Information Literacy Instruction:

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Nov 24, 2013 (3 years and 7 months ago)

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Incorporating Mobile Technology into
Information Literacy Instruction:
Opportunities and Challenges

Chad Crichton
, MA, MLIS

Coordinator of Reference Research & Instruction

U of T Scarborough Library, University of Toronto


Robin
Canuel
, MLIS

Liaison Librarian

Humanities and Social Sciences Library, McGill University


39th Annual LOEX Conference
-

Fort Worth, Texas
-

May 5
-
7, 2011

Learning Objectives

Participants will...

1) Understand the value of mobile technology in
an academic library context

2) Appreciate the current state of mobile
resources and services, and possible avenues of
future mobile development

3) Learn about the integration of mobile
technology into information literacy instruction
in the classroom and beyond


Introduction


Being available for your users anytime,
anywhere, any place


New Paradigm
-

Possibility of never seeing
your patrons in person in the future


Does new mobile technology change what it
means to be “information literate”?

How many of you own a cellphone?

How many of you have a smartphone
?

A World Without Wires

Globally there are over 555 million
fixed broadband subscriptions but
over 940 million 3G subscriptions

There are now over
5.3 billion
mobile
cellular subscriptions worldwide

The World in 2010, International
Telecommunication Union, http://www.itu.int/ITU
-
D/ict/material/FactsFigures2010.pdf

Image: http://office.microsoft.com/en
-
ca/images/technology
-
CM079001967.aspx#ai:MP900422242|mt:2|is:3|si:1|

In 2010, 74% of undergraduates owned an
internet capable handheld device or planned
to purchase one within the next 6 months

ECAR Study of Undergraduate Students and Information Technology
http://net.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/ers1006/rs/ers1006w.pdf

Image: http://www.flickr.com/photos/rosipaw/4328473236/

70% of mobile internet users in Egypt
never or rarely access the internet
via desktop, laptop or tablet.

59% of internet users in
India are “mobile only”

25% of mobile internet users
in the U.S are “mobile only”

Hill,
Alistar
. (2010)

The Mobile Only Internet Generation


AT&T reported that from 2007
-
2010 demand for
mobile broadband increased 4,932% (Hanson, Cody)



Soon, 80% of
all
people accessing the internet will be
doing so using their mobile device



(Ericsson (2010),
http://www.ericsson.com/jm/news/1430616
)


The average person engages with their phone
150 times per day. If averaged out over a 16.5
hour day, that works out to an average of once
every 6.5 minutes.








Tomi

Ahonen

Librarians could become invisible on smartphones
unless they reach out to patrons through existing
applications…

…Continuing
down this road, many libraries
could find themselves doing little more than
selecting and paying for
databases…

…If
librarians are not visible in research apps, patrons
will go to vendors to get
help…

…But if librarians are willing to redefine their
roles in the research process, they can not only
survive, but thrive in the mobile world.

Boone, Tom (2011)

http://www.flickr.com/photos/andyi/482006549/

Librarians need to look for ways to insert themselves
into mobile apps. This doesn’t mean creating an app
for the library, but instead using existing apps to reach
out to patrons…

…Another redefinition of librarians’ roles involves
looking for unique content from one’s own library
and making it electronically available.

If your library, like mine, has been transformed by
desktop computing and Internet access, now is the
time to take action and be proactive in providing
robust services to mobile users.

Boone, Tom (2011)

Hanson, Cody (2011)

Image


iPhone screens:
http://www.flickr.com/photos/chromatic/3969329831/

Image


Device pile: http://www.flickr.com/photos/blakespot/4773693893
/

Some Questions


How many of you already have a mobile
initiative at your institution?



How many of you are going mobile in the next
six months? Year?


ARL Members with
neither a
University Mobile
Site nor a
University Library
Mobile Site

65%

ARL Members with
a University
MobileSite only

14%

ARL Members with a
University Library Mobile
Site only

13%

Members with a
University Mobile Site &
a University Library
Mobile Site

9%

Association of Research Libraries

Members Offering a Mobile Web Presence

Aldrich, 2010

CARL Members
offering no
Mobile Web
Presence

66%

CARL Members
offering some
type of Mobile
Web Presence

34%

Canadian Association of Research Libraries

Members Offering a Mobile Web
Presence

Canuel and Crichton, 2011

Respondents
offering no services
for handheld
devices, and with
no plans to do so

35%

Respondents
planning to offer
services for
handheld devices

21%

Respondents
currently offering
services for
handheld devices

44%

Academic Libraries Offering Mobile Services

Thomas, 2010

What does it mean to “go mobile”???

