Using Popular Movies In Teaching Cross-Cultural Management

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Oct 30, 2013 (3 years and 7 months ago)

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Using Popular Movies
In
Teaching Cross
-
Cultural Management


Refereed Paper


Pandey
, Satish


Abstract


Films are considered as very valuable t ool to classroom learni ng i n a course on cross
-
cultural
management as they communicate through their characters,
story, context, dialogues and audi o
-
effects
at several levels to students. Films help students to internalize situations which they might not have
experi enced personally; hence help them to connect with various theories and concepts. This paper is an
attem
pt to understand chall enges

coming in way of using popul ar
movi es in teaching course
Managing
Cross
-
Cultural Issues

to MBA students.
Two
Hollywood movies
Outsourced

(2006, di rector
-

John
Jeffcoat) and
My Bi g Fat Greek Wedding

(2002, director
-

Joel Zwick)
were used as teachi ng cases in the
above menti oned
course. Di fferent clips from the selected movies were shown in the classroom in
different sessions throughout the course and students were asked to write a reflection not e on their
classroom learning. Qual
itati ve content analysis of students’ reactions in their classroom learning notes
reveals that students could connect content of movi es to cultural theories and concepts very well and
found movi es very val uable and relevant to the course
Managi ng Cross
-
Cul
tural Issues
. This paper
attempts to reflect on course i nstructor’s perspecti ve on sel ected movies as teaching resource and
students’ perception on learning effectiveness of popular movies in management classroom.



Key Words:

Cross
-
cultural management,

movies in management education, teaching with movies,
cross
-
cultural communication, cultural stereotypes, national culture


Popul ar movi es provi de very rich content to management classrooms and
have attracted attention of
scholars and trainers. A signifi
cant number of management scholars believe that young students tend to
remember popular movie content more often than monotonous textbooks, research papers and other
scholarly reference mat erial. They are also very comfortabl e in connecting movi e scenes, d
ialogues of
actors, story of the movie and music with theoretical concepts explained in the classroom.
As Champox
(1999) said, “films are a comfort able famili ar medium to contemporary students that can keep student
interest in t he theori es and concepts under discussion.”

He added further that although most films are
fiction, they can offer powerful experie
nces that students are unlikely to have i n a classroom. Films can
provoke good discussion, assessment of one’s values and sel f if the scenes have strong emoti onal
content (Champox, 1999).
Dunphy, Meyer and Lint on (2008) argued in their paper that who woul d

like to
watch a
traini ng film on
CEO
s

discussing management issues rather than popular Hollywood movies
e.g.

12 Angry Men

(1957) or
The Godfather (1972)

which coul d be

better
connected to management
principl es

in a far

meaningful
way. Trai ning vi deos
focu
sed on professional devel opment have limited
appeal due to thei r burdensome subject matter
and deadpan deli very
; and fail to leave long
-
lasting impact
on students
.
Gallos (1993) emphasized that popular fil ms can be powerful vehicles for teaching
students
c
onceptual

flexibility and ability to shift perspectives.
She also cited several movi es in her paper which
could be very useful for management trainers in teaching multipl e cultural contexts
of the same situation
e.g.
Dead Poets Society

(
1989
),
The Karate
Kid

(
1984
),
Rashomon

(
1950
)
,
Working Girl

(1988) ,
Born on
the fourth of July

(1989).
There are several open resources avail abl e on the internet to management
scholars, trainers and students which suggest long list of recommended Hollywood movies useful fo
r
academic and training purposes.


Using Films in Intercultural/Cross
-
Cultural Training


The use of films in intercultural traini ng has been recommended by a number of schol ars (
Bhawuk &
Brislin, 2000; Champoux, 1999; Littrell, Salas, Hess, Paley, &
Riedel, 2006; Summerfi eld, 1994;

Mallinger
and Rossy (2003)
,Varner & Beamer, 2005; Verluyten, 2007, 2008).

As Cardon (2010) state that one of
the primary benefits for uni versity students is that films are entertaini n
g, engaging
and in many cases
stimulate

curiosity towards other cultures. Films can be very val uable intellectual exercise

in deciphering
other cultures and with gui dance and help of the instructors, students can learn nuances of cultural
theori es and constructs very easily by means of films sh
own in the classroom (Cardon 2010, Mallinger &
Rossy, 2003; Ti dwell, 2001; Bhawuk & Brislin, 2000).
In t heir study,
Smith, Shrestha and Evans (2010)
reported about
their experi ence of successful usage

of the movie
Crash

in teaching cross
-
cultural
intellige
nce and measuring students’ understandi ng of cultural perception, cultural communication,
cultural identity and cultural relations through a multi
-
step 360
0

evaluation process. They found that
students performed well in understanding the causes of cross
-
cu
ltural probl ems but performance rel ated
to basic understanding of cross
-
cultural concepts did not fare well.
They reported further that students
found the movi e

Crash
very engagi ng and enjoyable and they chose scenes in their written reports
because of
their
emotional appeal not for their relevance to specific cultural concepts
.


There are few academic contri butions available i n intercultural training literature where scholars have
presented their innovati ve approach to teach cultural theori es or cross
-
cultural management by using
films in the classroom e.g. Mallinger and Rossy (2003) on
Gung Ho
, Tidwill (2001) on
The Joy Luck Club
and
Fools Rush In
,

and

Cardon (2010) on
Slumdog Milli onnaire
. Cardon (2010) has found the movie
Slumdog Millionnai re,
a ve
ry valuable tool to learn about principl es of stereotyping

across cultures, and
Indian culture particularly. He
strongly
recommended
Slumdog Milli onnaire
for non
-
Indian students
studying in American uni versities, as being a popular Academy Award
winni ng
movie

as Best Picture
,
probability of

its
availability in the market is
quite
high

and awareness of students about this film also
could be very high
; and most of them might have seen it
.

Bumpus (2005) recommended a valuable
revi ewed coll ection of six movie
s rel evant to teaching
OB concepts with di versity perspecti ve

in MBA
classroom
-

(a)
A Soldier’s Story
(Jewison, 1984) (b)
The Associate
(Petrie, 1996), (c)
Smoke Signals
(Eyre, 1998), (d)
The Joy Luck Club
(Wang, 1993), (e)
For Love or Country: The Artu
ro

Sandoval Story
(Sargent, 2000).
There are several documents available on recommended lists of movies useful in
intercultural traini ng e.g.
Intercultural Traini ng with Films
by
Christine Roell (2010) which coul d be helpful
to instructors looking for appropriate movies for using in their courses.


Different Methods of Using Popular Movies in Management Courses

Champox (1999)
suggested that a film as an effecti ve l earning tool can

be used in di fferent ways in the
classroom e.g. as case, experi ential exercise, metaphor, satire, symbolism, meaning, experience and
time. He further suggested that there are di fferent ways to use a film in a teaching course e.g. showing
the film before t
he discussion or after the discussion, showing scenes repeatedly in the classroom or
showi ng two different movi es on the same story to generate different perspecti ves.
In view of the author,
a film can be used in several different ways as given below:


1.

The

instructor can show some selected scenes

from a selected movie
in one or more
sessions in a course and generate discussions on specific theories, models and issues.


2.

The instructor can show the entire movi e before theoretical sessions. Selected scenes
can be
repeated in the classroom, if required

during discussions.


3.

The instructor can gi ve i ntroductory lecture on relevant theori es before the
movie
show and
later starts discussion on the movie and relevant theories.


4.

