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kettleitchyBiotechnology

Dec 5, 2012 (4 years and 8 months ago)

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Biotechnology

What Is Biotechnology?


Using scientific methods with organisms to
produce new products or new forms of
organisms


Any technique that uses living organisms
or substances from those organisms to
make or modify a product, to improve
plants or animals, or to develop
microorganisms for specific uses

What Is Biotechnology?


GMO
-

genetically modified organisms.


GEO
-

genetically enhanced organisms.


With both, the natural genetic material of
the organism has been altered.


Roots in bread making, wine brewing,
cheese and yogurt fermentation, and
classical plant and animal breeding

What Is Biotechnology?


Manipulation of genes is called genetic
engineering or recombinant DNA technology


Genetic engineering involves taking one or
more genes from a location in one organism
and either


Transferring them to another organism


Putting them back into the original organism in
different combinations

What is the career outlook in
biotechnology?


Biotech in 1998


1,300 companies in the US


2/3 have less than 135 employees


140,000 jobs


Jobs will continue to increase exponentially


Jobs are available to high school graduates
through PhD’s


In 2005…over 4500 companies worldwide


What Subjects Are Involved
With Biotechnology?


Multidisciplinary
-

involving a number of
disciplines that are coordinated for a
desired outcome


Science


Life sciences


Physical sciences


Social sciences

What Subjects Are Involved
With Biotechnology?


Mathematics


Applied sciences


Computer applications


Engineering


Agriculture

What Are the Stages of
Biotechnology Development


Ancient biotechnology
-

early history as
related to food and shelter; Includes
domestication


Classical biotechnology
-

built on ancient
biotechnology; Fermentation promoted
food production, and medicine


Modern biotechnology
-

manipulates
genetic information in organism; Genetic
engineering

What Are the Areas of
Biotechnology?


Organismic biotechnology
-

uses intact
organisms; Does not alter genetic material


Molecular biotechnology
-

alters genetic
makeup to achieve specific goals


Transgenic organism
-

an organism with
artificially altered genetic material

What Are the Benefits of
Biotechnology?


Medicine


Human


Veterinary


Biopharming


Environment


Agriculture


Food products


Industry and manufacturing

What Did These Individuals
Contribute to Biotechnology?


Anton van
Leeuwenhoek


Discovered cells


Bacteria


Protists


Red blood

What Did These Individuals
Contribute to Biotechnology?


Gregor Johan Mendel


Discovered genetics

What Did These Individuals
Contribute to Biotechnology?


Walter Sutton


Discovered
Chromosomes

What Did These Individuals
Contribute to Biotechnology?


Thomas Hunt Morgan


Discovered how
genes are transmitted
through chromosomes

What Did These Individuals
Contribute to Biotechnology?


Ernst Ruska


Invented the electron
microscope

What Did These Individuals
Contribute to Biotechnology?


Sir Alexander
Fleming


Discovered penicillin

What Did These Individuals
Contribute to Biotechnology?


Rosalind Elsie
Franklin


Research led to the
discovery of the
double helix structure
of DNA

What Did These Individuals
Contribute to Biotechnology?


James Watson and
Francis Crick


Discovered DNA

What Did These Individuals
Contribute to Biotechnology?


Mary
-
Claire King


Mapped human genes
for research of cancer
treatments

What Did These Individuals
Contribute to Biotechnology?


Ian Wilmut


Created the first true
clone, the Dorset ewe
Dolly

What Is Molecular Biology?


Molecular biology
-

study of molecules in
cells


Metabolism
-

processes by which organisms
use nutrients


Anabolism
-

building tissues from smaller
materials


Catabolism
-

breaking down materials into
smaller components

What Is a Cell?


Cell
-

a discrete unit
of life


Unicellular organism
-

organism of one cell


Multicellular
organism
-

organism
of many cells


Prokaryote
-

cells that
lack specific nucleus


Eukaryote
-

cells with
well
-
defined nucleus

What Is a Cell?


Cells are building blocks:


Tissue
-

collection of cells with specific
functions


Organs
-

collections of tissues with specific
functions


Organ systems
-

collections of organs with
specific functions

What Are the Structures in
Molecular Genetics?


Molecular genetics
-

study of genes and
how they are expressed


Chromosome
-

part of cell nucleus that
contains heredity information and promotes
protein synthesis


Gene
-

basic unit of heredity on a
chromosome


DNA
-

molecule in a chromosome that
codes genetic information

Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)

What Is Ribonucleic Acid
(RNA)?


Transcription
-

process of RNA production
by DNA


DNA
-
thread
-
like molecule which decodes
DNA information

What Is Ribonucleic Acid
(RNA)?


Kinds of RNA:


mRNA
-

RNA molecules that carry information
that specifies amino acid sequence of a protein
molecule during translation


rRNA
-

RNA molecules that form the ribosomal
subunits; Mediate the translation of mRNA into
proteins


tRNA
-

molecules that decode sequence
information in and mRNA

What Are Genetic Engineering
Organisms?


