Lafford, B. A. (2009). Toward an Ecological CALL: Update to Garrett (1991). The Modern Language Journal, 93, 673-696. doi: 10.1111/j.1540- 4781.2009.00966.x

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Nov 24, 2013 (3 years and 6 months ago)

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Lafford
, B. A. (2009). Toward an Ecological CALL:
Update to Garrett (1991).
The Modern Language
Journal, 93, 673
-
696.
doi
: 10.1111/j.1540
-
4781.2009.00966.x



expanding the repertoire of possible task types


giving learners more immediate access to
authentic materials and speakers of the target
language,


mading

us rethink/
reconceptualize

how we
teach grammar, vocabulary, the four skills,
communicative competence and cultural
competence.


Pre
-
Internet tools: CD
-
ROM formats provide
students with a “tireless tutor,” traditional
drill
-
and
-
kill exercises and engaging games
to teach grammar and vocabulary but may be
limited to L2 learners’ access (sometimes
outdated).


Internet technologies are widely available to
L2 learners from popular Web sites (e.g.,
iTunes and YouTube) onto their computers or
mobile devices (e.g., Kindles, iPod, mobile
phone, Tablet/
iPad
).




Innovative technologically mediated ways to
learn grammar and vocabulary may be realized by
having L2 learners use text
-

or video
-
based
multi
-
modal
concordancers

to examine corpora
of target language authentic written and oral texts
to see “grammar in action” and to understand
nuanced interpretations of target language lexical
items that appear in various contexts (
Ackerley

&
Coccetta
, 2007; Huang &
Liou
, 2007).


Ackerley
, K., &
Coccetta
, F. (2007). Enriching language learning
through a multimedia corpus.
ReCALL

Journal, 19, 351

370.


Huang, H.
-
T., &
Liou
, H.
-
C. (2007). Vocabulary learning in an
automated graded reading program. Language Learning &
Technology, 11(3), 64

82.


First generation: asynchronous CMC tools


email,
text
-

or audio
-
based discussion boards, forums


Second generation
: blogs, wikis, social networking
sites (YouTube,
Slideshare
,
Facebook
)


Third generation: including Web 2.0 applications such
as Skype, Twitter (made possible in mobile
computing devices), and L2 gaming applications in
virtual worlds (e.g., Second Life)





Chun, D. (2008). Computer
-
mediated discourse in instructed
environments. In S.
Magnan

(Ed.), Mediating discourse online
(pp. 15

45).
Phildelphia
:
Benjamins
.




One of the most promising tools that can be
used to promote the normalization of CALL
is Web 2.0 technology.



1. Replace generalized studies comparing the
use of a CALL versus non
-
CALL approach
with qualitative case studies of certain
aspects of CALL used in given local contexts.



2. Continue to carry out research to track the
attention learners pay to certain parts of the
online input and their own output and to
understand the complex paralinguistic factors
that may affect the online composition
process.



3. Compare and contrast the relative
affordances of different types of quantitative
(e.g., CBT, CAT) and qualitative (e.g., e
-
portfolio) approaches to the assessment of
communicative and cultural competence.



4. Explore the attitudes and abilities (other
than the attainment of linguistic outcomes)
developed in learners who participate in
virtual environments (e.g., self
-
confidence,
pragmatic competence).


5. Explore the relative affordances of different
authoring tools to create task
-
based activities,
intelligently evaluate learner responses, and
provide contingent feedback on the acquisition
of specific L2 outcomes.



6. Carry out more ethnographic case studies of
how different types of learners (e.g., nonnative
speaker vs. heritage) use technological
affordances in virtual worlds to establish
identities and acquire linguistic and cultural
knowledge while interacting with nonnative and
native speakers of the target language.



5. Explore the relative affordances of different
authoring tools to create task
-
based activities,
intelligently evaluate learner responses, and
provide contingent feedback on the acquisition
of specific L2 outcomes.



6. Carry out more ethnographic case studies of
how different types of learners (e.g., nonnative
speaker vs. heritage) use technological
affordances in virtual worlds to establish
identities and acquire linguistic and cultural
knowledge while interacting with nonnative and
native speakers of the target language.



7. Conduct more studies of the use of Web
2.0 communication technologies and on the
most efficient applications for sharing
information (e.g.,

Evernote
).



8. Carry out more
emically

based qualitative
case studies to understand the stages that
learners go through when entering into social
networks (e.g., peripheral participation may
precede active engagement in social
networks).



9. Conduct ethnographic case studies of
individual learners acquiring languages in
distance learning environments to understand
the relative success of certain types of language
learning strategies to facilitate the acquisition of
the target language.



10. Conduct research on the efficacy of various
ways of training instructors to use technology
and on their motivation to do so.



11. Carry out research via surveys and interviews
of decision makers at various levels about their
evaluation of CALL scholars for promotion and
tenure.