Chapter 10

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Feb 22, 2014 (3 years and 5 months ago)

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MEDICAL TERMINOLOGY

Chapter 10: Cardiovascular, Immune, Lymphatic Systems and Blood

Chapter 10 Abbreviations


ABO


Rh


AP


BP


HR


P


R


T


VS


blood groups


blood type


apical pulse


blood pressure


heart rate


pulse


respiration


temperature


vital signs

Chapter 10 Abbreviations


diff


ESR



H&H


Hct


Hgb


pro Time/INR


PTT


ECHO


ECG


EKG


differential count (WBC’s)


sed

rate (erythrocyte sedimentation rate)



hemoglobin and hematocrit (
rbc

test)


hematocrit (
rbc

test)


hemoglobin (
rbc

test)


prothrombin

time (clotting test)


partial
thromboplastin

time


echocardiogram


electrocardiogram


electrocardiogram


Chapter 10 Abbreviations


ASHD


CAD


CHF


DVT


HTN


MI


MVP


BMT


CABG


OPCABG


arteriosclerotic heart disease


coronary artery disease


congestive heart failure


deep vein thrombosis


hypertension [high pressure in arteries]


myocardial infarction


mitral valve prolapse


bone marrow transplant


coronary artery bypass graft


off
-
pump coronary artery bypass graft

Chapter 10 Abbreviations


PTCA



AV


CPR


NSR


SA


A
-
fib


VF


CCU



percutaneous transluminal coronary
angioplasty


atrioventricular

(node)


cardiopulmonary resuscitation


normal sinus rhythm


sinoatrial

(node)


atrial fibrillation


ventricular fibrillation


cardiac care unit, coronary care unit

The Cardiovascular System


Consists of the heart and a closed network of
blood vessels composed of arteries,
capillaries, and veins


Function


Heart pumps blood containing oxygen and
nutrients to body tissues, exchanges materials,
and carries CO2 and waste back

The Cardiovascular System


Organs


Heart


Muscular cone
-
shaped organ the size of a fist, located
behind the sternum and between the lungs.


Pumping action circulates blood throughout the body


R atrium


R ventricle


Lungs


L atrium


L
ventricle


Body


Atrial and Ventricular
s
eptums

separate chambers


Atrioventricular

Valves


tricuspid(R) and mitral(L)
Valves keep blood flowing


Semilunar Valves


pulmonary and aortic valves

The Cardiovascular System


Pericardium


two
-
layer sac surrounding the heart, consisting of an
external fibrous layer and internal serous layer.


Three layers of the Heart


epicardium



covers the heart


myocardium



middle, thick, muscular layer


endocardium



inner lining of the heart

The Cardiovascular System


Blood vessels


Tubelike

structures that carry blood throughout the
body


arteries



carry blood away from the heart; most
carry oxygen (except pulmonary artery)


arterioles



smallest arteries


aorta



largest artery in body, originating at the left
ventricle


veins


carry blood back to the heart; most carry CO2
(except pulmonary vein)


venules



smallest veins

The Cardiovascular System


venae
cavae



largest veins in the body.
Inferior
vena cava
carries blood from lower part of body,
Superior vena cava
brings blood from upper part


capillaries



microscopic blood vessels that connect
arterioles with
venules
; exchange takes place here

Blood


Function


Maintain internal balance in the body, including
transportation of nutrients, waste, oxygen, CO2,
and hormones; protection; and regulation by
controlling body temperature and maintaining
fluid and electrolyte balance

Blood


Composition of Blood


Blood


composed of plasma and formed elements, such as
erythrocytes, leukocytes, and thrombocytes (platelets)


plasma



clear, straw
-
colored, liquid portion of blood in
which cells are suspended (90% water, and ~55% of blood
volume)


