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jabgoldfishAI and Robotics

Oct 19, 2013 (3 years and 9 months ago)

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159.302



Artificial Intelligence


Computer Science

Massey University at Albany

2004 Semester 2

2

Lecturer:

Prof Ken Hawick


Phone: 414
-
0800 ext 9532


Office: 2.53 Quad A


Email:
K.A.Hawick@massey.ac.nz

3

Lectures:

Office Hours:


Immediately after lectures
-

or by
appointment (email)

3 lectures/tutorials per week:

Tues 3:00 pm AT7

Wed 11:00 am AT7

Thurs 2:00 pm AT7 (Tutorial)

4

Text and Course Material



Textbook: Russell S. and Norvig P., Artificial Intelligence A
Modern Approach, 2
nd

Ed, Prentice Hall 2003.

URL for the book:

http://www.cs.berkeley.edu/~russell/aima.html

And

http://aima.cs.berkeley.edu/





Some lecture notes are available from
http://www.massey.ac.nz/~kahawick/159302

5

Assessment

The course will be assessed by a combination of practical and
theoretical work.

There will be 2 practical assignments and one three hour exam. The
exam will be a CLOSED BOOK exam.


The marks for this course will be divided as follows:


Item


% of Total


Ass1


15


Ass2


15



Final Exam

70




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Course Outline


1. Introduction



2. Agent Based
Approaches


3. Search


4. Logic


5. Fuzzy Logic


6. Game Playing




7. Expert Systems



8. Planning


9. Machine Learning


10. Natural Language


11. Machine Vision


12. Theorem proving

7

What is AI?

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What is AI?

Definitions may be organized into four categories.

1.
Systems that think like humans.

2.
Systems that act like humans.

3.
Systems that think rationally.

4.
Systems that act rationally.

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Computer vs Brain (2003)

Computer

Human Brain

Computational Units

1 CPU, 10
8

gates

10
11

neurons

Storage Units

10
10

bits RAM

10
11

neurons

10
11

bits disk

10
14

synapses

Cycle time

10
-
9

sec

10
-
3

sec

Bandwidth

10
10

bits/ sec

10
14

bits/ sec

Memory updates/ sec

10
9

10
14

10

Application Areas of AI


Game Playing


Deep Blue Chess program beat
world champion Gary Kasparov


Speech Recognition

PEGASUS spoken language
interface to American Airlines'
EASY SABRE reservation system,
which allows users to obtain flight
information and make reservations
over the telephone.


11

AI Applications



Computer Vision



Face recognition programs in use by banks, government,
etc.


The ALVINN system autonomously drove a van from
Washington, D.C. to San Diego (all but 52 of 2,849
miles), averaging 63 mph day and night, and in all
weather conditions.


Handwriting recognition, electronics and manufacturing
inspection, photo
-
interpretation, baggage inspection,
reverse engineering to automatically construct a 3D
geometric model.

12

Expert Systems


Application
-
specific systems that rely on
obtaining the knowledge of human experts in an
area and programming that knowledge into a
system.



DENDRAL, mass spectrometer interpreter


MYCIN, modeling medical expert



Microsoft Office Assistant:
-

customised help to
individual user


13

Financial Decision Making

Credit card companies, mortgage
companies and banks

AI systems detect
fraud



expedite financial transactions



like credit checks.


profiles of customer usage patterns


use profiles to detect unusual patterns



take appropriate action.


14

Mathematical Theorem Proving



Use of inference methods to prove new theorems.


Natural Language Understanding



AltaVista automated translation of web pages.



Translation of Catepillar Truck manuals into 20 languages.

(Note: One early system translated the English sentence

"The spirit is willing but the flesh is weak" into the Russian
equivalent of "The vodka is good but the meat is rotten.")


15

Scheduling and Planning





Automatic scheduling for manufacturing.





American Airlines rerouting contingency planner.




European space agency planning and scheduling
of spacecraft assembly, integration and
verification.

16

Intelligent Robotics


Robot Toys


Aibo, I
-
Cybie, LEGO etc


Robot Security


Cye robot


Robot Home Help


Lawn mower, Vacuum cleaner etc

17

AI "Grand Challenges"


Translating telephone


Accident
-
avoiding car


Home help robot


Smart clothes


Intelligent agents that monitor and manage
information by filtering, digesting, abstracting


Tutors


Self
-
organizing systems, e.g., that learn to
assemble something by observing a human do it.

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Summary

Main points to remember:


AI studies the design of systems that {think, act} like
{humans, rationally}.


Some of the AI successful applications: decision making,
expert systems, natural language understanding, image
processing.



See Chapter 1 of Russell & Norvig.