proposal ECE 9220 Post Secondary Instructional Methods and

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KENNESAW STATE UNIVERSITY

GRADUATE COURSE PROPOSAL OR REVISION,

Cover Sheet
(10/02/2002)


Course Number/Program Name

ECE
9220

Post
-
Secondary Instructional Methods & Internship


Department

Elementary and Early Childhood Education


Degree Title (if applicab
le)

Ed.D. Program


Proposed Effective Date

Fall 2006



Check one or more of the following and complete the appropriate sections:





Sections to be Completed


x


New Course Proposal

II, III, IV, V, VII




Course Title Change

I, II, III




Course Number Ch
ange

I, II, III




Course Credit Change

I, II, III




Course Prerequisite Change

I, II, III




Course Description Change

I, II, III



Notes:

If proposed changes to an existing course are substantial (credit hours, title, and description), a new course wit
h a
new number should be proposed.

A new Course Proposal (Sections II, III, IV, V, VII) is required for each new course proposed as part of a new
program.


Current catalog information (Section I) is required for each existing course incorporated into the
p
rogram.

Minor changes to a course can use the simplified
E
-
Z Course Change Form.



Submitted by:





_____






Faculty Member


Date


Approved


Not Approved











Department Curriculum Committee

Date


Approved


Not Approved











Department Chair


Date


Approved


Not Approved











School Curriculum Committee


Date


Approved


Not Approved











School Dean


Date


Approved


Not Approved











GPCC Chair


Date


Approved


Not Approved











Dean, Graduate Studies


Date


Approved


Not A
pproved











Vice President for Academic Affairs

Date


Approved


Not Approved











President


Date

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KENNESAW STATE UNIVERSITY

GRADUATE COURSE
/
CONCENTRATION/PROGRAM CHANGE



I.

Current Information (Fill in for changes)

Page Number in Current Cata
log



Course Prefix and Number



Course Title



Credit Hours



Prerequisites



Description (or Current Degree Requirements)


II.

Proposed Information (Fill in for changes and new courses)

Course Prefix and Number

ECE
9220

_____________________

Course Titl
e

__
Post
-
Secondary Instructional Methods & Internship



Credit Hours

3


Prerequisites

Acceptance to the Ed.D. program


Description (or Proposed Degree Requirements)


This course is designed to equip Doctoral Candidates
to
teach

undergraduate
college and university
students in Elementary and Early Childhood Education.

T
he content is designed to equip
future college and
university instructors

to critically reflective on
adult education

skills
.

The course content includes top
ics such
current student needs, delivery models in the classroom and the use of challenging discussion
s on

diverse
curriculum. The internship will give practical experience to create the maximum educational preparation for
Doctoral Candidates to
develop
th
eir instructional skills

in a college or university classroom

III.

Justification


Making the connection between college and university courses and the “real” world of the elementary and
early childhood classroom is often difficult to achieve. Making this
connection is more than bringing theory
into practice it is the ability to bring life to the world of teaching for students who have always been students.
It is changing their perception from a student receiving information to a teacher who will be using
the
information they are learning. This hidden curriculum, that is the focus of education courses, is often
forgotten. How can “teachers of teachers” make a difference if when our students become teachers or are
in student teaching they are immediately to
ld, “None of that stuff you learned will work here. You have to do
it my way.” Helping new instructors teach the “hidden curriculum” and provide their students with the
strength to try new things is one of the few hopes we have to change education as we

know it today




Page
3

of
14


IV.

Additional Information (for New Courses only)

Instructor:

To be Assigned


Text
:


Texts:

Elias, J.& Merriam S. (1995)
Philosophical Foundations of Adult Education,
Krieger Publishing Company,
Malabar, Florida, 1995

Light, R. J. (2001
).
Making the most of college: Students speak their minds
.

Cambridge, MA: Harvard
University Press


Sheared, V. & Sissel, P.(2001)
Making Space; Merging Theory and Practice in Adult Education
. Westport
,Conn. and London: Bergin and Garvey, 2001



Prerequi
sites:


Admission to the Ed.D. program


Objectives:


Course objective

Doctoral
KSDs

Distributed School
Leadership Roles*

PSC/NCATE
Standard

Research successful National and Global
Instruction of Post
-
secondary
Teaching Methods.

