Evidence-Based Instructional Priorities

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Oct 21, 2013 (3 years and 5 months ago)

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Canyons School District






Evidence
-
based Learning


1


Evidence
-
Based Instructional Priorities

Our time with students is limited and valuable. Every minute we spend with them should
be spent using the practices that are most likely to be successful. This requires us to shift
our perspective from looking at instructional practices that work to looki
ng at practices
that work best.


What Works Best

Meta
-
analysis offer the strongest evidence base for determining what works best. “A meta
-
analysis is a summary, or synthesis of relevant research findings. It looks at all of the
individual studies done
on a particular topic and summarizes them” (Marzano, 2000). A
meta
-
analysis is simply,
a study of studies
. Meta
-
analysis explain the results across studies
examined using
effect size

(ES). Average effects for instruction is

0.20 to 0.40

growth per year
(Hattie, 2009). Thus the
hinge point

for

determining what
works best is 0.40. Instructional practices above 0.40 have a high likelihood of increasing
learning than those
practices below t
he hinge
-
point (Hattie, 2009).


Barometer of Influence











Canyons School District






Evidence
-
based Learning


2

Mak
ing Learning Visible


Teacher as Activator

Teacher as Facilitator

Feedback

0.75

Inquiry
-
based teaching

0.31

Vocabulary

0.67

Smaller class sizes

0.21

Opportunities to Respond

0.60

Individualized instruction

0.20

Explicit Instruction

0.57

Simulations
and gaming

0.32

Mastery Learning

0.57

Whole language

reading

0.06

Goals

challenging; high
expectations for all students

0.56

Web
-
based learning

0.09

Classroom Management (PBIS)

0.52

Different teaching for boys & girls

0.12

Small Group Instruction

0.49

Problem
-
based learning

0.15

Frequent Testing

0.46

Inductive Teaching

0.06

ACTIVATOR
AVERAGE

0.
58

FACILITATOR AVERAGE

0.17


NOTES:
























Canyons School District






Evidence
-
based Learning


3


Explicit Instruction

Mastery Learning,
Effect Size = .57

(Teacher as Activator; Hattie, 2009)



Definition
: “Explicit instruction is characterized by a series of supports or scaffolds,
whereby students are guided through the learning process with clear statements about
the purpose and rationale for learning the
new skill, clear explanations and
demonstrations of the instructional target, and supported practice with feedback until
independent mastery has been achieved” (Archer, 2011).

Rationale (Why):


1.

The effectiveness of explicit instruction has been validated
repeatedly by research
involving general education and special education students.

The effect sizes for the
following explicit teaching methods are given;
reciprocal

teaching .74, feedback .75
,
s
tudent self
-
verbalization .67,
formative assessment .90
, dire
ct instruction .59.
These effect sizes tell us that significant student progress is made when these
techniques are used.

2.

Explicit instruction

is absolutely necessary when student discovery is impossible,
inaccurate, incomplete or inefficient. Examples
: How

sounds are associated with
letters, how quantity is associated with number, the order of operation in algebra,
the process for sounding out words, the construction of a persuasive essay, the
elements in scientific inqu
iry, or specific spelling rules
(Arch
er, 2011)
.


Explicit Instruction

Explicit instruction is
:



Systematic



Relentless



Engaging







Canyons School District






Evidence
-
based Learning


4


Structure of the Explicit Lesson


Opening of the Explicit Lesson

Gain students’ attention
.

Preview:



State the goal of the lesson.



Discuss the relevance of the
target skill.


3 W’s: Why? When? Where?

Review:



Review critical prerequisite skills.





Body of
the Explicit Lesson

Prompted or Guided Practice (We do it.):

Physical Prompts Levels of Scaffolding

Fade physical prompts as student
Tell

them what to do.

understanding/skill increases.

Ask

them what to do.

Verbal Prompts

Remind

them what to do.

Fade verbal prompts

Visual Prompts

Fade visual prompts

Body of the Explicit Lesson

Group Practice (Y’all do it).

Students practice in small groups or pairs.

Unprompted
practice (You do it.).



Body of the Explicit Lesson

Modeling (I do it.):



Show and tell (Demonstrate and describe).



Three C’s: = Clear, Consistent, Concise.



Involve Students.




Canyons School District






Evidence
-
based Learning


5

Throughout lesson:

Involve students. Monitor performance. Provide feedback. (Archer, p. 40).

Improving Student Engagement


Through Opportunities to Respond

Effect Size = .60

SD


(Teacher as Activator; Hattie, 2009)


Definition:

The number of times the teacher provides ac
ademic opportunities that
require students to actively respond (Miller, 2009; Sprick, Knight, Reinke, & McKale, 2006)
.
Students are
engaged through opportun
ities to respond when they are
saying
, writing, or
doing

(Feldman)
.
When tied to learning objectiv
es these opportunities result in positive
behavioral and academic outcomes and give the teacher insight into the students


learning
and understanding of the topic(s) being studied.