The instructor may use few selected

movi es as cases in the enti re course and show selected
scenes from di fferent movies in di fferent theoretical sessions as per pre
-
decided session
plan.


5.

The instructor may assign some selected movi es to groups of students as proj ect assignment
and ask them

to do film analysis on the basis of rel evant
theori es (cultural, social,
psychological, political etc.). Students will get CD/DVD of the movi e from video libraries, do
library or internet research and submit the project report to the instructor.


The aut
hor had experimented with the method
-
4 (as described above) in teachi ng the course on

Managi ng Cross
-
Cultural Issues
” to second year MBA students
.
This paper is based on author’s own
experiences in conducting the course.

The Course: Managing Cross
-
Cultura
l Issues

The course on “
Managi ng Cross
-
Cultural Issues


is an el ecti ve course offered to

second year MBA
students

of School of
Pet roleum Management, Pandit Deendayal Petroleum Uni versity, Gandhi nagar
(Guj arat state, Indi a)
.
The course was desi gned and taught by the author during academic years 2009
-
10
and 2010
-
11.
The course is designed to achieve the following learning objectives:


1.

To
help students in
understand
ing

issues related to cross cultural diversity at work places
.


2.

To

sensitize students
to the need for managing differently in diverse cultural environments, and


3.

To develop skills for diagnosing and understandi ng heterogeneity of cultures, and
to function
effectively in
different cultural environments.


Course Pedagogy:


The course was conducted in a seminar
-
cum
-
workshop format and di fferent pedagogical techni ques such
as lectures, case discussions

and

group project were used to achieve the goal of effecti ve learni ng. The
selected movi es
Outsourced (2006)
1

and
My Big Fat

Greek Wedding (2002
)
2

were adopt ed as vi deo
case
s

in the course to make classroom learning more interesting and rel evant to students.
The course
was conducted in 10 classroom sessions of 90 minutes each (total 15 classroom hours), contributing to
1.5 cred
its to students.


Sample:



The present paper is based on author’s own experiences in teaching this course to two batches of
students. The 2008 batch had 14 students (13 boys and 1 girl) and 2009 batch also had 14 students (13
boys and 1 girl ) who opted
for this course i n thei r second year MBA. All of the s
tudents were Indian
citizen,
belong
ing

to di fferent states of India, in the age group 22
-
30 years and maj ority of them bel ong
ed

to Hindu religion

(barri ng one Christian student in 2008 batch)
.
In both t
he batches, most of the students
had good command over English and Hi ndi l anguages (written and spoken), and had seen many English
(Hollywood) and Hindi movies i n the past. Some of them knew other Indi an l anguages including Gujarati,
Marat hi, Tamil, Malaya
l am, Bangla and Telugu. An average student of the class had good fluency over
English, Hi ndi and t he language of one’s state. From national culture perspecti ve, all of the students
in
both the batches belonged to ‘
Indian
’ culture.



Selection of Movies:



For the batch of 2008, only
Outsourced (2006)

was used in the course. Positi ve feedback on using a
popular

Hollywood movie i n a

course
on cross
-
cultural management
moti vated the author to go for
including more movies in the next attempt. Hence, for the batch of 2009, the author decided to include
My
Big Fat Greek Wedding (2002)

for addi ng more flavor in t he course content.

The aut hor was not aware of
many internet re
sources related to sel ected movies
(cited in t his paper)
when these
movies
were actually
used in the course as vi deo cases. Hence, this

paper is based on author’s
experiences and observations
in the classroom.


Screening of Movies:






1

The movie website (
http://www.outsourcedthemovie.com/ms_corptraining.html
) recommends corporate training
material
developed by Michigan State Bu
siness School professors Aneil Mishra, Ph.D. and Karen Mishra, Ph.D. and
global outsourcing consultant Atul Vashistha, Chairman of services globalization firm NeoIT, and founder of
international business training company GlobalAbility.

2

The movie
My Big
Fat Greek Wedding

is in recommended list of popular movies by The Cross
-
Cultural Training
Centre (CCTC) of Central New Jersey. (website:
http://www.cctcnj.org
). Both the movies,
Outsourced
and
My Big
Fat Greek Wedding

are also featured in the recommended list of Christine Roell (2010) in her paper on
Intercultural
Training with Films
.


B
oth the movies,
Outsourced
and
My Big Fat Greek Wedding

were
not
shown in full screening in one
session but selected scenes were screened in different sessions as per pre
-
decided session plan (see
Appendix
-
A
) and rel evant theoretical issues we
re discussed in the classroom
.
If a scene needs to be
discussed in the next classes, then it was repeated to refresh students’ memories

on students’ demands
,
so they can quote dialogues, background or actors in their discussions.

Some scenes from both the
movi es which depicted sexual
intimacy

were skipped in screening.

In each batch, there were 3 or 4
students who had seen the movie
Outsourced
in their past before
joini ng the course; however no one had
seen the movie
My Big Fat Greek Wedding

earlier.


Course Work:




Students were
asked to read selected chapters from referenc
e books, case studies and recommended

research papers before each session.
Stude
nts were also asked to refer
book
s

Understanding Cross
-
Cultural Psychology
, authored by Pittu Laungani (2007), Sage Publications;
a
nd
Asian Perspectives on
Psychology
-

Henry S. R. Kao and Durganand Sinha (Eds.) (1997), Vol. 19, Cross
-
Cult ural Research and
Methodology Seri es, Sage Publications, New Del hi; as these

book
s present

Indian

and
East Asian

perspecti ve
s

of culture as well as a wonderful comparati ve analysis of Eastern and Western cultural
psychologies. The second
mai n
reference book
Understanding Cross
-
Cultural Management
, authored by
Marie
-
Joëll e Browaeys and Roger Price (2008), Pearson Education India
is another wonderful book
presenting a compl ete framework of cross
-
cultural management

from Western pe
rspecti ve. Students
were advised to explore

more books on culture, cultural psychology, social psychology, cross
-
cultural
management etc.
available i n the

librar
y, so they do t heir own comparati ve analysis of di fferent cultural
theori es and approaches

(see listed of recommended reference books in Appendix
-
A)
.

It helped very
much in the classroom discussion when students coul d connect movie scenes shown i n t
he class to
various cultural theori es and concepts, and their own life experi ences. This created a very positi ve
environment in the classroom.


Course Evaluation and Data Analysis:



To eval uate learni ng outcome of the course,

students were asked to write
reflection note on their
classroom learni ng wit h specific mention to learni ng generated through movi es shown in the classroom.
Students’ reactions written in their reflection notes were analyzed through qualitati ve cont ent ana
lysis.
First, reactions

with specific

reference to movi es were separated from statements related to general
theoretical learning; and then
classified and coded
on the basis of indications of cultural concepts
mentioned in those statements.


The data analyz
ed and discussed in this paper pertains to the batch of
2009 (14 students only). There is no such dat a collected or analyzed for the batch of 2008 but the author
has tried to bring some of his observations with 2008 batch in discussion.


Movie Review and
Analysis


Movie

-

Outsourced (2006)


Outsourced is a romantic comedy film, written by George Wing and John Jeffcoat; and directed by John
Jeffcoat, released in September 2006. This movie reflects well on intercultural differences between
American and Indi an cultures.
This movie has recei ved m
any positi ve critiques on its cross
-
cultural
theme.