1A, 1B, 1C,

Curriculum
,
Instruction &
Assessment Leader


Learning &
Development Leader


Change Leader

1.1

Compare and contrast exceptional post
-
secondary teaching programs philosophies with
candidates personal philosophies


2B, 2D, 2E,
3A, 3B, 3C,

Curriculum,
Instruction &
A
ssessment Leader


Change Leader


Learning &
Development Leader


1.1, 1.3, 1.4,
1.7

Research methods that address the needs of
postsecondary individual learners and
collaborative groups.


5B, 5C, 5D

Learning &
Development Leader


Performance
Improvement L
eader


Operations Leader

1.1, 1.3, 1.4,
1.7

Compare and contrast facilitator as instructor
and lecturer as instructor

1A, 1B, 1C

Curriculum,
Instruction &
Assessment Leader


Learning &
Development Leader

1.1

Page
4

of
14


Data Analysis
Leader

Examine diversity in th
e institution, community
and classroom to see how diverse needs are met
in all areas:

2B, 2D, 2E,
3A, 3B, 3C,

Curriculum,
Instruction &
Assessment Leader


Learning &
Development Leader


1.3, 1.4, 1.7

Through reflective exercises, critically examine
y
our personal views about diversity. Examine
your interpersonal strengths and biases as you
reflect on the following questions: : Who am I?
Who am I becoming ? How does this effect my
practice
?

4A, 4B, 4D,
4E, 4F, 5C,
5E


Curriculum,
Instruction &
Assessme
nt Leader


Learning &
Development Leader

1.3, 1.4, 1.6,
1.7

Communication skills and utilization of current
technologies

2B, 2D, 2E,
3A, 3B, 3C,


Curriculum,
Instruction &
Assessment Leader


Learning &
Development Leader

1.3, 1.4, 1.7

Reflect on effect
iveness of instruction including
your ability to meet the needs of different
cultures and learning preferences.

2e, 3b, 4c,
5b, 5c, 5d

Learning &
Development
Leader
, Process
Improvement
Leader, Curriculum,
Instruction &
Assessment Leader,
Relationship
Dev
elopment
Leader, Change
Leader,

1.1, 1.2, 1.3,
1.4, 1.6, 1.7,
1.8



Instructional Method


Individual Assignment:

1.
Write a critical reflection that addresses the
philosophies, perspectives and methods
ologies

in following
areas of academics:

Critical

Re
flection: Steven Brookfield;
Philosophies: John
Elias and Sharan
Merriam
;
Political issue of Education: Paulo Freire
; and
Students: Richard Light


2.

Develop a reference manual/book/file that includes the following information and how to incorporate
thes
e concerns in college courses:

1.

The Multi
-
level needs of the individual Adult learner in modern society

2.

Average Adult learner now has a family and job

3.

Part
-
time student vs. full time student

4.

Learning Preferences and Style

5.

Ethnic/ race issues

6.

Personality tr
aits effecting academic


Page
5

of
14

3.

What does it mean to “t
each to the Post
-
secondary Adult like Adult
?”

Write a paper that identifies the
differences between p
ostsecondary qualities
and

other academic levels
. Include in your paper how to
meet individual and grou
p needs.


4.

Diversity in the classroom

is a well documented issue in elementary, middle and secondary schools.
Select one topic


g
ender, race, physical and mental abilities, personality
or

learning preferences

to
research and write a paper as to how you
will be sensitive to the strengths and difficulties that college
students who are identified by your chosen topic might be effected in the college classroom


1.

Keep a daily personal journal that examines you interpersonal strength and biases and how you will

reach students unlike yourself. Use the following questions as guides for your reflection.

a.

Who am I ?

b.

Who am I becoming ?

c.

How does this effect my practice ?

1.

Curriculum choices

2.

Student interactions

3.

Generalizations/stereotyping


Internship:

1.

Develop goo
d c
ommunication skills and utilization of current technologies

through practice with
:



Speech and delivery methods of presentation
s




Use of t
echnological in the classroom

2.

Engage in multi
-
level critical r
eflection

of the course you are teaching



Monthly d
iscussion and meetings with Doctoral Professor



Mid
-
Term and Final Student evaluations during semester.



Personal Inventory compiling information gathered in 1
-
3 due two weeks after the end of
the semester.

3.