Rationale (Why):

1.

OTR increases student engagement, allows for more positiv
e, specific feedback and
decreases

inappropriate student behavior.

2.

Summary of Research

Research has shown that the target rate of OTR for new material is
4
-
6

responses
per minute with 80% accuracy
and 9
-
12

student responses per minute with 90%
accuracy for practice of material already covered. Additionally, it has been found
that the optimal wait time for responses is about 3
-
5 seconds. This allows students
to think through their responses and allows more s
tudents to respond.



Opportunities to respond can be focused on the individual or on a group of students. Each
of these approaches has different strengths.

T
he teacher may choose to
use

group
OTR
to
minimize the risk the student feels in responding

and t
o increase engagement for all
students. However, the

teacher might choose to use individual OTR when it is important to
know what EA
CH student thinks.


Opportunities to respond

can be verbal or non
-
verbal
.

Verbal responses help students to summarize and s
hare their thoughts with others while
Closing the Explicit Lesson

Review

critical content.

Preview

the content of the next lesson.

Assign

independent work.




Canyons School District






Evidence
-
based Learning


6

non
-
verbal responses can increase writing skills or give students the opportunity to move
around the room.






Canyons School District






Evidence
-
based Learning


7


Opportunities to Respond Strategies

Group

Individual

Choral Response

Calling on v
olunteers

Partner discussion

Calling individually



cold call
,
no hand raising

Small
-
Group discussion

Written response
-



Sentence starter


• Quick write

Precision Partnering

Exit/Entrance

Hand
signals



This might include sit/stand,
thumbs up/down, 4 corners or
other actions

Structured note
-
taking



Skeletal notes or fill
-
in
-
the
-
blank



Graphic organizer

Response Cards



These might be pre
-
printed,
write
-
on, or cover part to answer.

Copying from the bo
ard

Marking something

Journaling

Pointing at something

Anticipation guide

Whiteboards

Individual comes up to whiteboard while
others write at their desk


* Group responses

Other Strategies or Practices that Increase OTR


C
ollabora
tive Learning

that is well designed and effectively monitored


Keeping track

of
when

and
which students

are called to respond



Seating chart



Draw names from a jar



Popsicle sticks with student names



Answer coins

Explicit/Direct Instruction

as the instructional routine
for class time



“I do”

Teacher models



“We do”

Class practices with teacher



“Y’all do”

Students practice in pairs or small groups



“You do”

Independent practice with teacher feedback

Knowing your students

well enables nimble decisions in adjusting instruction
including pre
-
teaching, re
-
teaching, and reinforcement.

Varied approaches

through use of skill sequencing that promotes generalization



Acquisition of new skills



Automaticity (including rate and accur
acy)



Application (extending, connecting, and synthesizing)







Canyons School District






Evidence
-
based Learning


8

Active Student Engagement Observation Form



Whole Group


Individual


Choral Response


Calling on Volunteers


Partner discussion


Calling individually



no hand raising or cold
call


Small
-
Group discussion


Written response
-
Sentence
starter


Precision Partnering


Graphic organizer


Hand signals



This might include
sit/stand, thumbs
up/down, 4 corners
or other actions


Structured note
-
taking



Skeletal notes or fill
-
in
-
the
-
blank


Response Cards



These might be pre
-
printed, write
-
on, or
cover
part to answer.


Copying from the board


Marking something


Journaling


Pointing at something


Come up to board


Whiteboards


Computer Assisted Instruction



Rate of OTR = # of tallies above/ length of observation in minutes


Rate of OTR =


*
the target

rate of OTR for new material is 4
-
6 responses per minute with 80% accuracy and 9
-
12 student
responses per minute with 90% accuracy for practice of material already covered.






Teacher _
_____________________________
________ School __________________________________

Class __
_____________________________
___________
Pe
riod __________________________
________

Date

__
___________
____
Length of Observation (in minutes) _______________________
____

Subject of Les
son ____________
_______________ Number of Students ___________________

Observ
er _________________________
_________________________
_______________________________




Canyons School District






Evidence
-
based Learning


9

Feedback

Between Teachers and Students

Effect Size = .75

SD

(Hattie, 2012
)


Definition:

The purpose of feedback is to let someone know whether or not a task was
performed correctly, and how it might be improved. Feedback clarifies the difference
between the current and expected levels of performance and illuminates what steps cou
ld
be taken to meet the expectations. Feedback is most effective when it is clear, purposeful,
compatible with prior knowledge, immediate, and non
-
threatening.