Plot
3
:


When a Seattle
-
based US firm Western Novelty decides to outsource its call centre to Indi a, it asks Mr.
Todd Anderson
(Josh Hamilton)
to train his replacement in Indi a
, which he has to accept
reluctantly. Right
from the first day of his arri val in Indi a, Todd encounters a seri es culture shocks and unusual situations



3

This plot summary is based on the content available on Wikipedia webpage of the movie. (Source:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Outsourced_(film)
)

with Indi an people. He starts understanding this new country, its culture, people and society slowly and
steadily. In the process,

he gets good support from his manager Purohit

(Asif Basra)

and female
colleague Asha

(Ayesha Dharkar)
, who also starts liking Todd later.


When things are progressing forward, and centre starts performi ng wit h its full potenti al, the company
agai n decide
s to outsource jobs to Chi na for saving huge costs. The centre i n India is bei ng closed and its
employees should look for another job. Todd helps Purohit to get a new job by recommending his name
to Centre Head of China office. At the end of the movie, Tod
d comes back to US, but his has sweet
memories of India, Asha and his colleagues with him.


Analysis:


Because of its cross
-
cultural context and relevance to IT outsourcing industry, this movie has potential to
attract attention of everyone
-

be it student
, working professional or academician. That may be reason why
this movi e has recei ved enormous appreciation from management trainers. The author has selected this
movi e because of its potential to cover a very wide range of

topics included in the course sp
eci fically
‘differences between American (Western) and Indian (Eastern) cultures’.



Movie: My Big Fat Greek Wedding (2002)


My Big Fat Greek Wedding is a 2002 American romantic comedy film written by and starri ng Ni a Vardal os
and di rected by Joel Zwick. At the 75th Academy Awards, it was nominated for the Academy Award for
Best Original Screenpl ay. The movie is centered on Foto
ula "Toul a" Portokalos (Nia Vardal os), a middle
class Greek American woman who falls in love with a non
-
Greek upper middle class "White Anglo
-
Saxon
Protestant" Ian Miller (John Corbett).


Plo
t
4
:


Toula Port okalos

(Ni a Vardalos)

is
a 30 years old girl
from a conservati ve Greek family
, and works

as
waitress

in her family's restaurant,
Dancing Zorba's
, in Chicago.
At thirty, she is the only girl in her family,
deemed as a
“failure”
for not getting marri ed by the right age
. H
er family expects her to "marry

a Greek,
make Greek babi es, and feed everyone until the day she dies"
.

But Toula is looking for more in life
, she

often finds hersel f very lonely

in her
big Greek
family.
She wants to join computer classes for making
hersel f a better pro
fessional and quitting her
waitress

job
.
Her mother convi nces

her father

Gus

(
Michael
Constantine)

to let her take some computer classes at college.
She

changes hersel f by replacing thick
glasses with

contact lenses, wears her hair curly, and begi ns to use

makeup. She, her mot her, and her
aunt

Voula

(Andrea Martin)
,

then
, convi nce

her father
to allow her to work at her aunt's travel agency.
Toula feels much better in her new job
. One day
she notices Ian
(John Corbett)
hangi ng around l ooking at
her through
the window. They finally introduce themsel ves and begin dating. Toula keeps the relationship
secret from her family until some weeks later when Gus finds out.

Gus gets wild knowi ng that his

daughter is dating with a non
-
Greek boy and starts searching a sui
tabl
e “Greek” groom for her
.


Ian and Toul a continue to see each other against Gus
's wishes. Ian proposes

to
marry
her, she accepts,
and he agrees to be
baptized in

the Greek Orthodox Church to be worthy of her family.

In the meantime,
Toula also meets with Ian’s mother

(Fiona Reid)

and father

(Bruce Gray)

and they accept her quite easily.


But, the wedding planning becomes a tough exercise for Ian and Toul a, as they have to manage the Big
Greek Family and Ian’s parent
s. Gus insists on inviting the enti
re church to the ceremony. A lot of
confusions are created by Toula’s family members and rel ati ves as everyone tries to help in the wedding
planning process as per one’s best possible way.





4

This plot summary is predominantly based on plot summary published on the Wikipedia page of the movie with
some modifications. (source:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/My_Big_Fat_Greek_Wedding
)

Ultimately, t
he weddi ng day
co
mes and
traditi onal wedding itself goes without a hitch. Gus gi ves a
speech accepting Ian and the Millers as family

members

in the wedding party
and buys the newlyweds a
house right next door to him. The fil m's epilogue shows the new couple's life six
years lat er i n which they
have a daught er Paris that they raise in the Greek style, but Toula tells her she can marry anyone she
wants when she grows up after she says she wants to go to Brownies instead of Greek school.


Analysis:


This movi e is selected

by the author because of its potential to cover a wide range of topics specifically
influence of family culture on indi vi duals’ personality and behavi or, gender rel ationshi ps, cultural
dimensions theori es of Hofestede, Trompennar and culture clash. Anothe
r reason of selecting this movie
for this course was that it revol ves around ‘Greek’

culture which is likely to be percei ved as ‘foreign
culture’
,
though in the movie, there could be possibilities of
over
-
dramatized presentation
of Greek
culture.


Content
Analysis of Students’ Reactions


As instructed by the author, 14 students of batch 2009 submitted their reflection notes as a part of course
evaluation.
Students’ reactions with reference to their learning of cultural theories and concepts from
movi es
shown in t he classroom were analyzed throug
h qualitati ve content analysis.

Table
-
1

gi ves an
account of content analysis data with reference to vari ous factors considered for content analysis. The
n
umbers mentioned in the tables 1a and 1
b indicate number of

students whose reactions were classified
and coded under that category. For example, 10 out of 14 students cited
both the movies in their
reflection notes; whereas only 3 students cited the movie Outsourced only and 1 student cite
d the movie
MBFGW (refer
tabl e
-
1
b). Similarly, 6 students out of 14 eval uated both the movies in terms of their
learning effecti veness deli vered in the classroom through their critical statements.
Some
selected
reactions on learning effecti v
eness of movi es are gi ven below
. We have

used two
-
l ettered codes
(abbrevi ations of students’ names)
to ind
icate indi viduals s

against their reactions

for convenience in
referencing
.


Table
-
1 Content Analysi s of Student’ s Reactions with specific reference to movies
Outsourced

and

My Big Fat Greek

Wedding.

Table
-

1a

Perceived association of movies with theoretical concepts

S.
No.

Theoretical concept cited with specific reference
to the movie

Outsourced

My Big Fat Greek Wedding

1

Differences bet ween Eastern and Western
Cultures

3

Nil

2

Culture
Shock

6

7

3

Culture and intercultural communication

5

1

4

Cultural adaptation

2

5

5

cultural adjustment

1

2

6

acculturation process

5

4

7

Family culture

Nil

5

8

Influence of family culture on self and personality

Nil

3

9

Cross
-
cultural competence,
cultural intelligence

4

1


Table
-
1b

Movies cited by students in their reflection notes

Movie

Number of students

Outsourced

only

3

My Big Fat Greek Wedding

only

1

Both

10

Learning effectiveness of both the
movies

6



Students’ reactions on learning effectiveness of movies


AT:

The l earning through movi es was very hel pful as we could see and understand
scenario more effectively.”


PZ:
“By the help of movies (Outsourced and MBFGW), we coul d relat e better the use
of thi
s subject (applicability of MCCI course)”.


JM:

“The obj ecti ve of the course was well covered with healthy classroom
discussions amongst us and the movies. The movi es showed us the real scenari o how
people get culture shock and how they cope up with it.”


SO:
“Through the movi es, I came to understand that before visiting any new count ry or
place with a di fferent cultural background, one shoul d have general idea of that
culture, so that culture shock can be avoided.”


