Embodied COe Emissions of Commercial and Residential Buildings

jumpclaybrainedUrban and Civil

Nov 25, 2013 (3 years and 8 months ago)

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Embodied CO
2
e Emissions of Commercial and
Residential Buildings

John Ochsendorf, Dorothy Brown, Libby Hsu,

Omar Swei, and Maggie Wildnauer

June 7, 2011



Contents

Tables

................................
................................
................................
................................
................................
......................

3

Methodology

................................
................................
................................
................................
................................
...........

4

Building Types

................................
................................
................................
................................
................................
.....

4

Overall LCA Approach

................................
................................
................................
................................
.........................

5

Assumptions

................................
................................
................................
................................
................................
............

6

System Boundary

................................
................................
................................
................................
................................

6

Concrete Mixes

................................
................................
................................
................................
................................
...

6

Design
-

Singl
e
-
Family Residential

................................
................................
................................
................................
..........

7

ICF Single
-
Family

................................
................................
................................
................................
................................
.

7

Wood Single
-
Family

................................
................................
................................
................................
............................

9

Results
-

Single
-
Family Residential

................................
................................
................................
................................
........

11

Weight of Materials

................................
................................
................................
................................
..........................

11

Global W
arming Potential by Material

................................
................................
................................
.............................

11

Design
-

Multi
-
Family Residential

................................
................................
................................
................................
.........

12

ICF Multi
-
Family

................................
................................
................................
................................
................................

12

Wood Multi
-
Family

................................
................................
................................
................................
...........................

14

Results
-

Multi
-
Family Residential

................................
................................
................................
................................
.........

16

Weight of Materials

................................
................................
................................
................................
..........................

16

Global Warming Potential by Material

................................
................................
................................
.............................

16

Design
-

Commercial

................................
................................
................................
................................
.............................

17

Results
-

Commercial

................................
................................
................................
................................
............................

19

Weight of Materials

................................
................................
................................
................................
..........................

19

Global Warming Potential by Material

................................
................................
................................
.............................

19

Global Warming Potential Summary
-

lb CO
2
e/ft
2

................................
................................
................................
................

20

Comparison to Other Studies

................................
................................
................................
................................
................

21

Single
-
Family Global Warming Potential per Square Foot

................................
................................
................................

21

Multi
-
Family Global Warming Potential per Square Foot

................................
................................
................................

21

Commercial Global Warming Potential per Square

Foot

................................
................................
................................
..

22

Appendix

................................
................................
................................
................................
................................
...............

23

Fuel Mixes

................................
................................
................................
................................
................................
.........

23




Tables

Table 1. System boundaries used for each life cycle phase in
the LCA

................................
................................
..................

6

Table 2. Concrete mixes used in the Commercial and Residential building designs

................................
..............................

6

Table 6. Description of Single
-
Family insulated concrete form building designs for Chicago and Phoenix

...........................

8

Table 7. Description of Single
-
Family wood building designs for Chicago and Phoenix

................................
.......................

10

Table 4. Description of Multi
-
Family insulated concrete form building designs for Chicago and Phoenix

..........................

13

Table 5. Description of Multi
-
Family wood building designs for Chicago and Phoenix

................................
........................

15

Table 3. Description of Steel and Concrete Commercial building designs

................................
................................
...........

18

Table 8. Summary of global

warming potential for each building type and suggestions for what it could be with the
inclusion of Fly Ash in the concrete mix used

................................
................................
................................
.......................

20

Table 9. Break down of the fuel mixes used in Chicago and Phoenix

................................
................................
...................

23




Methodology

Building Types

Residential Single
-
Family and Multi
-
Family


Comparison between timber and insulated concrete form frames

Last modified June 7, 2011

Commercial Office


Comparison between steel and reinforced concrete frames

Last modified June 7, 2011




Overall LCA
Approach


Last modified June 7, 2011





Assumptions

System Boundary

The region
-
specific life cycle assessment encompasses the structure, façade, and foundation in each building.