Cells (formed elements)


erythrocytes



rbc’s that carry oxygen. Develop in bone
marrow


leukocytes


wbc’s that combat infection and respond to
inflammation. 5 types of wbc’s

Blood


platelets (thrombocytes)


one of the formed
elements in
th

eblood

that is responsible for aiding
in the clotting process


serum



clear, watery fluid portion of the blood that
remains after a clot has formed

The Lymphatic System


Consists of lymph transported through
lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, the spleen,
and thymus gland


Function


Return excessive tissue fluid to the blood, absorb
fats and fat
-
soluble vitamins from the sm.
intestine and transport them to the blood, and
provide defense against infection

The Lymphatic System


Structures


Lymph


Transparent, colorless, tissue fluid. Contains
lymphocytes and monocytes and flows in a one
-
way
direction to the heart. (similar to blood plasma)


Lymphatic Vessels


similar to veins, they transport lymph from body
tissues to the chest, where it enters the
cardiovascular system.


Vessels start as capillaries and eventually become
ducts in the chest. One
-
way flow and enters
through veins into the circulatory system


The Lymphatic System


Lymph Nodes


small, spherical bodies composed of lymphoid
tissue. May be singular or grouped along the path of
the lymph vessels


filter lymph to keep substances such as bacteria and
other foreign agents from entering the blood


Spleen


located on left side between the stomach and the
diaphragm. Largest lymphatic organ in adults


Blood flows through the spleen (not lymph), and is
cleansed of microorganisms. It stores blood and
destroys worn out red blood cells

The Lymphatic System


Thymus Gland


one of the primary lymphatic organs, located
anterior to the ascending aorta and posterior to the
sternum between the lungs


important in the development

of the body’s immune system,


from infancy to puberty.

The Immune System


Function


P
rotects the body against pathogens , foreign
agents that cause allergic reactions or toxins, and
abnormal body cells. Three lines of defense:

Word Parts for Cardiovascular
and Lymphatic Systems and Blood

Combining Form

Definition


angi
/o


aort
/o


arteri
/o


atri
/o


cardi
/o


lymph/o


lymphaden
/o


myel
/o


vessel (usually refers to blood vessels)


aorta


artery


atrium


heart


lymph, lymph tissue


lymph node


bone marrow

Word Parts for Cardiovascular
and Lymphatic Systems and Blood

Combining Form

Definition


phleb
/o,
ven
/o


plasm
/o


splen
/o


thym
/o


valv
/o,
valvul
/o


ventricul
/o



vein


plasma


spleen


thymus gland


valve


ventricle

Word Parts Commonly Used with the
Cardiovascular & Lymphatic Systems & Blood

Combining Form

Definition


ather
/o


ech
/o


electr
/o


isch
/o


therm
/o


thromb
/o


yellowish, fatty plaque


sound


electricity, electrical activity


deficiency, blockage


heat


clot

Word Parts for Cardiovascular
and Lymphatic Systems and Blood

Suffix

Definition


brady
-


tachy
-


slow


fast

Prefix

Definition


-
ac


-
graph


-
penia


-
poiesis


-
sclerosis


-
odynia



pertaining to


instrument used to record; record


abnormal reduction in number


formation


hardening


pain


Med Terms (from word parts)

[Disease & Disorders]

Term

Definition


angioma


angiostenosis


aortic stenosis


arteriosclerosis


atherosclerosis


bradycardia


cardiomegaly


cardiomyopathy


endocarditis


ischemia


Med Terms (from word parts)

[Disease & Disorders]

Term

Definition


myocarditis


pericarditis


phlebitis


polyarteritis


tachycardia


thrombophlebitis


valvulitis


hematoma


pancytopenia


thrombosis


thrombus


Med Terms (from word parts)

[Disease & Disorders]

Term

Definition


lymphadenitis


lymphadenopathy


lymphoma


splenomegaly


thymoma


Med Terms (
not from word parts
)

[Disease and Disorders]