Apps vs. Websites

0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
80%
90%
100%
Services offered by Canadian
Academic Library Mobile Sites
(Canuel and Crichton, 2011)
Services Offered by North
American Academic Library
Mobile Sites (Aldrich, 2010)
Library Services for
Mobile
Devices


Library Account (Renewals)


Library Chat Help (IM, SMS)


Room Bookings / Availability


Library News (RSS)


Desktop/Laptop Availability


Research Workshop
Schedule/Sign
-
up


Floor Maps / Stacks Guide


Automated Phone Renewals


VPN/WIFI Configuration


Mobile Subject Guides


Campus Webcams


Course Reserves


Videos
-

vodcast

(
libcasts
)


Podcast


Library Finder


Full Text Finders (Article
Finder)


Bus Schedules


Send book location / call
number to phone

So that’s what people are doing with mobile
technology, but why?


Who’s priorities are those?


Who is setting the agenda, users or librarians?

Mobile Search


As smartphones become more ubiquitous, they
increasingly influence the ways in which students
search for, find, evaluate, and use information
.


Do
current students exhibit information literate
behaviour
when engaging with information on their
phones?


Do
smartphones make it easier for students to
demonstrate information literacy, or does this new
technology perhaps erect barriers between students
and effective searching for and use of information?

(
Yarmey
, 2011)

Mobile Information Seeking
Behaviour


Users likely to have
more immediate and goal
-
directed intentions

relevant to their context


Need to consider the
time factor
. Users
typically less interested in lengthy
documents/browsing


Cost
of data plans affect usage of data by users,
as well as time of day of usage


Users often only access information from mobile
devices as a
last resort
.

Heimonen
, T. (2009); Cummings, J.,
Merril
, A., &
Borrelli
, S. (2010);
Kaikkonen
, A. (2008);

Lee, I., et al. (2005); W3C Mobile Best Practices (2008); Church, K., et al. (2007)

Mobile
Learning


Any sort of learning that happens when the learner
is not at a fixed, predetermined location
, or learning
that happens when the learner takes advantage of the
learning opportunities offered by mobile technologies
.”


O’Malley, C.,
Vavoula
, G.,
Glew
, J. P., Taylor, J.,
Sharples
, M., &
Lefrere
, P. (2003)






The intersection of mobile computing
(the
application of small, portable, and wireless
computing and communication devices)
and

e
-
learning
(learning facilitated and supported
through the use of information and
communications technology).”

Quinn (2000)

Image: http
://office.microsoft.com/en
-
ca/images/results.aspx?qu=cell%20phones#ai:MP900422734|mt:2|is:3|si:1|

Mobile Information Literacy

What does it mean to be
mobile

information literate?

The information literate student considers the costs and
benefits of acquiring the needed information.

The information literate student selects the most appropriate
investigative methods or information retrieval systems for
accessing the needed information.

The information literate student communicates the product or
performance effectively to others.

The information literate student understands many of the
ethical, legal and socio
-
economic issues surrounding
information and information technology.

"
If men learn this,
it will implant forgetfulness in their
souls
; they will cease to exercise memory because they rely on that
which is written,
calling things to remembrance no
longer from within themselves, but by means of
external marks
. What you have discovered is a recipe not for
memory, but for reminder. And
it is no true wisdom that you
offer your disciples, but only its semblance, for by
telling them of many things without teaching them
you will make them seem to know much, while for
the most part they know nothing
, and as men filled, not
with wisdom, but with the conceit of wisdom, they will be a burden to their
fellows."

Plato (
Phaedrus, 275a
-
b
)



then again, what did Plato know?



He didn’t even have a
landline

connection to
the internet!!!


Image:
-

http
://www.flickr.com/photos/lentina_x/3595837441/

“The
mobile internet
. . . will not be just a way to
do old things while
moving. It
will be a way to
do things that couldn’t be done before
.”


