Peter Baye Coastal Plant Ecologist Annapolis, California baye ...

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Feb 22, 2014 (3 years and 6 months ago)

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Peter Baye

Coastal Plant Ecologist

Annapolis, California

baye@earthlink.net

Sonoma County Riparian Vegetation:


Selected
Aspects
Related to
S
almonid

Habitat
Restoration in Gravel Mining Pits


Hanson
Russian River Restoration Project Feasibility Study

National Marine Fisheries Service


Santa Rosa, California

Scientific
Working Group Meeting #1

March 5, 2013

Reciprocal influence of fluvial
landforms and riparian vegetation


Landform evolution influences riparian vegetation



Local geomorphic controls
: sediment load, disturbance intensity
gradients, disturbance frequency & recovery intervals (Lennox & al. 2007,
Harris 1987, McBride &
Strahan

1984)



S
ediment texture
(% fines)


S
ediment surface relative to groundwater
(
hyperhoeic

flow) during low
-
flow/dry season: aquatic
-
wetland
-
mesic

vegetation gradient



Riparian vegetation influences landform evolution


Sediment trapping, off
-
channel sediment storage
, floodplain accretion:
vegetation roughness and stabilization on bar crests, floodplains


Lateral sedimentation gradients
(bank margin
-
backwater; levee pattern)



Large woody debris trapping
(reciprocal influence: LWD nucleation of
pioneer vegetation, riparian woodland trapping of LWD)



Backwater marsh and pond/
laguna

formation
(historical)

Riparian vegetation formations



Riparian woodland, scrub
(
bank, floodplain
)




Floodplain marsh, wet meadow, &
alluvial grassland
(
bank, floodplain
)

Pioneer fluvial shoreline & marsh
vegetation
(
bar, bank, ridge/swale
)


Aquatic Vascular Plant communities

Riparian vegetation formations


RIPARIAN WOODLAND, SCRUB




Most studied phase of riparian vegetation
; most emphasis in
restoration



Mature monitoring methodology



example: UC Extension

Lennox et al. 2009. Development of vegetation and aquatic habitat in
restored riparian sites of California’s North Coast rangelands.
Restoration Ecology 19: 225
-
233



Dominant
(over
-
represented?)
riparian vegetation type




Ecological services
:



Canopy shade (temperature regulation),



Trophic

support (leaf litter, invertebrate productivity)



Refuge (predator escape; root and shoot structure)




LWD recruitment (production, trapping)


root, branch, trunk
structure

Riparian vegetation formations



Emergent marsh, wet meadow, alluvial grassland




Rhizomatous sod
-
forming vegetation; geomorphic agent (perennial
regeneration of surface roughness: vertical accretion, sink for fines)



Leaf litter mat, duff: invertebrate production



Historic decline:
grazing,
aggradation
, mining, cessation of annual
burning (Pomo)


Aquatic Vascular Plant communities



Least studied
; mostly historic (native) or nuisance (invasive non
-
native)



Submerged (SAV), floating (FAV)



Low
-
velocity or
lotic

off
-
channel, deep channel pool margin


Historic decline


Pioneer fluvial shoreline vegetation
(gravel, sand bar)



Herbaceous, graminoid,
ruderal
,
mesic

vegetation (weedy)



Includes disturbance
-
dependent woodland/scrub element (
Salix
,
Populus
,
Alnus
)

-

colonization of moist mineral sediment, organic debris




Sorting by sediment texture, groundwater elevation (capillary fringe)





Linear
-
leaf v. floating
broadleaf pondweeds

Linear
-
leaf (
Stuckenia

pectinata
; most common)

Floating broad
-
leaf
(
Potamogeton

nodosus
;
most common native
pondweed)

Submerged Aquatic Vegetation (SAV)



Potamogetonaceae (pondweeds)
prevalent



Mostly 19
th

/early 20
th

century records
within Russian River


least studied
riparian (aquatic) vegetation type



Perennial, colonial
in shallow to deep
clear water


Intolerant of high turbidity, high
sedimentation
, summer drawdown or
sediment
dewatering
, unstable bed



Linear
-
leaf

and
floating broadleaf
taxa



Heteromorphic
: plastic pond and flowing
water forms, submersed and emergent
leaf forms



Structure contrasts with exotic SAV:
slender elongated sub
-
canopy shoots



Russian River Riparian Landscape
positions SAV
subhabitats





lagunas



backwater floodplain marsh ponds, choked
floodplain drainage (mostly historic)



relict or side channels
,
oxbows
;

low
-
velocity stable side
channel banks, high groundwater



Resistant clay outcrops
in high
-
velocity channel banks
(rhizome
refugia
)



backbarrier coastal lagoon near Jenner (modern core
populations of SAV)



depth tolerance
proportional with water clarity

Submerged Aquatic Vegetation (SAV) potential
salmonid

habitat interactions, comparison with Chesapeake SAV


Potential juvenile
salmonid

prey base


Invertebrate

trophic

support
(SAV herbivores):


Zooplankton

consume detritus (low lignin)



Daytime water
oxygen diffusion
(linear
-
leaf)



Nocturnal local
hypoxia



Potential canopy
epiphytic filamentous algal blooms


Canopy shade inhibition of water column
phytoplankton
production



Temperature stratification
: warmer surface, shaded
bottom (leaf canopy at surface)



Predator refuge for juveniles
?


complex canopy edge

Potential SAV metrics in riparian settings



Riparian landscape distribution
(in
-
channel, backwater)


Size
-
class distribution
: mid
-
summer
colonies emergent at water surface



Canopy (water surface) cover


Fine
-
scale (within canopy)



Coarse
-
scale (colony polygon)



Canopy structure
(shoot density
colony margin line
-
intercept)



Canopy invertebrate prey base
(biomass or productivity)



Primary production
(biomass)

Floodplain marsh, wet meadow

(
Cyperaceae

spp. dominance) ecological services



high organic productivity:
SOM and litter mat
invertebrates

(
salmonid

prey


overbank flows)



fine sediment trap
(stratified rhizome/sediment)
-

ungrazed

tall canopy



High soil shear strength:
erosion resistance
(bank,
floodplain surface)



Shallow groundwater, clonal
Cyperaceae

swards:
inhibition of invasive shrub &
Arundo

recruitment
;
rapid recovery after sedimentation events



Less common restoration: floodplain grassland
(Central Valley)

Floodplain marsh, wet meadow

(
Cyperaceae

spp. dominance)

Selected literature


Baltz
, D.M. and P.B. Moyle. 1984. The influence of riparian vegetation on stream fish
communities of California. In: Warner, R.E. and K.M. Hendrix, eds. California
Riparian Systems


Ecology, Conservation, and Productive Management. University
of California Press.


Harris, R.R. 1987. Occurrence of vegetation on geomorphic surfaces in the active
floodplain of a California alluvial stream. American Midland Naturalist 118:393
-
405


Lennox et al. 2009. Development of vegetation and aquatic habitat in restored riparian
sites of California’s North Coast rangelands. Restoration Ecology 19: 225
-
233


McBride, J.R. and J.
Strahan
. 1984. Fluvial processes and woodland succession along
Dry Creek, Sonoma County, California. In: Warner, R.E. and K.M. Hendrix, eds.
California Riparian Systems


Ecology, Conservation, and Productive Management.
University of California Press.