Table
1
. System boundaries used for each life cycle
phase in the LCA

Pre
-
Use Phase

Use Phase

End
-
of
-
Life Phase

Material Extraction

Electricity Use Based on NERC
Subregion Mixes

Transportation to Landfills and
Recycling Facilities

Manufacturing

Natural Gas Use Based on NERC
Subregion Mixes

Construction Material Landfilling

Transportation to Factories and Sites

Maintenance and Replacement

Steel Recycling

Transportation Fuel


Aluminum Recycling

Manufacturing Electricity


Concrete Recycling

Last modified June 7, 2011


Concrete Mixes

Table
2
. Concrete mixes used in the Commercial and Residential building designs


Commercial (lb/yd
3
)

Residential (lb/yd
3
)

Cement

564

376

Coarse Aggregate

2000

1900

Fine Aggregate

1200

1400

Water

237

237

28
-
Day Strength (psi)


5000 psi


3000 psi


Source: Marceau, Nisbet, and VanGeem, PCA 2007.

Last modified June 7, 2011

Design
-

Single
-
Family Residential

ICF Single
-
Family





Chicago





Phoenix

Last modified June 7, 2011












Table
3
.
Description of Single
-
Family insulated concrete form building designs for Chicago and Phoenix


ICF
-

Chicago

ICF
-

Phoenix

Floors

Flooring System

9
-
1/2" I joists @ 16" O.C.

9
-
1/2" I joists @ 16" O.C.

Sheathing

5/8" Plywood

5/8" Plywood

Roofing

Method

Stick Framed Roof

Stick Framed Roof

Sheathing

1/2" Plywood

1/2" Plywood

Insulation

R
-
30 Batt

R
-
30 Batt

Shingles

Asphalt

Asphalt

Load Bearing Partition Walls

Studs

2 x 4 @ 16" O.C.

2 x 4 @ 16" O.C.

Exterior Walls

ICF Wall

8” concrete

8” concrete

Insulation

2.5” EPS Insulation

2.5” EPS Insulation

Foundation Wall

Thickness

8"

0"

Last modified June 7, 2011




Wood Single
-
Family






Chicago







Phoenix

Last modified June 7, 2011



Table
4
. Description of
Single
-
Family wood building designs for Chicago and Phoenix


Wood
-

Chicago

Wood
-

Phoenix

Floors

Flooring System

9
-
1/2" I joists @ 16" O.C.

9
-
1/2" I joists @ 16" O.C.

Sheathing

5/8" Plywood

5/8" Plywood

Roofing

Method

Stick Framed Roof

Stick Framed
Roof

Sheathing

1/2" Plywood

1/2" Plywood

Insulation

R
-
30 Batt

R
-
30 Batt

Shingles

Asphalt

Asphalt

Load Bearing Partition Walls

Studs

2 x 4 @ 16" O.C.

2 x 4 @ 16" O.C.

Exterior Walls

Studs

2 x 6 @ 24" O.C.

2 x 4 @ 16" O.C.

Insulation

R
-
19 Batt

R
-
13 Batt

Sheathing

1/2" Plywood

3/8" Plywood

Foundation Wall

Thickness

8"

0"

Last modified June 7, 2011




Results
-

Single
-
Family Residential

Weight

of Materials


Last modified June 7, 2011

Global Warming Potential by Material


Last modified June

7, 2011

Design
-

Multi
-
Family

Residential

ICF Multi
-
Family



Last modified June 7, 2011














Table
5
. Description of Multi
-
Family insulated concrete form building designs for Chicago and Phoenix


ICF


Chicago

ICF
-

Phoenix

Floors

Joists

2 x 8 @ 16” O.C.

2 x 8 @ 16” O.C.

Girder

Glulam Beam

Glulam Beam

Sheathing

5/8" Plywood

5/8" Plywood

Roofing

Method

Flat Truss Roof

Flat Truss Roof

Sheathing

1/2" Plywood

1/2" Plywood

Insulation

R
-
30 Batt

R
-
30 Batt

Shingles

Asphalt

Asphalt

Load Bearing Partition Walls

Studs

2 x 4 @ 16" O.C.