NJ: “Both movies covered a wide range
of cultural issues and learning.”


These reactions indicat e that some students appreciated the sel ected movies as

a val uable tool for
deli veri ng effecti ve

learning i
n the classroom. However, all the

14 students did not react i
n that way but
none of them
in
dicat ed any dissatisfaction or negati ve comment regardi ng the l earning val ue of the
movi es in their statements. We can see here that most of them were able to connect movies with t heir li fe
experi ences and course content quite easily and effecti vely. The m
ovies also helped them in drawing
their own picture of cultural understanding.

The reactions also indicat e that students have found the
selected movies quite helpful in achieving goal and objectives of the course.


Students’ reactions o
n differenc
es
between Eastern and Western c
ultures

(
With reference to the
movie:
Outsourced)


DD:
“This movi e ‘Outsourced’ demonstrated a lot of difference in western and eastern
business cultures and practices.”


VP: “Differences in Eastern and Western work cultures
can be easily seen in this
movi e. As we see that people from Western countri es are more professional i n their
conduct and behavior whereas Eastern (particularly Indians) are dri ven more by
emotional appeal within the work environment.”




JM: “Learnt about

differences between Eastern and Western cultures, etic and emic
approach of cultural study, coul d connect movie with concepts well with my own
experi ence of working at IBM, as when some peopl e from US came for proj ect
knowl edge sharing and it was di fficul
t for both of us (We
-

Indi an team and them
-

US
team), and they were faci ng a l ot of probl ems and di fficulties and coul d not adapt to
situations”.



Right from the fi rst session of the course, students were encouraged to think from multipl e perspecti ves
on
cultural issues especially when compari ng Western cultures with Non
-
Western (predominantly Eastern
or Indian) cultures. Students were also asked to read book on cross
-
cultural psychology by Pittu Laugani
in which the author had narrat ed his experiences wit
h British, American, European and people from other
nationalities, and explai ned how he faced di fficulties in intercultural communication in foreign land and
how he learnt to cope with those difficulties. In the book, the author had also narrated a number
of
difficulties which people from Western count ries normally face in India.
It contributed a lot in classroom
discussions as most of students were able to connect scenes of the movie
Outsourced

with narrations of
Pittu Laugani and his theoretical explanati
ons, and thei r own real
-
li fe experiences (see comments of VP
and JM above).


Students’ reactions o
n Indian culture

(
the movie
-
Outsourced)


SO: “The movie also shows that Indian culture cannot be taught in classrooms but
one has to learn about it with joy and experiencing with feelings, and capture its
essence.”


VR: “This movie is a completely relevant learning experience, as we belong to
India,
and the entire plot of the movi e is tied with India. This movi e tells us that India culture
cannot be trained in the classroom but one has to feel experience and learn it.”


The above comments indicate that students had found the movi e
Outsourced

very rel evant in context of
learning about Indian culture, society and professional work culture prevailing in India. However, students’
comments are much l oaded with their emotions rather theoretical analysis. One cannot deny this fact that
life experi en
ces are the best teacher for anyone i n the worl d but peopl e need professional trai ning to
learn cross
-
cultural management skills.

If culture cannot be taught i n the classroom, there would be no
need for traini ng courses on cross
-
cultural skills. These stat
ements confi rm our findings quite similar to
findings of Smith et al (2010) that indicate students gets influenced by emotional appeal of movi e scenes
rather than their connectivity with cultural theories and concepts.


Students’ reactions on
family cultu
re
and
influence of family culture on self and
personality (
the
movie
-

My Big Fat Greek Wedding
)


NK:

“Watching it was a fun. The film exposes inner working of passionate Greek
family, good learni ng about family culture, intense relationshi p among family
members”.


SO:

“I learnt that how family culture influences a person's personality? Introvert gi rl
bo
rn and brought up in an orthodox family. I learnt how cultural di fferences influence
people's relationships when two different families encounter each other.”


The movie
My Big Fat Greek Wedding

was selected by the author to cover spe
cific topics e.g.
influence
of family culture on indi vi dual’s

self, personality, life style, attitude and behavi or
. The
movie also
enlightens

on interpers
onal rel ationships among family members and between different families. In the
classroom discussions, students tried to

connect vari ous scenes of the movie with a typical Indian
marri age ceremony, and how di fferent peopl e act and react to different situations happening in a marriage
ceremony. Many students in the classroom tried to identify similarities bet ween the Greek f
amily depicted
in the movi e with a typical
Punjabi Indian family and some of them also shared their own personal
experiences of similar intercultural marriages happened in their social circles.



Students’ reactions on culture shock


JM:

“We learnt
about culture shock and different aspects of culture shock. We
initiated discussion on man
-
woman rel ationshi ps, different cultures
-

one is too loud,
expressi ve and conservati ve, patri rachi al. Learning about model
-

denial, defense,
acceptance, adaptation, a
djustment, integration. We learnt h
ow to cope with culture
shock.

(My Big Fat Greek Wedding)


NS:

“The experience of cult ure shock was well portrayed i n movies Outsourced and
MBFGW. The movie Outsourced has depicted firsthand experience in a different
cul
ture very well and highlights culture shocks experienced by its characters very well.
I also faced similar culture shocks when I came to Gujarat to join this MBA
programme.”

(Outsourced and My Big Fat Greek Wedding)


SO:

“The movie shows how a foreigner

visiting Indi a get culture shock in different
situations, but learns to adapt to it and overcome culture shock when meets another
foreigner in restaurant, and learns to accept this new culture, improves his cultural
intelligence and not bullying to Indian
s.
” (Outsourced)


HP:

“Cult ure shock for bot h famili es happens in form of food, thei r habits, speaking
manners, eating, gathering, celebrating
occasions

etc. Small and nuclear family Vs Big
and joint/extended family”.




(My Big Fat Greek W
edding)


NJ:

“These movies depict the importance of adjusting to a culture and overcoming
culture shock.”


‘Culture shock’ is the concept which domi nated most of classroom sessions during the
course. Ri ght from
Session
-
2
,

when initial scenes of the movie Outsourced were shown i n the classroom
; in every session
students continued discussions on other theoretical concepts
around culture shock. The data i ndicated in
table
-
1 also confi rms this where maximum numbers are written

agai nst culture shock which means 13
students out of 14, expl ained about culture shock in their reflection not es. Some of them cited both the
movies and some of them cited any one which they liked most.


Students’ reactions on cultural adjustment and ada
ptation


AT:

“I understood cultural adjustment from honeymoon to irritation & hostility stage,
gradual adj ustment, biculturalism stage. Cultural adj ustment takes its own time.”



HP:

“Mr. Todd gradually learns about Indian culture and adapts lifestyle
e.g. wit h
"Holi festi val', devel ops better communication with coworkers and ot her people around
him 'auntijee' and others.”











(Outsourced)


NJ:


This movi e tells us about indi vi dualistic and collectivistic cultures. Boy gets
culture shock when meets girlfriend's family members. Boy learns about informal and
jovial envi ronment of family, importance of food, eating/drinking and celebrati ng every
mome
nt, stood fi rm on his decision of marriage and adapts to Greek culture. ….
I
learnt cultural adaptation model
-

denial, irritation, acceptance, adaptation…how to
cope with culture shock.”











(My Big Fat
Greek Wedding)

PR:


This movi e shows us expe
rience of an American marrying a girl from a
conservati ve Greek family and how he cope with the situation, and both the families
after initial resistance and uncomfortable encounters, learn t o adapt with each other.
This movie tells us about respecting and

accepting other cultures.




