You can use three 3”x5” note cards
12. Fossil fuel
What is the source of energy in
2. What is the source of energy in deep
ocean hydrothermal vent communities?
Chemical energy (from H
S from the vents) extracted
much of the energy consumed by organisms in a
level becomes available to the organisms in the next
What happens to the energy that is not transferred?
About 10% of energy becomes available at the next
level as biomass. The energy that is not transferred was
used by the organisms themselves in metabolism, and lost
Know how to draw and interpret a food web
(ex. How one part of the web might affect
Arrows represent flow of energy.
What would happen if frogs disappear?
5. Compare and contrast
photosynthesis and cellular respiration.
Producers do photosynthesis:
O + light energy
Plants make food from carbon dioxide, water and
Producers and consumers do respiration:
O + energy
Food (organic molecules) are broken down in
presence of oxygen to obtain energy. Carbon
dioxide is a waste product.
6. What happens to the energy
captured by plants?
Plants make food (sugar). This food may be used
by the plants or stored.
7. What happens to the energy
consumed by consumers?
Consumers use the food as source of energy for
metabolism, store as carbohydrates or fats,
replace tissues, etc.
8. Why does biomagnifications occur?
(why did eagles get poisoned by DDT?)
Fat soluble toxins becomes more
concentrated higher in the food
Toxins in the environment or food
that are not water soluble accumulate
in fat tissues of the organisms rather
than being excreted. Each organism
in a food chain accumulates greater
amount of these toxins than
organisms below it. This means that
top predators (such as eagles) will
have the highest concentrations of
9. Know the major components,
players, and processes of the carbon
Components: CO2, organic molecules,
hydrocarbons (fossil fuel), and limestone.
Players: plants, consumers, ocean, ocean life
Processes: photosynthesis, respiration,
combustion, carbonization, sedimentation
10. What is a carbon
Limestone is a carbon sink because large amount
of carbon is stored here, and it is locked away.
11. Know the major components,
players, and processes of the
Components: Nitrogen gas, fertilizer, proteins
Players: nitrogen fixing bacteria on legumes,
plants, consumers, decomposers, denitrifying
Processes: nitrogen fixation, decomposition,
12. How do human actions affect
the carbon cycle? The nitrogen
cycle? The phosphorus cycle?
Carbon cycle: combustion of fossil fuels and
deforestation increase carbon in the atmosphere.
Nitrogen and phosphorus cycle: Artificial
fertilizers enter aquatic ecosystems and cause
13. What proportions of the
atmosphere is nitrogen gas?
14. What are the forms of nitrogen
that can be used by plants? By
Plants can only use fertilizer as source of
Animals can only use protein.
15. Describe the importance of fire
in some ecosystems.
Fires clear out accumulated debris that can make
wildfires worse. Fires also kill off plants that are
not adapted for fires to give fire
chance to thrive.
16. Why does succession occur?
Each organism that inhabits the ecosystem
modifies it’s environment and cause the
ecosystem to change.
Each successive organism outcompete the
17. Compare and contrast primary
and secondary succession.
Primary succession begins where no ecosystem
existed before. There is no soil, so the pioneer
species are usually lichens or bacteria. It takes
time for soil to become established and other
plants can grow.
Secondary succession begins after a disturbance
destroyed an existing ecosystem such as a fire.
There is soil present, so plants quickly colonize
the new environment.
18. Importance of lichens in
Lichens can grow on rocks (they have algal
, so they can make their own
food). They slowly break down the rock and as
they die, add organic matter, forming the initial