Term

Definition


aneurysm



angina
pectoris




arrhythmia


ballooning of a weakened portion of an
arterial wall


chest pain, in which may radiate to the
left arm and jaw


occurs when there is an insufficient supply of
blood to the heart muscle


any disturbance or abnormality in the
heart’s normal rhythmic pattern


Med Terms (
not from word parts
)

[Disease and Disorders]


Term

Definition


atrial
fibrillation
(A
-
fib)




a cardiac arrhythmia characterized by
chaotic, rapid electrical impulses in the
atria. The atria quiver instead of
contracting, causing irregular ventricular
response and the ejection of a reduced
amount of blood


The blood that remains in the atria becomes
static, increasing the risk of clot formation


Two types: paroxysmal a
-
fib (intermittent)
and chronic a
-
fib (sustained)

Med Terms (
not from word parts
)

[Disease and Disorders]


Term

Definition


cardiac
arrest


congenital
heart disease


congestive
heart failure
(CHF)



coronary
artery
disease
(CAD)




sudden cessation of cardiac output and
effective circulation, which requires CPR


heart abnormality present at birth



inability of the heart to pump enough blood
through the body to supply the tissues and
organ with nutrients


commonly caused by CAD


a condition that reduces the flow of blood
through the coronary arteries to the
myocardium, denying the myocardial tissue
of sufficient O2 and nutrients to function
fully

Med Terms (
not from word parts
)

[Disease and Disorders]


Term

Definition


coronary
occlusion



deep vein
thrombosis
(DVT)



mitral valve
stenosis




obstruction of an artery of the heart,
usually from atherosclerosis. Can lead to
acute myocardial infarction


condition of thrombus in a deep vein of
the body, mostly occurring in the lower
extremities.


a clot can break off and travel to the lungs,
causing a pulmonary embolism


a narrowing of the mitral valve from
scarring, usually caused by episodes of
rheumatic fever

Med Terms (
not from word parts
)

[Disease and Disorders]


Term

Definition


myocardial
infarction
(MI)



varicose
veins



death (necrosis) of a portion of the
myocardium caused by lack of O2
resulting from an interrupted blood
supply (
heart attack
)


distended or tortuous veins usually
found in the lower extremities


Med Terms (
not from word parts
)

[Disease and Disorders]


Term

Definition

BLOOD


anemia




embolus



sepsis






reduction in the number of red blood cells.


may be caused by blood loss or decrease in the
production or increase in the destruction of rbc’s


blood clot or foreign material, such as air or
fat, that enters the bloodstream and moves
until it lodges at another point


a condition in which pathogenic
microorganisms, usually bacteria, enter the
bloodstream, causing a systemic
inflammatory response to the infection

Med Terms (from word parts)

[Surgical Terms]

Term

Definition


angioplasty


atherectomy


endarterectomy


pericardiocentesis


phlebectomy


phlebotomy


valvuloplasty


splenectomy


splenopexy


thymectomy


Med Terms (
not from word parts
)

[Surgical Terms]

Term

Definition

CARDIOVASCULAR


aneurysmectomy


coronary artery
bypass graft
(CABG)


coronary stent



surgical excision of an aneurysm


surgical technique to bring a new
blood supply to heart muscle by
detouring around blocked arteries


a supportive scaffold device
placed in the coronary artery


used to prevent closure of the artery
after angioplasty or
atherectoy


used to treat an artery occluded by
plaque

Med Terms (
not from word parts
)

[Surgical Terms]

Term

Definition


embolectomy





intracoronary
thrombolytic
therapy


surgical removal of an embolus or clot,
usually with a balloon catheter,
inflating the balloon beyond the clot,
then pulling the balloon back to the
incision and bringing the clot with it


an injection of a medication either
intravenously or intraarterially to
dissolve blood clots in the coronary
arteries


Med Terms (
not from word parts
)

[Surgical Terms]