Rationale:


Educational research indicates that feedback is one of the most powerful drivers of student
achievement. In Hattie’s book
Visible Learning

for Teaching
,
feedback is described as the
critical moderator that closes the gap between what students know and what

we want
them to know. T
he overall effect size of

feedback is very high (ES = .75
):



Feedback to Students:

The use of positive feedback, including general and specific praise for student behaviors,
and the role of negative feedback in the form reprimands
and correction has been a well
-
investigated phenomenon (see Hattie, 2009 for full review of meta
-
analyses). Positive
academic and behavioral feedback, or teacher praise has been statistically correlated with
student on
-
task behavior (Apter, Arnold & Stinso
n, 2010) and has strong empirical support
for both increasing academic and behavioral performance and decreasing problem
behaviors (Gable, Hester, Rock & Hughes, 2009). However, it is often reported as an
underused teaching tool despite the supporting rese
arch (Shores, et al, 1993; Sutherland,
Wehby & Yoder, 2002). With regard to reprimands and correction, there is a continued
assertion that teachers maintain a ratio of praise to correction at 3:1 or 4:1 (Gable, Hester,
Rock, & Hughes, 2009; Stichter, Lewis
, & Wittaker, 2009).









Canyons School District






Evidence
-
based Learning


10

Characteristics of Effective Feedback


Feedback is most effective when it is:



Clear


Purposeful


Compatible with prior knowledge


Immediate


Non
-
threatening


Feedback Types.



Feedback can be divided into two types:


Corrective


Affirmative



Type of Response

Type of Feedback

Correct Response

Affirm and move on

“Thank you for having your pencil and book out
ready for class”

“Perfect, 2 + 2 is 4.”

Correct response that is hesitant

Affirm and provide further opportunities to
practice

“Right, 2 + 2 is 4, now let’s try 3+3,” etc.

Incorrect response on fact or knowledge

Restate fact or knowledge, and recheck for
understanding “the correct sound for M is /m/.
What is the correct sound?”

Incorrect response on strategy

Guide st
udents in applying the strategy.

4(2+6)
-
5=?

“Not quite. Remember, we need to do everything in
parentheses first, so what’s in parentheses? What is
2+6. Right. Now, what do we do with the 4?”

Incorrect response on strategy

Say the word, have the
students repeat the word and
reread the sentence.


All of these types are important. However, teachers should be careful that the overall
balance of feedback that a student receives is positive (Gable, Hester, Rock, & Hughes,
2009; Sticker, Lewis, & Witta
ker, 2009), especially with students who have experienced
difficulties in school (4 positives per negatives).






Canyons School District






Evidence
-
based Learning


11

Explicit Vocabulary Instruction

Effect Size = .6
7 SD

(Hattie, 2009)

Definition
:



What it is
: Direct, clear, concise, repetitive instruction
presenting meaning and contextual
examples through multiple exposures.

What it is not
: The traditional procedure of having students copy a list of words, look the
words up in the glossary, copy the definitions, and study the definitions.



Rationale (Why)
:


Explicit vocabulary instruction is beneficial in developing reading skills and
comprehension.



Students receiving explicit, engaging vocabulary instruction experience growth
in vocabulary (Tomesen & Aarnoutse, 1998; White, Graves, & Slater, 1990).



When
students receive intentional teaching of target words, their
comprehension of text containing the target words improve (McKeown, Beck,
Omanson, & Pople, 1985; Stahl & Fairbanks, 1986).



Explicit vocabulary instruction is particularly critical for struggling

readers, who
do not read extensively and have more difficult using contextual cues to
determine word meanings (Beck, McKeown, & Kucan, 2002).



Strategies
:


Effective vocabulary/academic language instruction comes down to:


Connection

new to the known, bu
ilding that “semantic network” in the mind/brain


Use

academic speaking and writing as we construct and apply knowledge (not simply
memorize or match, multiple choice, etc.)











Canyons School District






Evidence
-
based Learning


12


Before Teaching: Carefully select vocabulary words based on essential
concepts.

Select terms that are:



unknown,



critical to the content,



useful in the future,



and difficult to obtain independently.




Archer & Hughes, 2011





The Three Tiers of Vocabulary


Tier 1
: Commonly used everyday words.


Tier 2
: high utility, general academic words. These are words that students may encounter
frequently in their reading and should be able to use in their writing.

-
budget, cost, coward, longed


Tier 3
: Specialized Academic/Content Specific: These are words that

refer to a new and
difficult concept that is important for students to learn.


-
spherical, operation (math), explore, character






Basic Instructional Protocol

1.

Introduce the word

2.

Introduce the meaning of the word (provide a student
-
friendly
explanation)

3.

Illustrate with examples

4.

Check students’ understanding



Deepen students’ understanding



Check students’ understanding



Review & Coach Use (possible extensions)