Howard Rheingold, Smart Mobs: The
Next Social
Revolution

(
Cambridge, Mass.:
Perseus Publications
, 2002), pp. xiv, xix.

Mobile Search Variety

S
earching for information on an internet
-
capable
phone:


Typed keywords


Spoken keywords (voice search)


Other audio (e.g.
Shazam
)


Camera (e.g. Google Goggles)


Location
-
aware (GPS/Compass)


Barcode/QR Code


Augmented Reality


Potential QR Code Uses


Links to electronic resources


Instructional videos


Useful websites for further information


Directly containing contact details (e.g. link to
QP, Subject Librarian)


A way of storing information for future
reference (Scanning catalogue records, Call
number and location information


floor
maps, scanning search results)

(Ashford, 2010; Walsh, 2010)

Augmented Reality

Video


Image
: http://www.flickr.com/photos/jamais_cascio/2756996849/



Question 1. Brainstorm: What innovative
and creative ways can you think of to use
mobile resources and tools to facilitate
mobile learning, and the development of
mobile information literacy, and to give users
access to the expertise of librarians at the
moment that their information need occurs?


Question 2. Brainstorm: How would you go
about incorporating mobile technology into
an in
-
class information literacy instruction
session?

In the Classroom



Google
Goggles


have items to
scan with the camera
that
will find results through
Google,
and items that will not.
Have students scan the items and make notes, and then
discuss why the items that didn’t work, didn’t
work, and
why those that did, did.


Location
-
Based Searching (Local History Courses
)


Have
students create written descriptions to
geotag

historic
buildings and locations with contextual information for
others with mobile devices to access.


Taking
the students in your class out of the room and
walking in to the stacks (bringing the online and physical
together… standing in the stacks with all of the library’s
digital resources in your hand).



Outside the Class / Reference

Mobile Librarians (
page or SMS
a librarian and have them
meet you where your are in the library with an
iPad
)


Utilize discipline
-
appropriate
a
ugmented
r
eality services
(like Google
SkyMap

for
astronomy, or local historical

layars
” such as “Your city 100 years ago”.)


Augmented Reality created by you! (Make a “
layar
” for your
campus or the libraries in your local library system)


QR Codes in the stacks or in the books. Link to
information on the call number
range that the student is
visiting in the stacks, link to subject guides related to the
content of a print book, link to lists
of related resources,
instructional videos
etc
… free your hyperlinks from the
virtual world and bring them into reality!

Opportunities

Opportunity

Engaging students with a compelling
technology that they are already
engaged with daily

Taking the expertise of librarians out of the
library, and allowing students to access it
where, and when they need it most

New types of searching allow
opportunities to re
-
emphasize
traditional information literacy concepts

New search inputs allow for new ways of
searching for data, and the same technology offers
new ways to manipulate and use data once found

Mobile services give libraries an
opportunity to challenge the strong (and
not always helpful in 2011) connection
of our profession to a
place and
collections of THINGS

and make us
more present in our students’ lives, and
hopefully more obviously relevant to
their information seeking success.

Image
-

http
://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Opportunity_in_Endurance_Crater.jpg

Challenges

Technical Expertise

Costs
(of development
for
libraries,
and of devices
and
data plans for users)

Perception
of Librarians

(
elite, expensive, frivolous
…)


INERTIA

Licensed vs. Owned content (DRM)

Speed (Net Neutrality
)

Coverage

(
mobile broadband availability
)

Competing
Priorities

Image: http
://www.flickr.com/photos/lauramary/233098556
/

Image
-

http
://
office.microsoft.com/en
-
ca/images/results.aspx?qu=success+failure&origin=FX010132103#ai:MP900442210

Conclusions

Jump on the mobile bandwagon now, in the
future this won’t even be a “thing”, but you
and your students will benefit greatly from
having been ahead of the
curve!

“If I have one prediction about the future of
mobile computing, it’s this: The future of
mobile is the future of computing is mobile
.”




(Hansen, 2011)

In the future, we’ll all simply be moving from
screen
to screen to screen,
with no
difference between
one’s laptop
and
TV
and
desktop computer
and cell phone…

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,
Tomi

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