Term

Definition


percutaneous
transluminal
coronary
angioplasty (PTCA)


procedure in which a balloon is
passed through a blood vessel into
a coronary artery to the area
where plaque is formed


inflation of the balloon compresses
the plaque against the vessel wall,
expanding the inner diameter of the
blood vessel, which allows the blood
to circulate more freely (
balloon
angioplasty
)

Med Terms (from word parts)

[Diagnostic Terms]

Term

Definition

DIAGNOSTIC IMAGING


angiography


angioscope


angioscopy


aortogram


arteriogram


venogram


venography


Med Terms (from word parts)

[Diagnostic Terms]

Term

Definition

PROCEDURES


echocardiogram


electrocardiogram


electrocardiograph


electrocardiography


Med Terms (
not from word parts
)

[Diagnostic Terms]

Term

Definition

CARDIOVASCULAR

DIAGONOSTIC IMAGING


Doppler ultrasound




a study that uses sound for
detection of blood flow within the
vessels


used to assess intermittent
claudication, deep vein thrombosis,
and other blood flow abnormalities

Med Terms (
not from word parts
)

[Diagnostic Terms]

Term

Definition

CARDIOVASCULAR

CARDIOVASCULAR STUDIES


cardiac
catheterization




an examination to determine the
condition of the heart and
surrounding blood vessels.



A catheter is passed into the heart
through a blood vessel and is used to
record pressures and inject a contrast
medium, enabling the visualization of
the coronary arteries, great vessels,
and the heart chambers. Used to
evaluate chest pain and CAD
(
coronary angiography
)

Med Terms (
not from word parts
)

[Diagnostic Terms]

Term

Definition

CARDIOVASCULAR

OTHER


blood pressure



pulse





sphygmomanometer



pressure exerted by the blood against the
blood vessel walls


measure of systolic pressure (120) and
diastolic pressure (80) is recorded as 120/80



the rhythmic expansion of an artery that
can be felt with a finger.


most commonly felt over the radial artery;
however pulsations can be felt over a number
of sites, including the femoral and carotid
arteries


device used for measuring blood pressure

Med Terms (
not from word parts
)

[Diagnostic Terms]

Term

Definition

BLOOD

LABORATORY


coagulation time



complete blood
count (CBC) and
differential count
(Diff)




blood test to determine the time it
takes for blood to form a clot


basic blood screening that measures
hemoglobin, hematocrit, red blood cell
number and morphology (size and
shape), leukocyte count, and wbc
differential (types of wbc’s)


The test is automated, thus done easily and
rapidly, and provides a tremendous amount
of information about the blood

Med Terms (from word parts)

[Complimentary Terms]

Term

Definition


atrioventricular


cardiac


cardiogenic


cardiologist


cardiology


hypothermia


intravenous


phlebologist


phlebology


Med Terms (from word parts)

[Complimentary Terms]

Term

Definition


hematologist


hematology


hematopoiesis


hemolysis


hemostasis


thrombolysis


Med Terms (
not from word parts
)

[Complimentary Terms]

Term

Definition

CARDIOVASCULAR


cardiopulmonary
resuscitation (CPR)



defibrillation



diastole



emergency procedure consisting of
artificial ventilation and external
cardiac massage


application of an electric shock to the
myocardium through the chest wall
to restore normal cardiac rhythm


phase in the cardiac cycle in which
the ventricles relax between
contractions (lower # in BP reading)

Med Terms (
not from word parts
)

[Complimentary Terms]

Term

Definition


fibrillation



heart murmur



hypercholesterolemia




hyperlipidemia


rapid, quivering, noncoordinated
contractions of the atria or ventricles


a short
-
duration humming sound of
cardiac or vascular origin


excessive amount of cholesterol in
the blood


associated with heightened risk of
cardiovascular disease


excessive amount of fats
(triglycerides and cholesterol) in the
blood

Med Terms (
not from word parts
)

[Complimentary Terms]

