What did they do to tell who the father was?
How do they do these tests?
How do they know for SURE?
What is biotechnology?
Bio = Life
Technology = machinery, equipment, or the
application of knowledge
Technology that relates to the field of
biology or living things
organisms using various
to produce more useful
using better genes and traits
Allows the best or desired traits to be
Research in Biotechnology
Help humans create
that can be frost
Use transgenic organisms to help
model human physiology for
to create bacteria to break
into harmless products
Pharmaceutical companies use recombinant
DNA to cheaply produce
and other proteins
A method used in biochemistry and
molecular biology to separate DNA or RNA
molecules by size to compare DNA data.
Also called a “DNA fingerprint”
Unique to each person
What can this be used for?
Who is the father?
Who is the mother?
Who are the siblings, cousins, grandparents, etc.?
How closely related are two organisms (humans & apes)?
Crime Scene Investigations
Who committed the crime?
Extract DNA sample
Cut DNA into smaller pieces using Restriction
Put the smaller DNA fragments into the Gel Tray
an electric charge
to separate the pieces of
Analyze the DNA fragments
Goal of Gel Electrophoresis
The process of Gel Electrophoresis works to
according to their
2. In order to cut the DNA into fragments,
These are specific enzymes (proteins) that
recognize specific sequences of DNA and then cut
it in half.
3. Samples of DNA fragments are loaded onto a
4. DNA fragments move in the Gel due to opposite
charges (DNA is negatively charged)
SMALL strands move further
down the Gel than
the LARGER strands of DNA.
Since they are larger and heavier, the
strands do not move as far down the Gel
5. The groups of DNA fragments show up as
small lines in the Gel
6. Now a DNA FINGERPRINT is created, which
can be analyzed.
Let’s Take a look…
the steps used in Gel
would you find the shortest stand of
causes the fragments on DNA to move?
What is a transgenic organism?
Let’s break down the word…
Trans = across
Organism = Living thing
Transgenic Organisms are:
It is an organism that has had genes inserted (or
moved into) from a different organism
Transgenic organisms are made from combining
Genetically Modified Food
Genetically Modified Food
What is Genetically Modified
It is a crop or food that has been intentionally
modified, altered or changed.
What is Selective Breeding…
A type of genetic engineering
Choosing organisms (plants, animals) with
the best traits (genes) and breeding them
together to produce better (bigger, stronger)
Can you thinks of a real life
example of selective breeding?
How did THIS happen?!
A desired gene from one organism (the glow
gene from a fire fly) was inserted into the
DNA of a pig
Through MITOSIS the pig’s cells began
replicating the glow
dark gene (the
Let’s take a closer look at this…
What is Recombinant DNA
When DNA from
come together, the DNA becomes
What does recombinant (recombine) mean?
The organism that receives the
recombinant DNA will use it as if it were
its own DNA.
Also know as…
How do scientists create
Its all about using BACTERIA!
This is because bacteria have DNA rings
Steps for Creating a Transgenic
emove the plasmid
ut the bacterial DNA using restriction enzymes,
leaving an open “sticky end.”
Remove and cut a desired gene from a different
organisms (foreign DNA), also leaving an open “sticky
Then glue a piece of foreign (human, plant, animal)
DNA back into the plasmid using the enzyme
and sticking the “sticky ends” together.
Insert the plasmid back into the Bacteria
Now, the bacteria will reproduce the new gene (in the
plasmid DNA) to make larger quantities of the desired
gene or trait.
All bacteria are…
REMEMBER: bacteria divide using asexual
Every new bacteria will be making exact copies of
the desired gene!
antibiotics and Insulin
made to be resistant to
of genes which cause
disorders (aka Gene Therapy)
Such as Cystic Fibrosis
Check Point 1
What is a Transgenic Organism?
How are transgenic organisms made?
What is a GMO?
What is a real
life example of a GMO?
What is selective breeding?
What is a real
life example of selective
Human Genome Project
A collaborative effort by scientists around the
world to map the human genome
= all of an organism’s hereditary
Completed in 2003
Can be used to determine if people carry
genes for certain traits or diseases
Can be used to determine the locations of
genes on chromosomes
Problems with the Human
What do we do with the information?
Abortion of defective babies?
Will insurance companies be able to deny you
coverage because of your genes?
Can pharmaceutical companies “copyright” a
If so, what happens to people with that gene?
is an organism that is a perfect copy
of another organism
Clones can happen in nature
Some organisms (like bacteria) “clone”
themselves through asexual reproduction
Cloning mammals is really hard
we used to
think it was impossible
Dolly the sheep
Making a Clone:
1. A cell is taken from the donor.
2. An egg is taken from another adult animal.
3. The egg has all of its genetic material (DNA)
4. The genetic material (DNA) is taken from the
donor cell and placed into the now
5. The egg with the donor’s genetic material is
placed in a foster mother where it will divide
and grow into a baby. This is the
perfect copy of the original donor.
Problems with Cloning:
Most attempts to clone have failed
Of the attempts that succeed, most have
Large offspring syndrome (LOS)
babies tend to be larger than other babies of
the enlarged organs cause
a clone may not express
the same genes as the original, even if they
are genetically identical
Problems with Cloning
Clones tend to have weak immune systems
they are more vulnerable to disease
Cells tend to have more trouble dividing
properly the older an organism is
take an “old” cell from an older organism and
grow a younger organism (clone) from it,
there will be even more dividing problems
Therefore, it is currently illegal to clone
humans in the United States
What is Gene Therapy?
The transplantation of normal genes into
cells in place of missing or defective ones in
order to correct genetic disorders.
Still in the theory/testing stages
1. A person is tested for faulty genes
2. A person with a healthy copy of the gene donates
some cells and has the healthy copy cut out using
3. The healthy copy is loaded into a
usually a virus.
4. The sick person is infected with the virus, which
will inject the gene into their cells, hopefully
“patching up” the problem.
Diseases that can be cured
with Gene Therapy
= causes respiratory tract to
produce a thick mucus (instead of the normal
thin, watery kind) that can clog passageways
and lead to suffocation. People with CF
usually die by 30
Severe Combined Immunodeficiency
(SCID) = affects two kinds of infection
fighting cells, leaving patients susceptible to
diseases. Women are usually only carriers,
men are usually the ones affected.
Problems with Gene Therapy
Very expensive to research and test
We don’t know what the side effects will be
We still don’t understand everything about
how do we know this will fix the
Stem Cell Research
are a “blank slate”
become any kind of cell through
ex. Heart cell, lung cell
Two main kinds:
Adult stem cells
= come from adults
Embryonic stem cells
= come from embryos
grown in the lab
Stem Cell Research
Scientists prefer to work with embryonic
Easier to identify, isolate, and harvest
More of them than adult stem cells
Grow more quickly and easily
Easier to manipulate
Problems with Stem
It is very expensive
Stem cells can cause cancer if they divide out of
Why use embryonic when adult cells are available?
Adult stem cells avoid problem of immune