Genetic engineering
-

artificially changing
the genetic information in the cells of
organisms


Transgenic
-

an organism that has been
genetically modified


GMO
-

a genetically modified organism


GEO
-

a genetically enhanced organism

How Can Genetically Engineered
Plants Be Used?


Agriculture


Horticulture


Forestry


Environment


Food Quality

How Do We Create Transgenic
Organisms?


Donor cell
-

cell that provides DNA


Recipient cell
-

cell that receives DNA


Protocol
-

procedure for a scientific process


Three methods used in gene transfer


Agrobacterium gene transfer
-

plasmid


Ballistic gene transfer
-

gene gun


Direct gene transfer
-

enzymes

How Does Agrobacterium Gene
Transfer Work?

1.
Extract DNA from donor

2.
Cut DNA into fragments

3.
Sort DNA fragments

4.
Recombine DNA
fragments

5.
Transfer plasmids with
bonded DNA

6.
Grow transformed
(recipient) cells

What Are Methods of Classical
Biotechnology?


Plant breeding
-

improvement of plants by
breeding selected individuals to achieve
desired goals


Cultivar
-

a cultivated crop variety

What Are Methods of Classical
Biotechnology?


Plant breeding methods;


Line breeding
-

breeding successive
generations of plants among themselves


Crossbreeding
-

breeding plants of different
varieties or species


Hybridization
-

breeding individuals from
two distinctly different varieties


Selection

Why Are Plants Genetically
Engineered?


Resist pests


Resist herbicides


Improved product quality


Pharmaceuticals


Industrial products

What Is AI?


Artificial insemination
-

the
transfer of collected semen to a
recipient female


Semen is collected from males of
desired quality


Semen is graded and stored

What Is AI?


Female must be in estrus for
conception


Hormone injections may be used
to synchronize estrus


Semen is placed in the cervix near
the horns of the uterus

What Is a Test Tube Baby?


In vitro fertilization
-

fertilization of
collected ova outside the reproductive
tract; Usually in a test tube


Semen is collected from males of
desired quality


Ova are removed from females


Sperm and ova are placed in a petri dish
or test tube

What Is Gender Reversal?


Gender reversal
-

changing the sex
of an animal


Very young animals receive
hormone treatments


Most common among selected fish
species

What Is Gender Preselection?


Gender preselection
-

choosing the sex
of offspring


Sperm sorted before conception


Sperm sorted on basis of chromosome
differences


X chromosomes produce female
offspring


Y chromosomes produce male offspring

What Is Embryo Transfer?


Embryo transfer
-

removing
fertilized ova (embryos) from
donor and implanting in a
recipient


Surgical and nonsurgical methods
are used to remove and implant


A quality donor female can
produce more offspring

What Is Multiple Ovulation?


Multiple ovulation
-

promoting
increased release of ova during estrus


Hormone injections administered prior
to estrus


Used with embryo transfer


AI may be used to fertilize ova


After fertilization, embryos are
removed and placed in recipients

What Is Cloning?


Clone
-

new organism that has been
produced asexually from a single
parent


Genotype is identical to parent


Cells or tissues are cultured

How Are Hormones Used in
Animal Production?


Hormone
-

natural product of glands to produce a
response in another part of the body


Released by endocrine glands into blood
system


Hormones are identified, functions
determined, and isolated


Used to increase growth and production rates


bST
-

promotes milk production in cows


pST
-

promotes lean meat production in swine

What Is Bioremediation?


Bioremediation
-

using biological
processes to solve environmental
problems


Biodegradation
-

natural processes
of microbes in breaking down
hydrocarbon materials


Biodegradable
-

capable of being
decomposed by microbes

How Can Bioremediation Be
Used?


Oil spills


Wastewater treatment


Heavy metal removal


Chemical degradation

What Is Phytoremediation?


Phytoremediation
-

process of
plants being used to solve
pollution problems


Plants absorb and break down
pollutants


Used with heavy metals, pesticides,
explosives, and leachate

What Are Bioethics?


Ethics
-

knowing right from wrong,
and then doing the right idea


Bio
-

living organisms


Bioethics
-

knowing right from wrong
with living organisms, and then doing
the right idea


http://www.oelwein.k12.ia.us/hs/Ag.H
ome/biotechethics.htm


Creating Bioethics Arguments


Read this article from this website
http://www.oelwein.k12.ia.us/hs/Ag.H
ome/dwnld/Ethics.in.Biotech.pdf


After you read this article prepare
ethical arguments with at least 5
Scientific and Factual claims to
support your Premise and Conclusion

Ethical Arguments


Create an ethical argument for or
against the following topics


Human Cloning


Gender Reversal on Livestock


Gender Reversal on Humans


Genetic Engineering of Plants


Genetic Engineering of Humans

Creating a Premise


“Human cloning is immoral.”


Now you must find Scientific and
Factual Claims to support your
Premise


After you have at least 5 Claims, you
may conclude, “Therefore, human
cloning is immoral.”


You do not have to be for or against
any of the topics, it’s your choice!