Term

Definition


hypertension



hypotension



lipids



lumen



occlude


blood pressure that is above normal
(greater than 140/90)


blood pressure that is below normal (less
than 90/60)


fats and fatlike substances that serve as a
source of fuel in the body and are an
important constituent of cell structure


space within a tubular part or organ, such
as the space within a blood vessel


to close tightly, to block


Med Terms (
not from word parts
)

[Complimentary Terms]

Term

Definition


systole




venipuncture


BLOOD


anticoagulant



hemorrhage



phase in the cardiac cycle in which
the ventricles contract (upper # in BP
reading)


puncture of a vein to remove blood,
instill a medication, or start an
intravenous infusion



agent that slows the blood clotting
process


rapid loss of blood, as in bleeding

Med Terms (
not from word parts
)

[Complimentary Terms]

Term

Definition

IMMUNE


allergen





allergist



allergy




an environmental substance capable
of producing an immediate
hypersensitivity in the body (
allergy
)


Common: house dust, pollen, animal
dander, and various foods


a physician who studies and treats
allergic conditions


hypersensitivity to a substance,
resulting in an inflammatory immune
response

Med Terms (
not from word parts
)

[Complimentary Terms]

Term

Definition


anaphylaxis


an exaggerated, life
-
threatening
reaction to a previously encountered
antigen such as bee venom, peanuts,
or latex.


symptoms range from mild, with patients
experiencing hives or sneezing, to severe
symptoms such as drop in blood pressure
and blockage of the airway, which can
lead to death within minutes
(anaphylactic shock)

Med Terms (
not from word parts
)

[Complimentary Terms]

Term

Definition


antibody




antigen





immune


a substance produced by lymphocytes
that inactivates or destroys antigens
(
immunoglobulins
)


a substance that triggers an immune
response when introduced into the
body.


Ex: transplant tissue, toxins, and infectious
organisms


being resistant to specific invading
pathogens

Med Terms (
not from word parts
)

[Complimentary Terms]

Term

Definition


immunologist



immunology



phagocytosis



vaccine


a physician who studies and treats immune
system disorders


the branch of medicine dealing with
immune system disorders


a process in which some of the white blood
cells destroy the invading microorganism
and old cells


a suspension of inactivated
microorganisms administered by injection,
mouth, or nasal spray to prevent infectious
diseases by inducing immunity

Med Terms (
not from word parts
)

[Complimentary Terms]

Term

Definition

OTHERS


antibiotic


palpations


palpitations



pyrexia


febrile


afebrile




drug that TX bacterial infections


to assess with the use of fingertips


patient’s awareness of irregular heart
beat


fever


pertaining to fever; caused by fever


pertaining to without fever

Vital Signs


Temperature


obtained by a thermometer (normal, 98.6˚ oral)


may be taken orally, axillary, tympanic, or rectally


Pulse


the # of heart beats in a minute (60
-
100 for adult)


may be palpated (felt) at any pulse point


may also be auscultated (heard with stethoscope)
over the chest wall at the apex (bottom point) of
the heart; determining the pulse at the apex is
referred to as an apical pulse

Vital Signs


Respiration


the number of breaths in a minute (12
-
20 for adult)


movement of the chest (sometimes abdomen) is
counted while the patient is quiet


one breath in (inspiration), one out (expiration) equals
one respiration


may be auscultated by placing stethoscope over chest


Blood Pressure


pressure within arteries (140
-
90 is the beginning of
hyptertension
)


usually auscultated at the brachial artery with BP cuff,
sphygmomanometer (gauge), and stethoscope

Images for Review

Coronary Artery
Bypass Graft
(CABG)

Percutaneous
Translumenal

Coronary
Angioplasty (PTCA)

Images for Review

Aortic Stenosis

Varicose Veins

Images for Review

Doppler Ultrasound

Blood Pressure

Images for Review

Atrial Fibrillation

Images for Review

Defibrillation