Overview1x

jazzydoeSoftware and s/w Development

Oct 30, 2013 (3 years and 9 months ago)

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SEQUENCE

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TOPIC


INVENTION OF COMPUTER


FULL FORM OF COMPUTER


DEFINITION OF COMPUTER


BLOCK DIAGRAM OF COMPUTER


COMPONENTS OF COMPUTER


SOFTWARE COMPONENTS


HARDWARE COMPONENTS


NETWORKING

"Who

invented

the

computer?"

is

not

a

question

with

a

simple

answer
.

The

real

answer

is

that

many

inventors

contributed

to

the

history

of

computers

and

that

a

computer

is

a

complex

piece

of

machinery

made

up

of

many

parts,

each

of

which

can

be

considered

a

separate

invention
.



Charles Babbage
, an English mathematician, is considered to be the
Great
-
Grandfather of the computer. Over 150 years ago, in 1837 to
be exact, he invented a sophisticated calculating machine, and called
it the "Analytical Engine.“

INVENTION OF COMPUTER

C
-

Common

O
-

Operating

M
-

Machine

P
-

Primarily

U
-

Used

T
-

To

E
-

Enter

R
-

Records


COMPUTER:

A programmable machine. The two principal
characteristics of a computer are:

It responds to a specific set of
instructions

in a well
-
defined manner.

It can
execute

a prerecorded list of instructions (a
program
).

Modern computers are electronic and
digital
.


The actual machinery
--

wires,
transistors
, and circuits
--

is called
hardware
;


the instructions and
data

are called
software
.

The computer is a machine that can perform various tasks under control
of the software

SECONDARY STORAGE

MAIN MEMORY

CU

ALU

OUTPUT

INPUT

COMPONENTS OF A COMPUTER SYSTEM



Software components:

such as the operating
system and user programs.



Hardware components:


the electronic and
electromechanical devices, such as the processor,
memory, disk unit, keyboard, screen, and others.




Presently
User

is considered as another component
of computer.


SOFTWARE COMPONENTS

The software components consist of the set of programs that execute in
the computer. These programs control, manage, and carry out
important tasks.


the general structure of a program consists of:




Data descriptions, which define all the data to be manipulated and
transformed by the instructions.





A sequence of instructions, which defines all the transformations to
be carried out on the data in order to produce the desired results.

TYPES OF SOFTWARES


System software


¾
Application
software

The

system

software

is

a

collection

of

programs

that

control

the

activities

and

functions

of

the

various

hardware

components
.



e
.
g
.

OPERATING

SYSTEM

An Operating System is a software program
or set of programs that mediate access
between physical devices (such as a keyboard,
mouse, monitor, disk drive or network
connection) and application programs (such
as a word processor,
World
-
Wide Web

browser).


An operating system (sometimes abbreviated
as "OS") is the program that, after being
initially loaded into the computer by a
boot

program, manages all the other programs in a
computer.


e.g. MS DOS, WINDOWS, UNIX, LINUX etc.

DEFINITION OF OPERATING
SYSTEM

FUNCTIONS OF OPERATING SYSTEM



CPU SCHEDULING




RESOURCE MANAGEMENT




MEMORY MANAGEMENT



TIME MANAGEMENT




INPUT OUTPUT MANAGEMENT



TASK MANAGEMENT



SECURITY

Types

of

Operating system


Single
-
user OS

ƒ
Multi
-
user OS

ƒ
Multi tasking OS

ƒ
Multiprocessor OS

ƒ
Real time OS


SINGLE

USER

OPERATING

SYSTEM
:

In

computing,

when

an

operating

system

allows

only

a

single

user

at

a

time

to

access

the

resources
.

E
.
g
.:

DOS,

WIN

95
,

WIN

98


MULTI

USER

OPERATING

SYSTEM
:

In

computing,

an

operating

system

that

enables

several

users

to

access

centrally

stored

data

and

programs

simultaneously

over

a

network
.

E
.
g
.

UNIX,

LINUX


MULTI

TASKING

OPERATING

SYSTEM
:

In

computing,

multitasking

is

a

method

by

which

multiple

tasks,

share

common

processing

resources

such

as

a

CPU
.

In

the

case

of

a

computer

with

a

single

CPU,

only

one

task

is

said

to

be

running

at

any

point

in

time,

meaning

that

the

CPU

is

actively

executing

instructions

for

that

task
.

Multitasking

solves

the

problem

by

scheduling

which

task

may

be

the

one

running

at

any

given

time,

and

when

another

waiting

task

gets

a

turn
.


e
.
g
.

Windows

XP,

Windows

Vista



MULTI

PROCESSOR

OPERATING

SYSTEM
:

A

shared
-
memory

mul ti processor

(or

just

mul ti processor

hencef orth)

is

a

computer

system

in

which

two

or

more

CPUs

share

full

access

to

a

common

RAM
.

A

program

running

on

any

of

the

CPUs

sees

a

normal

(usually

paged)

virtual

address

space
.



REALTIME

OPERATING

SYSTEM
:

A

Real
-
Time

Operating

System

(
RTOS
)

is

a

multitasking

operating

system

intended

for

real
-
time

applications
.

Such

applications

include

embedded

systems

(household

appliance

controllers),

industrial

robots
,

spacecraft,

industrial

control

and

scientific

research

equipment



BASED ON INTERFACE TYPES OF
OPERATING SYSTEM



CUI

(CHARACTER USER INTERFACE)

A method for interacting with the computer with the help of some specific
commands. CUI
-
based computers are operated by the keyboard, using a
combination of function keys, key sequences and by typing in commands in
a prescribed syntax. E.g. DOS




GUI

(GRAPHICAL USER INTERFACE)

is a type of
user interface

which allows people to interact with computers
with images rather than text commands. A
GUI

offers graphical icons, and
visual indicators, as opposed to
text
-
based

interfaces. The actions are
usually performed through graphical elements. E.g. Winodows

CASE STUDY OF CUI OS


DOS 5.0

DOS (Disk Operating System) was the
first widely
-
installed operating system
for IBM
-
compatible personal
computers. DOS is a non
-
graphical
line
-
oriented command
-
driven
computer operating system. It has a
relatively simple
--
but not overly
"friendly"
--
user interface.


Many tasks that can be performed in
the Windows graphical environment
can be performed much more quickly
and efficiently by utilizing DOS
commands. Also, most bootable floppy
disks will boot the system directly to a
DOS environment.



DOS INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL
COMMANDS

DOS Command Index1.docx

INTERNAL COMMANDS:
An Internal command, is a
command embedded into the command.com file. E.g. :



COPY



DATE



DEL



DIR


EXTERNAL COMMANDS:
an external command, is not
embedded into command.com and therefore requires a separate file to be
used
. E.g.



BACKUP.EXE



DOSKEY.COM



EDIT.COM



ATTRIB.EXE

CASE STUDY OF GUI OS


WINDOWS OS



Windows was the first commercially available
GUI
Operating System

from Microsoft founded
by Bill Gates.




Windows, on one level, is the Operating System
which runs the computer. But it's much more
than that.




This Operating System is much more stable
than previous versions.



Each User can have their own password accessed account, with their own
settings, their own documents, and different levels of access.





Users with more than one computer can network them much more


easily.