(My Big Fat Greek Wedding)


SO:

“I learnt that nothing is impossible, though cultural differences are there but
attitude to mix and adapt with other cultures, and respect to other cultures helps in
cultural adaptation. The m
ovie also depicted how people get culture shock and l earn
to overcome it”.

(My Big Fat Greek Wedding)


Another theoretical concept which influenced students’ mindset very strongly is cultural adj ustment and
adaptation, a well
-
connected concept with cultur
e shock. Here,
My Big Fat Greek Wedding

scores over
Outsourced
, as more number of students cited scenes from t his movi e in thei r refl ection notes (even if we
club together numbers written agai nst cultural adaptation, cultural adjustment and acculturation p
rocess,
see table
-
1a). If we see students’ responses in this case, they have cited about theoretical models of
cultural adjustment and cultural adaptation and tried to connect movi e scenes for explai ning their
theoretical learning.


Students’ reactions on

cross
-
cultural competence and cultural intelligence (movie
-

Outsourced)


VR:

“The movie shows us, when a forei gner enters in a country not by choice, there
is an initial resistance to the culture of the country, which then accepted slowly where
the indi v
idual feels that he can li ve with this culture, and slowly adapts to this new
culture. This movie also tells about importance of cultural intelligence.”


NS:

“I also l earnt about cross
-
cultural competence and cultural intelli gence through
the movie Outsou
rced, when hero initially failed to recognize and respect cultural
differences but later l earnt, and started finding this envi ronment and his colleagues
and the country very interesting. This is my learning
-

how to adapt to new cultures
after doing one’s h
omework properly, it is required in the age of globalization.”


PR:

“This movi e has gi ven a great deal of learni ng since it invol ves the behavior of
Indians and how our behaviors are percei ved ‘ odd’ by foreigners. It shows about
experi ences of a foreigner

i n Indi a, which he encounters in di fferent situati ons and
places; and how he learns to cope with them and becomes a good manager for his
team members. It depicts well on culture shock, cross
-
cultural competence, cultural
adaptation, cultural integration a
nd cultural intelligence.”


It can be observed i n above responses of students that cross
-
cultural competence and cultural
intelligence also influenced students’ mindset up to a great extent. Here,
Outsourced
scored over
My Big
Fat Greek Wedding

(Table
-
1a).

Students’ responses also indicate that they not only liked the movie very
much but
also
learnt a l ot by connecting its story, scenes and di alogues with
cultural theories
and
their
personal experiences.
The above comments reflect

more on t heir personal learning out of classroom
experi ences than just thei r personal like
s

for a particular movie scene or character.
The above comments
also mention of a number of rel evant connected in a common thread indicating good level of learning
o
utcomes achieved.


Discussion


In this entire experiment of using two popul ar Hollywood movi es,
Outsourced
and
My Big Fat Greek
Wedding,

the author had di fferent experiences during the course.
Students,

who joined the course
,

were
quite enthusiastic right from t he first session and maintai ned thei r enthusiasm throughout the course.
They participated in each and every acti vity, classroom discussion and project

work with high
commitment. As an instructor, the author was quite ap
prehensi ve about using sel ected movies in
continuity as students may lose the interest in later sessions that may impact quality of discussions
negati vely. However, it did not happen and students participated in discussions with full enthusi asm
throughout
the course. Another apprehension of the author was that while using selected scenes from
different movies in the same session may create breaks in continuity of discussions and students may
find difficult to switch over from one movi e context to anot her on
e, but this switchover was also liked by
students and they found it quite interesting to connect scenes from di fferent movies to the same
theoretical concept e.g. culture shock or intercultural communication.
A common response of students
duri ng classroom
discussions
was that movies provi ded them variety of visual stimuli and ideas that
forced them to see the

same

picture from multipl e angles hence resulted into devel oping multiple
perspecti ves on cross
-
cultural issues.
Students found both the movies very m
eaningful and relevant in
context of the course MCCI. Thei r responses on learning effecti veness of movi es also indicate the same.
Students were so invol ved in the course that some of them came up with their own recommendations on
popular Hollywood, Bollywo
od (Hindi) and Indian languages, and even forei gn l anguages movies which
could be used in courses on cross
-
cultural management, cross
-
cultural communication or cultural studies.


One of t he major obj ecti ves of the course was that at the end of the course
students shoul d devel op their
own theoretical perspecti ve free from any cultural biases. However, it is very difficult to free oneself from
lifelong l earning of cultural stereotypes that happen i n a specific cultural cont ext. In a cl assroom, full of
studen
ts of Indian national culture, mostly of Hindu religion

and only single girl student in the class, it was
a tough task to keep free classroom environment from cultural stereotypes. There were instances of
arguments on gender issues and cultural stereotypes
, cultural biases of Indians agai nst Americans and
Westerners or
Indi an’s
special pri de
on thei r
cultural values but all these incidences helped in realistic
cultural learning i n the classroom and developi ng multiple perspecti ves on cross
-
cultural issues (
bot h,
students and the instructor agreed on this point)

and selected movies worked as catalyst in this learning
process.


Limitations


One of the limitati ons observed by the author in teaching course on ‘Managing Cross
-
Cultural Issues’ was
that both the
groups (2008 and 2009) were domi nated by males, Hindu religi on and Indi an nati onal
culture. The classroom experience coul d be far i nteresting and rich if students coul d be from di verse
ba
ckgrounds (different nationalities
, religi on
s
, ethnic groups, languag
es other than Indian
sub
-
continent
languages and
50% femal e students), but these are
‘idealistic
conditions


which an instructor can wish
for
te
aching a course on cross
-
cultural management.


Although all the students knew English very well but

some of the
m found difficulties in understanding

some
words and phrases
spoken by different actors
in both the movies (may be because of foreign
accent)

but they were quite vocal in expressing their difficulties.


Small batch size (14 in
both
the

batches
) is another factor which acted as a limitation in classroom
learning. A small group of students limits variety of ideas and thoughts in classroom discussions.
On the
basis of classroom observati ons, it is felt by the author that batch size of 25
-
30 coul d
be i deal for such
kind of courses focused on cross
-
cultural management, cross
-
cultural communication or cross
-
cultural
skills training etc. A large group (more than 40) is not also recommended that an instructor may find it
difficult to control the cl ass a
nd most of students may not be watching the movi es
seriously which may
dilute effectiveness of classroom discussions.


One of t he limitations identified by academicians in using popular films i n classroom is that films are
storytelling from a particular d
irector’s poi nt of view and therefore reflect personal perspecti ve which may
be or may not be acceptable to some students (Malli nger and Rossy, 2003). Students from different
backgrounds may react differently to the same scene and actors in the scene and
draw different
interpretations (Mallinger and Rossy, 2003). There may be some uncomfortable situations in the
classroom i f students fi nd some scenes obj ectionable on grounds of racial, caste, language, religi on or
any other kind of prejudice. There are als
o chances that films shown in the classroom may strengthen
certain stereotypes among students against some specific groups if this issue is not handled carefully by
the instructor in the classroom (Mallinger and Rossy, 2003).