Become an integral part of developing the quali
ty of the course



Evaluate the effect of n
umber of students in class
on quality of learning



Review several text and offer insights into the text you feel is most appropriate and why
.



Add current research articles and other appropriate reference materials to

the syllable
reference list

4.
Through collaboration with master professor, offer suggests as to ways to improve course syllabus,
delivery, and content.


Method of Evaluation


Each assignment will be graded with a rubric. Each assignment = 100 points

Grad
es will be assigned as follows:



92


100
%

A








84


91 B


76


83

C






Below 76 F




V.

Resources and Funding Required (New Courses only)


*
Course funding is addressed in a comprehensive manner in the comprehensive proposal for the umbrella
Ed.D degree for the Bagwell College of Education.


R
esource

Amount


Faculty




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6

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14

Other Personnel




Equipment




Supplies




Travel




New Books




New Journals




Other (Specify)





TOTAL





Funding Required Beyond

Normal Departmental Growth







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14


VI. COURSE MASTER FORM


This form will be completed by th
e requesting department and will be sent to the Office of the
Registrar once the course has been approved by the Office of the President.

The form is required for all new courses.




DISCIPLINE


Ed.D.


COURSE NUMBER


ECE
9220


COURSE TITLE FOR LABEL


Post
-
Sec Intern




(Note:


Limit 16 spaces)

CLASS
-
LAB
-
CREDIT HOURS


3


Approval, Effective Term


Fall 2006


Grades Allowed (Regular or S/U)


Regular


If course used to satisfy CPC, what areas?




Learning Support Programs courses which are


required a
s prerequisites













APPROVED:




_________
_______________________________________

Vice President f
or Academic Affairs or Designee


VII
Attach Syllabus

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8

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14







Elementary and Early Childhood Education

ECE
9220

Post
-
secondary Instructional Methods

and Internship

Semester, Fall, 2006


Kennesaw State University

Bagwell College of Education

Department of Elementary and Early Childhood Education


I. ECE
9220

Post
-
secondary Instructional Methods and Internship


II. INSTRUCTOR:
to be assigned


Kennesa
w Hall Room xxx


Office Phone
-

xxxxx


e
-
mail
xxxxx


III.

CLASS MEETINGS: TBA


IV:

TEXTS

Elias, J.& Merriam S. (1995)
Philosophical Foundations of Adult Education,
Krieger Publis
hing Company,
Malabar, Florida, 1995

Light, R. J. (2001).
Making the most of college: Students speak their minds
.

Cambridge, MA: Harvard
University Press


Sheared, V. & Sissel, P.(2001)
Making Space; Merging Theory and Practice in Adult Education
. Westpor
t
,Conn. and London: Bergin and Garvey, 2001


V.
CATALOG COURSE DESCRIPTIONS
:

ECE
9220

the Post
-
secondary Instructional Methods and Internship

This course is designed to equip Doctoral Candidates
to teach

undergraduate
college and university students in

Elementary and Early Childhood Education.

T
he content is designed to equip
future college and university
instructors

to critically reflective on
adult education

skills
.

The course content includes topics such
current student
needs, delivery models in the

classroom and the use of challenging discussion
s on

diverse curriculum. The
internship will give practical experience to create the maximum educational preparation for Doctoral Candidates to
develop
their instructional skills

in a college or university cl
assroom.


VI. PURPOSE/RATIONALE:

Making the connection between college and university courses and the “real” world of the elementary and early
childhood classroom is often difficult to achieve. Making this connection is more than bringing theory into p
ractice
it is the ability to bring life to the world of teaching for students who have always been students. It is changing their
perception from a student receiving information to a teacher who will be using the information they are learning.
This hidden

curriculum, that is the focus of education courses, is often forgotten. How can “teachers of teachers”
make a difference if when our students become teachers or are in student teaching they are immediately told,
“None of that stuff you learned will work
here. You have to do it my way.” Helping new instructors teach the
“hidden curriculum” and provide their students with the strength to try new things is one of the few hopes we have
to change education as we know it today.


