Stem
Cells?



Biological
immortality


Pluripotent
-

can become
any of 220
cell types

Therapeutic potential



Pancreas beta cells to
produce insulin to relieve
diabetes


Dopamine producing cells in
the brain to relieve
Parkinson’s disease


Regrowth of missing limbs




ADULT STEM CELLS


“cells in adult tissues that are
undifferentiated”


Multipotent

(can become many of the
220 cell types)


Sources


bone marrow, umbilical cord,


hair follicle, skin,


adipose cells, More are known



Most well know example of Adult Stem Cell…
bone marrow stem cells