Another important issue in u
sing movies in t he classroom is handling scenes with sexual i ntimacy, nudity,
extreme violence, abusi ve language and weird situations, especially when they come in connection to
critical sequences in the movie. It is recommended that an i nstructor should t
ry to avoi d screening of such
scenes
as far as possible. If scenes are embedded in the story in such a way that audience will miss the
storyline then instructor shoul d take decision in consultation with the students to avoid any embarrassing
situation in t
he classroom.
Mallinger and Rossy (2003) advise i nstructors to select movie scenes very
carefully and recommend that scenes loaded by with nudity, violence or foul language shoul d not be
shown in the classroom as some students (femal es and students believ
ing in strong moral or
conservati ve religi ous val ues) may not like it or
refuse to participate in classroom discussions
.
In his own
experi ences with the movi es,

Outsourced

and
My Big Fat Greek Wedding
, the author had decided t o skip
‘scenes

with

mil d
sexua
l intimacy’ in classroom screeni ng to avoid any embarrassing situation; as in both
of batches, there was only one girl student in the classroom.


In a course on cross
-
cultural management, language may become one of the major limitations which
needs

be
ha
ndled carefully

as language is maj or medium of communication
. Digital technology has made
dubbing and subtitling of movies very easy and a number of movies are avail able in more than one
languages e.g.
Slumdog Millionaire
is avail abl e in English and Hindi both.
But, at times, dubbed scenes or
scenes with subtitles may be communicating ‘real meaning’ of dial ogues in the scene which may lead to
distorted communication to participants. People find very difficult to understand
and appreciate humor,
satire and verbal expression of feeli ngs in a language which they do not know at all.
Champox (1999)
also cautioned management scholars and t rainers about this limitation arguing that some students may
not like to watch foreign films
wit h subtitles and forei gn films can also have cultural
ly
-
based

subtleti es
that

a nonnati ve might not understand easily
.
While discussing on intercultural communicati on and culture
shock, some South Indi an students commented that for them watching Rajinik
anth’s movi es (most
popular Tamil movie star in South India) in any language other than Tamil is a culture shock, as in
dubbing
and subtitling process
essence of dial ogues is lost. An instructor needs to be extremely careful if
one chooses a foreign l angua
ge movie availabl e in dubbed form or with subtitles

for a course on cross
-
cultural management or cross
-
cultural communication
.


Another limitation of films is ‘time
-
peri od’ i n which films are made, not the time peri od which they claim to
portray (Mallinge
r and Rossy, 2003).
This limitation becomes very critical in courses on cross
-
cultural
communication, cross
-
cultural management or cultural studies etc.;
when instructor has availability of
films produced by di fferent di rectors in different time period bu
t on the same story
. For example,
there are
two movies with the same name,
The Time Machi ne

(1960, director
-

Geroge Pal) and
The Time Machine

(2002, director
-
Simon Wells), two movies on Mahatma Gandhi,
Gandhi

(1982, director
-

Richard
Attenbourough) and
The

Making of Mahatma

(1996, director
-

Shyam Benegal ). Similarly
Ni xon

(1995,
director
-

Oli ver Stone),
Pearl Harbor

(2001, director
-

Michael Bay),
JFK

(1991, director
-

Oli ver Stone),
Patton

(1970, director
-
Frank J. Schaffner),
Schindler’s List

(1993, director
-
Steven Spielberg) claim to
portray historical events but are very influenced by director’s own perspecti ve and cultural val ues of the
time period in which they were produced.


This limitation of ‘time period’ needs to be handl ed very carefully by the ins
tructor in the classroom. The
instructor should be extremely careful in selection of the movi e and relevant literature linked to discussion
topics. The i nstructor should encourage students to think from multiple perspecti ves on the same
issue/situation dep
icted in the movie and rel evant literature, and lead discussion carefully. Most
important, the discussion should be focused on theoretical issues and literature, and movi e shoul d be
used as complementary or supporting content to the literature.
Champox (19
99) consi dered ‘time period’
as advantage i f an instructor chooses two movies on the same story but produced in different peri ods with
different directors and actors. The instructor can use this opportunity to generate multiple perspecti ves in
the classroo
m.


Conclusion


Overall, the author felt quite satisfied with this experience of using two popul ar Hollywood movies in
teaching the course “
Managing Cross
-
Cultural Issues
”. Initially, when author used the movie
Outsourced

with
the
2008 batch; there was a

concern whether this experi ment may succeed or not

because the
author had planned to show the movie in di fferent sessions sequentially. The author was also doubt ful if
this movi e may become just an entertainment piece rat her than a valuable learni ng tool
at the end of the
course. The successful experiment encouraged the author to int roduce another popular Hollywood movie
My Big Fat Greek Wedding

i n the next year’s course; and this time students’ feedback on their learning
was taken through their reflection

notes and the experiment was also successful second time with the
2009 batch. On the basis of his classroom observations and students’ reactions in thei r reflection notes,
the author concludes that be it a management case in print form or a popular movie,

its learning
effecti veness

and success

in the classroom is determi ned by
careful sel ection of case or movi e,
acti ve
participati on of students and teaching skills of the teacher. Innovation in classroom learni ng comes from
mindset of the teacher, a well
-
de
signed course content and active involvement of students in the course.



References

Bhawuk, D. P. S., & Brislin, R. W. (2000). Cross
-
cultural training: A review.
Applied

Psychology: An International Review
,
49
, 162
-
191.


Bumpus, M.

A.

(2005). Using Motion Pictures to Teach Management: Refocusing the Camera Lens

through the Infusion Approach to Di versity.
Journal of Management Education,

Vol. 29 No. 6,
December 2005 792
-
815.


Champoux, J. (1999). Film as a teaching resource.
Journal o
f Management Inquiry
,
8
, 206
-
217.


Cardon, P. W. (2010).

Using Films to Learn About the Nature of Cross
-
Cultural Stereotypes in Cross
-

Cultural Business Communication Courses.

Business Communication Quarterly
, Volume 73,
Number 2, June 2010 150
-
165
.


Dunphy, S., Meyer, D. and Linton, S. (2008). The top 10 greatest screen legends and what their

definiti ve rol es demonstrat e about management

and organizational
behavior.
Behavi our &
Information Technology
, Vol. 27, No. 2, March


April 2008, 183


188


Lit
trell, L. N., Salas, E., Hess, K. P., Paley, M., & Riedel, S. (2006). Expatriate preparation:

A critical analysis of 25 years of cross
-
cultural training research.
Human Resource

Development
Review
,
5
, 355
-
388.


Mallinger, M., & Rossy, G. (2003). Film as le
ns for teaching culture: Balancing concepts,

ambiguity, and paradox.
Journal of Management Education
,
27
, 608
-
624.

Smith, W. I., Shrestha, N.R. and Evans, C. L. (2010). 360
0
approach to assessing cross
-
cultural
intelligence: use of film.
Journal of
Instructional Pedagogi es
. Volume 3, June 2010. (Internet Journal
-

http://www.aabri.com/manuscripts/09424.pdf
)

Summerfield, F. (1994).
Crossing cultures through film
. Yarmouth, ME: Intercultural Pre
ss.


Tidwell, C. H., Jr. (2001, November 1).
Fools rush in: Developing cross
-
cultural sensitivity

using film
-
based group projects
. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the National

Communication Association, Atlanta, GA.


Varner, I., & Beamer, L. (2005
).
Intercultural communication in the global workplace
(3
rd

ed.).

Boston: McGraw
-
Hill.

Verluyten, S. P. (2007).
Cultures: From observation to understanding
. Leuven, Belgium: ACCO.


Verluyten, S. P. (2008, October 30).
The use of video excerpts in intercult
ural training
. Paper

presented at the 73
rd

Annual Convention of the Association for Business Communication,

Lake Tahoe, NV.

