Chapter 5 Review - Metuchen School District

kayakjokeMechanics

Feb 22, 2014 (3 years and 7 months ago)

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Test Tomorrow

You can use three 3”x5” note cards

1.
Producers

2.
Consumers

3.
Carnivores

4.
Herbivores

5.
Omnivores

6.
Decomposers

7.
Primary consumers

8.
Secondary consumers

9.
Trophic

level

10.
Food web

11.
Food chain


12. Fossil fuel

13.
Legumes

14.
Secondary succession

15.
Pioneer species

16.
Old
-
field succession

17.
Climax community

18.
Primary succession

19.
lichens

1.
What is the source of energy in
most ecosystems?


The sun


2. What is the source of energy in deep
ocean hydrothermal vent communities?


Chemical energy (from H
2
S from the vents) extracted
by bacteria.

3. How
much of the energy consumed by organisms in a
trophic

level becomes available to the organisms in the next
trophic

level?
What happens to the energy that is not transferred?


About 10% of energy becomes available at the next
trophic

level as biomass. The energy that is not transferred was
used by the organisms themselves in metabolism, and lost
as heat.


4.
Know how to draw and interpret a food web
(ex. How one part of the web might affect
another
)


Arrows represent flow of energy.


What would happen if frogs disappear?

5. Compare and contrast
photosynthesis and cellular respiration.


Producers do photosynthesis:

6CO
2

+ 6H
2
O + light energy


C
6
H
12
O
6

+ 6O
2


Plants make food from carbon dioxide, water and
light energy.



Producers and consumers do respiration:

C
6
H
12
O
6

+ 6O
2



㙃O
2

+ 6H
2
O + energy


Food (organic molecules) are broken down in
presence of oxygen to obtain energy. Carbon
dioxide is a waste product.


6. What happens to the energy
captured by plants?


Plants make food (sugar). This food may be used
by the plants or stored.


7. What happens to the energy
consumed by consumers?


Consumers use the food as source of energy for
metabolism, store as carbohydrates or fats,
replace tissues, etc.


8. Why does biomagnifications occur?
(why did eagles get poisoned by DDT?)


Fat soluble toxins becomes more
concentrated higher in the food
chain.


Toxins in the environment or food
that are not water soluble accumulate
in fat tissues of the organisms rather
than being excreted. Each organism
in a food chain accumulates greater
amount of these toxins than
organisms below it. This means that
top predators (such as eagles) will
have the highest concentrations of
these toxins.


9. Know the major components,
players, and processes of the carbon
cycle.


Components: CO2, organic molecules,
hydrocarbons (fossil fuel), and limestone.


Players: plants, consumers, ocean, ocean life


Processes: photosynthesis, respiration,
combustion, carbonization, sedimentation


10. What is a carbon
sink/reservoir?


Limestone is a carbon sink because large amount
of carbon is stored here, and it is locked away.


http://www.coolantarctica.com/Antarctica%20fact%20file/science/carbon_sinks.htm


11. Know the major components,
players, and processes of the
nitrogen cycle.


Components: Nitrogen gas, fertilizer, proteins


Players: nitrogen fixing bacteria on legumes,
plants, consumers, decomposers, denitrifying
bacteria


Processes: nitrogen fixation, decomposition,
denitrification
, combustion


12. How do human actions affect
the carbon cycle? The nitrogen
cycle? The phosphorus cycle?


Carbon cycle: combustion of fossil fuels and
deforestation increase carbon in the atmosphere.


Nitrogen and phosphorus cycle: Artificial
fertilizers enter aquatic ecosystems and cause
algal blooms.


13. What proportions of the
atmosphere is nitrogen gas?


78
-
80%


14. What are the forms of nitrogen
that can be used by plants? By
animals?


Plants can only use fertilizer as source of
nitrogen.


Animals can only use protein.


15. Describe the importance of fire
in some ecosystems.


Fires clear out accumulated debris that can make
wildfires worse. Fires also kill off plants that are
not adapted for fires to give fire
-
adapted plants
chance to thrive.


16. Why does succession occur?


Each organism that inhabits the ecosystem
modifies it’s environment and cause the
ecosystem to change.


Each successive organism outcompete the
previous residents.


17. Compare and contrast primary
and secondary succession.


Primary succession begins where no ecosystem
existed before. There is no soil, so the pioneer
species are usually lichens or bacteria. It takes
time for soil to become established and other
plants can grow.


Secondary succession begins after a disturbance
destroyed an existing ecosystem such as a fire.
There is soil present, so plants quickly colonize
the new environment.


18. Importance of lichens in
primary succession.


Lichens can grow on rocks (they have algal
endosymbionts
, so they can make their own
food). They slowly break down the rock and as
they die, add organic matter, forming the initial
soil.