Operating Systems workbook - WordPress.com

jaspersugarlandSoftware and s/w Development

Dec 14, 2013 (3 years and 7 months ago)

231 views

F453 Computer Hardware Unit


Mr B Gristwood, 2012


P a g e

|
1





Contents

Introduction

................................
................................
................................
..............................

1

About

................................
................................
................................
................................
........

1

Functions of Operating S
ystems (3.1)

................................
................................
...................

2

Symbols used in this book:

................................
................................
................................
..

2

A)

Features of Operating Systems

................................
................................
...................

3

Fetch Execute Cycle

................................
................................
................................
...........

4

B) Interru
pt Handling

................................
................................
................................
............

5

C/D) Memory Management

................................
................................
..............................

6

Extension Questions:

................................
................................
................................
............

9

F) File Management

................................
................................
................................
..........

10

Boot Files

................................
................................
................................
..............................

10

ROM and the Boot F
ile

................................
................................
................................
......

11

File Management

................................
................................
................................
..............

11

File Allocation Tables

................................
................................
................................
.........

12

The Directory Table

................................
................................
................................
........

12

End of Unit Recap

................................
................................
................................
..................

13

Additional

Notes

................................
................................
................................
................

13


Introduction

This book is designed to teach the F453 unit of the OCR Specification. I have used
the marking criteria from the OCR Scheme of Work to highlight the areas that you
need to know. You should use this book alongside the classroom activities to
complete.

IT
IS NOT

a full and complete guide, in a number of places you will see extension
tasks which are designed for higher grades to make sure you thoroughly understand
a topic, if you want a grade higher than a B, I suggest you do these.

About



F453 Computer Hardware Unit


Mr B Gristwood, 2012


P a g e

|
2





Functions of Oper
ating Systems

(3.1)


By the end of this section you should be able to describe:

A.

describe the main features of operating systems


for example, memory
management, scheduling algorithms;

B.

explain how interrupts are used to obtain processor time and how
processing
of interrupted jobs may later be resumed, (typical sources of interrupts should
be identified and any algorithms and data structures should be described);

C.

define and explain the purpose of scheduling, job queues, priorities and how
they are used

to manage job throughput;

D.

explain how memory is managed in a typical modern computer system,
(virtual memory, paging and segmentation should be described along with
some of the problems which could occur such as disk threshing

E.

describe spooling, explainin
g why it is used;

F.

describe the main components of a typical desktop PC operating system,
including the file allocation table (FAT) and how it is used, and the purpose of
the boot file.

Symbols used in this book:



Whenever you see this image it is a dicti
onary definition or keyword
you need for this course



When you see this image, it requires you to find definitions from the
internet, but also describe what this term means in your own words/full
sentences.



When you see this image, this is a class a
ctivity that you must
complete, usually a diagram and a definition.



This is an extension task. It is optional, but will help you in the exam




F453 Computer Hardware Unit


Mr B Gristwood, 2012


P a g e

|
3





A)

Features of Operating Systems


All computers need an operating system to run. After looking at the
powerpoint,
complete the tasks below.

Define: What is an O
perating System




Define: The main features of an operating system





Revision:


types of Operating System. Use the worksheet to complete the
descriptions of the different types of operating system.

Different operating systems
can be used for different tasks, you can’t use Windows for everything, it is important
to remember that.

Ope
rating System
Type

Description

Batch
Processing


Interac
tive
Processing


Real Time


Network


File
Management


Disk Operation
System


Single User


Multi
Programming


Multi User


Multi Tasking


Distributed





F453 Computer Hardware Unit


Mr B Gristwood, 2012


P a g e

|
4





Fetch Execute Cycle


All
Operating S
ystems have to
adhere

to the Fetch
Execute

cycle of the processor.
The job of the operating system is to make best use of the processing type available.

In the space below, draw out the steps of the fetch
-
execute

flowchart




































For Next Lesson (Research the purpose of Interrupts in the operating system)


F453 Computer Hardware Unit


Mr B Gristwood, 2012


P a g e

|
5






B)

Interrupt Handling


What is the purpose of an interrupt?





Name the 5 different types of interrupt service routine (ISR)

No

Type

Description


1




2




3




4




5





In the space below, draw out the steps of the Interrupt Service Routine. Make sure
that you explain the key points and key terms.






