Page
9

of
14

KENNESAW STATE UNIVERSITY’S C
ONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK:


Collaborative development of expertise in teaching and learning


The Professional Teacher Education Unit (PTEU) at Kennesaw State University is committed to developing expertise
among candidates in initial and advanced programs as tea
chers and leaders who possess the capability, intent and
expertise to facilitate high levels of learning in all of their students through effective, research
-
based practices in
classroom instruction, and who enhance the structures that support all learning
. To that end, the PTEU fosters the
development of candidates as they progress through stages of growth from novice to proficient to expert and leader.
Within the PTEU conceptual framework, expertise is viewed as a process of continued development, not an
end
-
state. To be effective, teachers and educational leaders must embrace the notion that teaching and learning are
entwined and that only through the implementation of validated practices can all students construct meaning and
reach high levels of learnin
g. In that way, candidates at the doctoral level develop into leaders for learning and
facilitators of the teaching and learning process. Finally, the PTEU recognizes, values and demonstrates
collaborative practices across the college and university and
extends collaboration to the community
-
at
-
large.
Through this collaboration with professionals in the university, the public and private schools, parents and other
professional partners, the PTEU meets the ultimate goal of assisting Georgia schools in brin
ging all students to high
levels of learning.

Knowledge Base

Teacher development is generally recognized as a continuum that includes four phases: preservice, induction, in
-
service, renewal (Odell, Huling, and Sweeny, 2000). Just as Sternberg (1996) beli
eves that the concept of expertise
is central to analyzing the teaching
-
learning process, the teacher education faculty at KSU believe that the concept of
expertise is central to preparing effective classroom teachers and teacher leaders. Researchers descr
ibe how during
the continuum phases teachers progress from being Novices learning to survive in classrooms toward becoming
Experts who have achieved elegance in their teaching. We, like Sternberg (1998), believe that expertise is not an
end
-
state but a pro
cess of continued development.

Use of Technology :
Technology Standards for Educators are required by the Professional Standards Commission.
Telecommunication and information technologies will be integrated throughout the master teacher preparation
prog
ram, and all candidates must be able to use technology to improve student learning and meet Georgia
Technology Standards for Educators. During the courses, candidates will be provided with opportunities to explore
and use instructional media. They will m
aster use of productivity tools, such as multimedia facilities, local
-
net and
Internet, and feel confident to design multimedia instructional materials, and create WWW resources.


VII.

Course Objectives:
ECE
9220

Post
-
secondary Methodology and Instruction

The
objectives of this course are consistent with the Bagwell College of Education KSDs for Doctoral
Candidates. Students will be able to:


Course objective

Doctoral
KSDs

Distributed School
Leadership Roles*

PSC/NCATE
Standard

Research successful National a
nd Global
Instruction of Post
-
secondary
Teaching Methods.

1A, 1B, 1C,

Curriculum,
Instruction &
Assessment Leader


Learning &
Development Leader


Change Leader

1.1

Compare and contrast exceptional post
-
2B, 2D, 2E,
Curriculum,
1.1, 1.3, 1.4,
Page
10

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14

secondary teaching programs philosophies with
candi
dates personal philosophies


3A, 3B, 3C,

Instruction &
Assessment Leader


Change Leader


Learning &
Development Leader


1.7

Research methods that address the needs of
postsecondary individual learners and
collabora
tive groups.


5B, 5C, 5D

Learning &
Development Leader


Performance
Improvement Leader


Operations Leader

1.1, 1.3, 1.4,
1.7

Compare and contrast facilitator as instructor
and lecturer as instructor

1A, 1B, 1C

Curriculum,
Instruction &
Assessment Leader


Learning &
Development Leader


Data Analysis
Leader

1.1

Examine diversity in the institution, community
and classroom to see how diverse needs are met
in all areas:

2B, 2D, 2E,
3A, 3B, 3C,

Curriculum,
Instruction &
Assessment Leader


Learning &
Dev
elopment Leader


1.3, 1.4, 1.7

Through reflective exercises, critically examine
your personal views about diversity. Examine
your interpersonal strengths and biases as you
reflect on the following questions: : Who am I?
Who am I becoming ? How does this e
ffect my
practice
?

4A, 4B, 4D,
4E, 4F, 5C,
5E


Curriculum,
Instruction &
Assessment Leader


Learning &
Development Leader

1.3, 1.4, 1.6,
1.7

Communication skills and utilization of current
technologies

2B, 2D, 2E,
3A, 3B, 3C,


Curriculum,
Instruction &

Assessment Leader


Learning &
Development Leader

1.3, 1.4, 1.7

Reflect on effectiveness of instruction including
your ability to meet the needs of different
cultures and learning preferences.