2 x 4 @ 16" O.C.

Exterior Walls

ICF Wall

8” concrete

8” concrete

Insulation

5” EPS

5” EPSS

Foundation Wall

SOG Thickness

4”

4”

Depth of Footing

4’

1.5’

Last
modified June 7, 2011




Wood Multi
-
Family


Last modified June 7, 2011
















Table
6
. Description of Multi
-
Family wood building designs for Chicago and Phoenix


Wood
-

Chicago

Wood
-

Phoenix

Floors

Joists

2 x 8 @ 16”
O.C.

2 x 8 @ 16” O.C.

Girder

Glulam Beam

Glulam Beam

Sheathing

5/8" Plywood

5/8" Plywood

Roofing

Method

Flat Truss Roof

Flat Truss Roof

Sheathing

1/2" Plywood

1/2" Plywood

Insulation

R
-
30 Batt

R
-
7.5 Continuous XPS

R
-
30 Batt

Shingles

Asphalt

Asphalt

Load Bearing Partition Walls

Studs

2 x 4 @ 16" O.C.

2 x 4 @ 16" O.C.

Exterior Walls

Studs

2 x 6 @ 24" O.C.

2 x 4 @ 16" O.C.

Insulation

R
-
19 Batt

R
-
13 Batt

Sheathing

1/2" Plywood

3/8" Plywood

Foundation Wall

SOG Thickness

4”

4”

Depth of Footing

4’

1.5’

Last modified June 7, 2011




Results
-

Multi
-
Family Residential

Weight of Materials


Last modified June 7, 2011

Global Warming Potential by Material


Last modified June 7, 2011

Design
-

Commercial






Steel






ICF

Last modified June 7,
2011



Table
7
. Description of Steel and Concrete Commercial building designs


Steel

Concrete

Layout

Footprint

162’ x 273’

162‘x 273’

Bays

27’ x 27’

27’ x 27’

Floors

Girders

W18

22” x 10”

System

5” slab on deck

12” Slab

Supporting Columns

W14

12” and 16” square columns

Core

Method

Concrete Core for Openings

Concrete Core for Openings

Walls

Studs Material

Aluminum

Aluminum

Insulation

XPS

XPS

Last modified June 7, 2011

Results
-

Commercial

Weight of Materials


Last modified June 7, 2011

Global Warming Potential by Material

Last modified June 7, 2011


Global Warming Potential Summary
-

lb CO
2
e/ft
2

Table
8
. Summary of global warming potential for each building type an
d suggestions for what it could be with the inclusion of Fly Ash in the
concrete mix used




Commercial


25% Fly Ash
Inclusion


Multi
-
Family


25% Fly Ash
Inclusion


Single
-
Family


25% Fly Ash
Inclusion


Reinforced
Concrete

60
-
70

50
-
60









Insulated
Concrete
Forms







41
-
43

39
-
41

25
-
30

19
-
24

Wood







32
-
35

31
-
34

20
-
25

19
-
21

Structural Steel

100
-
110

100
-
105









Last modified June 7, 2011


Comparison to Other Studies

Single
-
Family Global Warming Potential per Square
Foot


Last modified June 7, 2011


Multi
-
Family Global Warming Potential per Square Foot


Last modified June 7, 2011



Commercial Global Warming Potential per Square Foot


Last modified June 7, 2011




Appendix

Fuel Mixes

Table
9
. Break down of the fuel mixes used in Chicago and Phoenix


Chicago (%)

Phoenix (%)

Hard Coal

64.35

30.13

Natural Gas

6.54

31.38

Heavy Fuel Oil

0.54

0.42

Nuclear

26.45

9.61

Solid Biomass

0.7

1.18

Hydro

0.54

23.08

Other Renewable

0.14

3.77

Other Fossil

0.74

0.43

Grid Loss


6.47


4.84


Last modified June 7, 2011