F453 Computer Hardware Unit


Mr B Gristwood, 2012


P a g e

|
6






C/D)
Memory Management


Describe how memory looks in the computer when filled
with tasks


















Description


Define the following terms:

Disk Thrashing






Virtual Memory







What is the difference between memory and disk storage?


Memory

Disk Storage








My Memory Block

F453 Computer Hardware Unit


Mr B Gristwood, 2012


P a g e

|
7






What is the purpose of memory
Management?










Methods of Memory Management

Describe in the space below the different ways that the operating system manages
memory.

Partition Memory

Description of how it works







Diagram (If needed)









Paging

Description of how it
works








Diagram (If needed)





F453 Computer Hardware Unit


Mr B Gristwood, 2012


P a g e

|
8








Time Slicing

Description of how it works








Diagram (If needed)









Segmentation

Description of how it works








Diagram (If needed)











F453 Computer Hardware Unit


Mr B Gristwood, 2012


P a g e

|
9






Spooling

Description of how it works








Diagram (If needed)









Extension Question
s
:

What would happen if the operating system did not contain memory

management features?








Why are there different methods of Memory Management?









F453 Computer Hardware Unit


Mr B Gristwood, 2012


P a g e

|
10





F)
File Management


Revision:

Label the
structure of the hard drive.



















Boot Files


Boot files are used for when you start the computer,

they are a set of commands
used to tell the computer what to do. Kind of like a simple computer program that
points to the right files. Look at the following Boot file and describe what it is doing:

[boot loader]

timeout=30

default=multi(0)disk(0)rdisk
(0)partition(1)
\
WINDOWS

[operating systems]

multi(0)disk(0)rdisk(0)partition(1)
\
WINDOWS="Microsoft Windows XP Professional" /fastdetect









F453 Computer Hardware Unit


Mr B Gristwood, 2012


P a g e

|
11





ROM and the Boot File


There is a big difference between ROM and the Boot file. ROM is the hardware
check.
It is there to establish what each of the parts of the computer hardware is
and what it does.

Go into the BIOS in your computer at home (usually by pressing F10 or ESC), have

a look at it and detail below what kind of things are in there (Don’t change


y瑨i湧n
畮less y潵ow慮琠愠扲潫敮ec潭灵ter℩








File Management


File Managemen
t is a way of organising all the storage that we have so that it is
easier for people to find information.

What ways can you think of to store information so you can find it more easily.

Challenge:


You are the network manager in a school with 800 students and 50 teacher and you
have been given a hard drive to partition to make sure there is enough space to
store all the data on the network. You have 100gb to organise and have the
following sections:



Boot and server files



Programs (this is software that is distributed to the rest of the network)



User Profiles



User Data



Print Spooling Files

If any of these
becomes overloaded, the server will crash, so you have to be careful
of how you allocate your space.




Define:
Tree Structure




F453 Computer Hardware Unit


Mr B Gristwood, 2012


P a g e

|
12





File Allocation Tables


File allocation Tables are not part of the processor and hardware, but part of the
Operating
System. They are used to manipulate the Hardware to make it more
effective. There are lots of different file allocation tables, e.g
.
NTFS, FAT, FAT32 but
they all have the same principals
.

The idea
is that d
ata is stored all over the hard
drive;

the purpo
se of the FAT is to
number each cluster of memory so that data can be accessed quickly
.

Write the structure of a File Allocation Table









The Directory Table









Cluster
30030


myfile


.doc


Hidden,
system,
archive,
directory,
R/O,
Volume


23/05/1979


30 Kb


What is the difference between the directory table and the file allocation table

Directory Table

File Allocation Table(FAT)









Extra task


Find out why we have different File Storage Methods. What is the difference
between
NTFS, FAT and FAT 32 and what is the point?




F453 Computer Hardware Unit


Mr B Gristwood, 2012


P a g e

|
13





End of Unit Recap

The main focus of this unit is how the hardware and the software work together to
organise themselves

to make the computer the most efficient it can be. There is no
use buying the most amazing hard drive, if the Operating System can’t talk to it in a
way it understand, this is the battle between hardware and software.


Additional Notes























F453 Computer Hardware Unit


Mr B Gristwood, 2012


P a g e

|
14





End of Unit Extension Tasks

F453 Computer Hardware Unit


Mr B Gristwood, 2012


P a g e

|
15





F453 Computer Hardware Unit


Mr B Gristwood, 2012


P a g e

|
16





http://abstrusegoose.com/470