Internet Documents:

Christine Roell (2010). Intercultural Training with Films. English Teachi ng Forum, Vol. 2., 2
-
15.
(
http://exchanges.state.gov/englishteaching/forum/archi ves/docs/files
-
folder111111/48_2
-
etf
-
intercultural
-
training
-
with
-
films.pdf
)

Iti Rakshit (2010), Cross
-
Cultural Bri dging Strategi es in My Big Fat Greek Wedding, July 5, 2010.

(
http://www.suite10
1.com/content/cross
-
cultural
-
bridgi ng
-
strategi es
-
in
-
my
-
bi g
-
fat
-
greek
-
weddi ng
-
a257976
)


Review document on
My Big Fat Greek Wedding.

(
http://www.eslnotes.com/movies/pdf/My
-
Big
-
Fat
-
Greek
-
Wedding.pdf
)


A
ppendix
-
A




Session Plan for the Course “Managing Cross
-
Cultural Issues”


Sessions

Topic

1

What i s Cul ture?
*

1.

To pi c s c over ed: Int r od uc t i on t o ‘ What is c ul t ur e?’, var i ous pe r s pec t i ves and

appr o ac hes t o s t udy c ul t ur e, why a c our s e on ‘ man agi ng c r os s
J
c ul t ur al
i s s ues ’ i s r el evant for management s t udent s?

O

Eastern and Western Cultures

Topics covered:
Differences bet ween Easter n and Western cultures
, national

culture,
cultural dimensions theories by Hofestede, Trompennar and others.


Movie: Outsourced

(
OUT
-
1, OUT
-
2
)


3

Culture’s Influence on Work Values and Organizational Practices

Topics cover ed:
Cultur e’s influence on self
I personalityI
work val ues
I management
styles and work culture; professional work cultures in different countriesLgeographical
regionsK


Movie: Outsourced

(
OUT
-
3
, OUT
-
4
)

Movie:

My Big Fat Greek Wedding (
MBFGW
-
1,
MBFGW
-
2
)

4

Culture Shock and Acculturation

Topics covered:
Culture shock, coping with culture shock, acculturation,

Movie: Outsourced (
OUT
-
1, OUT
-
2,
OUT
-
5
, OUT
-
6)

Movie
: My Big Fat Greek Wedding


(
MBFGW
-
3, MBFGW
-
4, MBFGW
-
5, MBFGW
-
6
)


5

Intercultural Communication

Topics covered:
Intra
-
cultural communication, intercultural communication, barriers and
problems in intercultural communication,
cultural adjustment, culture and gender
relationships

Movie: Outsourced (
OUT
-
3, OUT
-
4 ,
OUT
-
8, OUT
-
9
)

Movie:

My Big Fat Greek Wedding (
MBFGW
-
4, MBFGW
-
6
)

6

Working in culturally diverse teams

Topics covered:
Cultural diversity at workplaces (gender, minorities, different ethnic
groups)
.

Movie: Outsourced (
OUT
-
3, OUT
-
4, OUT
-
7
)

7

Ethics:
Complexities in Managing Across Cultures
*


8

Managing Intercultural Business Negotiations
*

9

Cross
-
Cultural Competence and Cultural Adjustment

Topics covered:
Cultural intelligence, cross
-
cultural competence, cross
-
cultural training


Movie: Outsourced (
OUT
-
3,
OUT
-
4,
OUT
-
5
, OUT
-
7, OUT
-
10, OUT
-
11, OUT
-
12
)

Movie: My Big Fat Greek Wedding


(
MBFGW
-
7
)

10

Project Presentations and Recap of Learning


Note
s
:

1. Scenes from the movi e

Outsourced

are coded as OUT and from the movie
My Big Fat Greek
Wedding,
as MBFGW.


2.
Some movi e scenes are included in more than one session, but that inclusion is for classroom
discussion purpose.
In actual classroom sessions, scenes were repeated
in next sessions as per
situational requirements

e.g. students’ demand or need felt by the i
nstructor
.

3.
* No movie scenes from selected movies were shown or discussed in these sessions.



Selected Scenes from the Movie
-

Outsourced


OUT
-

1: (00:30
-
12:27, duration
-

12 minutes approx.)

Todd Anderson’s boss Dave asks Todd to rel ocate to India as the company has decided to outsource the
call centre of Western Novelty to India. Todd rel uctantly agrees to train his replacement in India as the
entire department is outsourced. He arri ves at Mu
mbai airport and gets a series of culture shocks with
Taxi dri vers, auto rickshaw dri ver, catches train hurri edly at the railway station and lands up in a small
town Gharapuri where he meets his local manager Mr. Purohit.

OUT
-

2: (13:00
-
21:11, duration
-
8
minutes approx.)

Todd fi nds himself in many awkward situations e.g. touching the food with left hand, too personal
questions from Indian peopl e and thei r self
-
disclosures about their personal life to a stranger, being called
his name as ‘ Toad’ instead of
Todd, a cow in the call cent re building which is under construction,
encounter with Indi an toil et system, exposure to l ower and upper castes in Indian social system,
perplexed to see picture of Goddess Kali and so on.

OUT
-
3: (21:20
-
23: 39, duration
-

2:20
minutes approx.)

Todd conducts his first training session with his team members, faces unexpected questions from them
and realizes cultural differences between American and Indian work culture.

OUT
-
4: (25:48
-
29:52, duration
-

4:04 minutes approx.)

Todd wa
nts to reduce MPI from 12 minutes to 6 minutes and he conducts more trai ning sessions for his
team members on American people, their l anguage and lifestyle. In the process, he also l earns new
things about Indian culture from his Indian colleagues.

OUT
-
5:

(33:00
-

35:50, duration
-
2: 50 minutes approx.)

Todd sees an advertisement of a popular fast
-
food restaurant “MacDonnell” which he mispercei ves as
“McDonalds”, he travels miles away to Mumbai and meets another American guy at the restaurant who
advises him

on how to adjust with Indian culture and people and makes one’s life easy in this country.

OUT
-
6: (37:32
-
, 41:02 duration
-

3:40 minutes approx.)

Todd fi nds himsel f in the open when the Indi an festi val of colors ‘Holi’is being celebrat ed by peopl e of
Ghar
apuri. Initially, he finds himsel f in a state of shock, but Purohit tells him about Holi and Todd enjoys
the festival with full enthusiasm and spirit.

OUT
-
7 (42:25
-

52:45, duration
-

10:20 minutes approx.)

On his return to the call cent re, Todd and Purohit
get surprised to see MPI at 8:12 and Asha on
supervisor’s seat. She tells them that somebody had to take charge, so she did at her own. Todd works
out new strat egies to moti vate his people, he all ows them to redesign t heir workstations as per their
desires
. This move makes people happy. Todd also enjoys dancing and partying with his team members.
He also convi nces his company to send incenti ve gifts for his team members if they achieve target of 6
minutes.

OUT
-
8: (53:28
-

63:28, duration
-

10 minutes approx
.)

On knowing that the gift parcel landed in some wrong place with the same name, Todd and Asha decides
to go to that place for collecting the parcel. On the way, Asha tells a number of things about Indian culture
and social systems to Todd. Asha gets anno
yed when Todd could not understand communication of local
agent and hotel manager, and they land up in ‘Kamasutra suite’ of the hotel.

OUT
-
9: (1:10:00
-
1:12:00, duration
-

2 minutes approx.)