2e, 3b, 4c,
5b, 5c, 5d

Learning &
Development
Leader
, Process

Improvement
Leader, Curriculum,
Instruction &
Assessment Leader,
Relationship
Development
1.1, 1.2, 1.3,
1.4, 1.6, 1.7,
1.8

Page
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14

Leader, Change
Leader,


*
Georgia's Leadership Institute for School Improvement &

Georgia Committee on Educational Leadership
Pre
paration’s Distributed School Leadership Roles


VIII. COURSE REQUIREMENTS AND ASSIGNMENTS:

1.Write a critical reflection that addresses the philosophies, perspectives and methodsologies in following areas of
academics: Critical Reflection: Steven Brookf
ield; Philosophies: John
Elias and Sharan Merriam;
Political issue
of Education: Paulo Freire; and Students: Richard Light


2. Develop a reference manual/book/file that includes the following information and how to incorporate these
concerns in college co
urses:

7.

The Multi
-
level needs of the individual Adult learner in modern society

8.

Average Adult learner now has a family and job

9.

Part
-
time student vs. full time student

10.

Learning Preferences and Style

11.

Ethnic/ race issues

12.

Personality traits effecting academic


3. What does it mean to “teach to the Post
-
secondary Adult like Adult?” Write a paper that identifies the differences
between postsecondary qualities and other academic levels. Include in your paper how to meet individual and
group needs.


4. Diversity i
n the classroom is a well documented issue in elementary, middle and secondary schools. Select one
topic


gender, race, physical and mental abilities, personality or learning preferences to research and write a
paper as to how you will be sensitive to the

strengths and difficulties that college students who are identified by
your chosen topic might be effected in the college classroom


5. Keep a daily personal journal that examines you interpersonal strength and biases and how you will reach
students unli
ke yourself. Use the following questions as guides for your reflection.

d.

Who am I ?

e.

Who am I becoming ?

f.

How does this effect my practice ?

1.

Curriculum choices

2.

Student interactions

3.

Generalizations/stereotyping


During the Internship portion of this course yo
u will be required to be a part of the following activities:

1. Develop good communication skills and utilization of current technologies through practice with ::



Speech and delivery methods of presentations



Use of technological in the classroom

2. Enga
ge in multi
-
level critical reflection of the course you are teaching



Monthly discussion and meetings with Doctoral Professor



Mid
-
Term and Final Student evaluations during semester.



Personal Inventory compiling information gathered in 1
-
3 due two weeks aft
er the end of the
semester.

3. Become an integral part of developing the quality of the course



Evaluate the effect of number of students in class on quality of learning

Page
12

of
14



Review several text and offer insights into the text you feel is most appropriate and w
hy.



Add current research articles and other appropriate reference materials to the syllable
reference list

4.Through collaboration with master professor, offer suggests as to ways to improve course syllabus,
delivery, and content..


IX.

EVALUATION AND GRAD
ING:








A:

92%
-

100%






B:

84%
-

91%






C:

75%
-

83%






F:

75% or lower




Note: All written work should reflect careful organization of material and the high standards of investigation
associated with college
-
level studies. Papers shoul
d be typewritten, on 8 1/2 x 11 in. paper. All work submitted
should follow APA format.
Manuscripts must be proof
-
read to ensure accuracy in spelling, punctuation, and
grammar. Written work should be attractive and neat
--

ESPECIALLY WITH MATERIALS INTEN
DED FOR
STUDENT USE.



IX.
Policies

Diversity:

A variety of materials and instructional strategies will be employed to meet the needs of the different
learning styles of diverse learners in class.


Candidates will gain knowledge as well as an understan
ding of
differentiated strategies and curricula for providing effective instruction and assessment within multicultural
classrooms.


One element of course work is raising candidate awareness of critical multicultural issues.


A second
element is to cause c
andidates to explore how multiple attributes of multicultural populations influence decisions in
employing specific methods and materials for every student.


Among these attributes are

age, disability, ethnicity,
family structure, gender, geographic region
, giftedness, language, race, religion, sexual orientation, and
socioeconomic status
.


An emphasis on cognitive style differences provides a background for the consideration of
cultural context.


Kennesaw State University provides program accessibility and

accommodations for persons defined as disabled
under Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 or the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990. A number of
services are available to support students with disabilities within their academic program. In

order to make
arrangements for special services, students must visit the Office of Disabled Student Support Services (ext. 6443)
and develop an individual assistance plan. In some cases, certification of disability is required.

Please be aware there are
other support/mentor groups on the campus of Kennesaw State University that address
each of the multicultural variables outlined above.


Professionalism
-

Academic Honesty:

KSU expects that graduate students will pursue their academic programs in
an ethic
al, professional manner. Faculty of the EdS and EdD programs abide by the policies and guidelines
established by the university in their expectations for candidates’ work. Candidates are responsible for knowing and
adhering to the guidelines of academic
honesty as stated in the graduate catalog. Any candidate who is found to
have violated these guidelines will be subject to disciplinary action consistent with university policy. For example,
plagiarism or other violations of the University’s Academic Hon
esty policies could result in a grade of “F” in the
course and a formal hearing before the Judiciary Committee.


Professionalism
-

Participation and Attendance:

Part of your success in this class is related to your ability to
provide peer reviews and feedb
ack to your editing groups regarding their research and their writing. Furthermore,
responding effectively and appropriately to feedback from your peers and the professor is another measure of one’s
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14

professionalism. In addition, since each class meeting
represents a week of instruction/learning, failure to attend
class will likely impact your performance on assignments and final exams. Please be prepared with all readings
completed prior to class. We depend on one another to ask pertinent and insightful
questions.


XII.

COURSE OUTLINE


(Tentative and Subject to Change)


REFERENCES AND BIBLIOGRAPHY

Asante, M. K. (2003).
Afrocentricity: Theory of social change.

Chicago: African American Images.

Batson, M. C. (1994).
Peripheral visions.

New York: Harper
-
Co
llins.

Baumgartner, L., & Merriam, S. (Eds.)., (2000).
Adult learning and development.

Malabar, FL: Keiger Publishing
Company.

Bennett, C. (2003).
Comprehensive multicultural education: Theory and practice.

Boston: Allyn & Bacon. (Original
work published 1
986)

Brookfield, S. (2003). Racializing criticality in adult education.
Adult Education Quarterly, 53
(3), 154
-
169.

Brookfield, S. (1995)
Becoming a Critically Reflective Teacher

Jossey
-
Bass Inc., San Francisco, CA 94104

Colin, T., & Guy, S. (1998). An Afr
icentric interpretive model of curriculum orientations for course development in
graduate programs in education.
PAACE Journal for Lifelong Learning, 7,

43
-
55.

Editors. (2003, Spring). The Journal of Blacks in Higher Education Equality Index.
The Journal o
f Blacks in Higher
Education,

pp. 76
-
81.

Ellis, J. L., & Merriam, S. B. (1995).
Philosophical Foundations of Adult Education

(2nd ed.). Malabar, FL: Keiger
Publishing Company.

Freire, P. (1972).
Pedagogy of the Oppressed.

Harmondsworth: Penguin.

Green, M.
F. (Ed.). (1989).
Minorities on campus.

Washington, DC: American Council on Education.

Hamilton, Kendra. "Testing Pains and Gains: Southern States Inform Students and Scores Go Up SAT, ACT as Well
as in Test Scores, but Some States Get It and Some Don't."
Black Issues and Higher Education

June 5th
2003.June 5th 2003 (2003): 26
-
30


Heaney, Tom. "Adult Education for Social Change: From the Center Stage to the Wings and Back Again."
ERIC

(?):
40

Hooks, b. (2000).
Handbook of Qualitative Research.

Thousand Oak
s, CA: Sage Publications.

Hyman,
_
. (1998). Group Work as a Teaching Strategy in Black Student Retention in Higher Education.
CITY:
PUBLISHER.

Jefferson,
_
., & Caldwell,
_
. (2002). An exploration of the relationship between racial identity attitudes and th
e
perceptions of racial bias.
Journal of Black Psychology, 28
(2), 174
-
192.

Kasworm, C. (2002). African
-
American adult undergraduates: Differing cultural realities.
The Journal of Continuing
Higher Education, 50
(1), 10
-
19.

Knight, A. A., & Canfield, W. (198
8).
Learning styles inventory.

Los

Angeles: Western Psychological Services.

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