Todd also accepts invitation of poor man who belongs to lower cas
te to whom Todd had offered his food
earli er. Todd comes to know that he is a trained electrician. Todd gets exposure to daily life of poor
people in India.

OUT
-
10: (1:15:00
-

1:20:10, duration
-

5:10 minutes approx.)

Todd’s boss Dave arri ves in India sudd
enly, when Todd takes hi m to the office, the entire office is fl ooded
with the i rri gation water from a nearby fiel d. Dave gets irritated with this situation but Todd tells him that it
is not a bi g probl em and shi fts the entire office on the rooftop with th
e hel p of local electrician who makes
it functional withi n few hours. Dave breaks the news that the company has decided to close this centre
and outsource it to China, as it will save huge costs.

OUT
-
11 (1:21:00
-
1:24:00, duration
-
3:00 minutes approx.)

Tod
d breaks the news of outsourcing of call cent re to Chi na to all team members. Purohit gets
disappointed on loss of his job. Todd consoles him.

OUT
-
12 (1:30:00
-
1:32:15, duration
-

2:15 minutes)

Dave again asks Todd to shift to Chi na, Todd refuses this offer

and recommends Purohit for this job, as
he is the man in need.

Selected Scenes from the Movie
-

My Big Fat Greek Wedding


MBFGW
-
1: (1:30
-

12:50 , duration
-

11:20 minutes approx.)

Toula narrates about her chil dhood and big

Greek

family, also tells about
her inner sel f
-
conflicts,
loneliness and emotional feelings.

MBFGW
-
2: (15:40
-
23:40, duration
-

9 minutes approx.)

Toula sees a pamphlet related computer classes. She asks her mother to help her i n convincing the
father for allowing her to joi n comput er classes. She joins computer classes and slowly brings new
changes in her personality and appearance (curly hairstyle,

thick glasses replaced by contact lenses,
change in dressing style etc.). Toula, her mother and Aunt Voula also convi nce Gus to let Toula work for
Aunt Voula’s travel agency.

MBFGW
-
3: (37:10
-
40:20, duration
-

3 minutes approx.)

Gus becomes wild knowing t
hat her daughter is dating with a
non
-
Greek

boy. He starts looking for
suitable Greek groom for his daughter. He rejects Ian Miller’s proposal upfront. Toula shares her feelings
with the mother who asks her to forget about love, as no one can go against he
r father’s wishes in the
family.

MBFGW
-
4: (42:21
-
43:30 ,duration
-

11:10 minutes approx.)

Toula meets with Ian’s father and mother and they accept her quite easily as life
-
partner of their son.

MBFGW
-
5: (44:55
-
55:35, duration
-

11 minutes approx.)

Gus f
i nally agrees to accept Ian Miller as his son
-
i n
-
l aw on advice of her wi fe but on the condition that he
will be baptized through Greek rituals before the wedding takes place. Ian agrees to his proposal. Ian
faces some unusual experi ences with Toula’s famil
y members but he starts accepting the situations
slowly.

MBFGW
-
6: (56:10
-
69:21, duration
-
13:11 minutes approx.)

Toula and Ian arrange for meeting of Portokalos and Miller famili es (thei r parents only) at ‘family dinner’
but it turns to be ‘Big Greek Fam
ily Dinner’. A number of goof
-
ups happen i n seri es
-

Toula’s mother
orders the invit ations but misspells Ian's parents' names and Toula’s cousin Nikki ordered tacky
bridesmaid’s dresses. On their arri val to the party, vegetarian Millers find themsel ves shoc
ked when they
are welcomed by the Big Greek Family in a very loud and noisy atmosphere, offered meat
-
based dishes,
faced di fficulties in communicating to family members, forced to listen lengthy stori es of personal li fe
experiences of Aunt Voula and many m
ore.

MBFGW
-
7: (87:30
-
97:35, duration
-
10 minutes approx.)

The weddi ng day comes and marriage ceremony happens in a very good atmosphere. In the wedding
party, Gus announces acceptance of Ian and Miller family as part of thei r ‘Big Greek Family’. Toul a’s
f
amily members also find Ian a ‘
real Greek’

boy. Everyone is very happy and blesses the newly
-
wed
couple.

Reference Books:

(These chapt ers were recommended as pre
-
session readings for sessions in which
various scenes from movies were shown.)

1.

Understanding

Cross
-
Cultural Psychology
-

Pittu Laungani (2007), Sage Publications.

a.

Ch
-
1
,

What is this thing called Culture?

(Session
-
1)

b.

Ch
-
2
,

A Perspecti ve on Cross
-
Cultural Differences bet ween Eastern and Western
Cultures.

(Session
-
2)


2.

Understanding Cross
-
Cultural
Management
-

Marie
-
Joëlle Browaeys and Roger Price (2008),
Pearson Education India.

a.

Ch
-
3,
Western Business Cultures

(Session
-
2)

b.

CH
-
4,
Eastern Business Cultures

(Session
-
2)

c.

Ch
-
5,
Cultural Dimensions and Dilemmas

(Session
-
3)

d.

Ch
-
6,
Cultures and Styles of Management
(Session
-
3)


3.

Understanding and Managing Di versity: Readi ngs, Cases and Exercises
-

Carol P. Harvey and M.
June Allard (2005), Prentice
-
Hall India.

a.

Ch
-

13,
Intercultural Communication: A Current Perspective

(Session
-
5)

b.

Ch
-
9,
A World View of Cultural Diversity
-

Thomas Sowell

(Session
-
6)

c.

Ch
-

38,
Building A Business Case for Diversity
-

Gail Robinson and Katheleen
(Session
-
6)


4.

Managing Across Cultures
-

Susan C. Schneider and Jean
-
Louis Barsoux (1997), Prentice
-
Hall.

a.

Ch
-
1
The U
ndertow of Culture

(Session
-
1)

b.

Ch
-
2
Exploring Culture

(Session
-
1)

c.

Ch
-
3
Interacting Spheres of Culture

(Session
-
1)


5.

The Cultural Dimension of International Business
-

Gary Ferraro (1994), Prentice
-
Hall.

a.

Ch
-
3
Communicating Across Cultures Language
(Session
-
5
)

b.

Ch
-
4
Communicating Across Culture: The Non
-
Verbal Dimensions

(Session
-
5)

6.

Readings for session
-
9

a.

Cross
-
Cul t ur al Compet ence i n I nt ernat i onal Busi ness: Toward a Defi ni t i on and
a Model
-

James P. Johnson, Tomasz Lenart owi cz and Sal vador Apud,
Journal
of I nt ernat i onal Busi ness St udi es (2006) 37, 525

543.

b.

Cul t ural I nt el l i gence: Underst andi ng Behavi ors That Ser ve Peopl e’ s Goal s
-

Ri chard Bri sl i n; Regi nal d Wort hl ey; Brent MacNab, Group & Organi zat i on
Management; Feb 2006; 31, 1, 40
-
55.

c.

Cul t ural I n
t el l i gence: Peopl e Ski l l s for a Gl obal Workforce
-

Davi d C Thomas;
Kerr I nk son, Consul t i ng t o Management; Mar 2005; 16, 1, 5
-
9.


7.

Recommended Additional reference books for General Reading

a.

Asian Perspectives on Psychology
-

Henry S. R. Kao and Durganand Sinha (Eds.) (1997),
Vol. 19, Cross
-
Cultural Research and Methodol ogy Seri es, Sage Publications, New
Delhi.

b.

Encyclopedia of Multicultural Psychology
-

Yo Jackson (2006), Sage Publications.