Transport layer and Application Layer

internalchildlikeInternet and Web Development

Nov 12, 2013 (3 years and 7 months ago)

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13/11/2013

Michael Chai; Behrouz Forouzan

Staffordshire University

School of Computing

Transport layer and Application Layer

Slide
1

13/11/2013

Michael Chai; Behrouz Forouzan

Staffordshire University

School of Computing

IADCN
-

Week 5

Addressing and Protocols

DNS, FTP,TFTP, SNMP,
HTTP

SCTP, TCP, UDP

ICMP, IGMP, ARP, RARP

Port Address

Logical Address

Physical Address


Application Layer

Transport Layer

Network Layer

Physical and Data
Link Layers

13/11/2013

Michael Chai; Behrouz Forouzan

Staffordshire University

School of Computing

IADCN
-

Week 5


13/11/2013

Michael Chai; Behrouz Forouzan

Staffordshire University

School of Computing

IADCN
-

Week 5

Transport Layer

DNS, FTP,TFTP, SNMP,
HTTP

SCTP, TCP, UDP

ICMP, IGMP, ARP, RARP

Port Address

Logical Address

Physical Address


Application Layer

Transport Layer

Network Layer

Physical and Data
Link Layers

13/11/2013

Michael Chai; Behrouz Forouzan

Staffordshire University

School of Computing

IADCN
-

Week 5

Transport Layer


Starts and stops the connection of the transmission.


At the transmitter, it is responsible for chopping the stream
of data into transportable datagrams, numbering them and
then sending them one by one.


At the receiver, it is responsible for waiting until all
datagrams have arrived, checking for errors and then
processing as a stream.


Provides connection mechanism between two or more
running application programs.


Transmission control protocol (TCP) with flow control


User datagram protocol (UDP) with no flow control

13/11/2013

Michael Chai; Behrouz Forouzan

Staffordshire University

School of Computing

IADCN
-

Week 5

Transport Layer


Domain of Transport Protocol

13/11/2013

Michael Chai; Behrouz Forouzan

Staffordshire University

School of Computing

IADCN
-

Week 5

IP address versus Port address


13/11/2013

Michael Chai; Behrouz Forouzan

Staffordshire University

School of Computing

IADCN
-

Week 5

Socket Address


13/11/2013

Michael Chai; Behrouz Forouzan

Staffordshire University

School of Computing

IADCN
-

Week 5

User Datagram Protocol (UDP)


Simple protocol and limited overhead as compared to
IP packet.


No additional services added into the IP packet, apart
from starting and stopping the connection.


Connectionless and “unreliable” transport protocol.


Independent datagram
-

not numbered


Suitable for simple request
-
response communication
(Refer to the port number table for more info)

13/11/2013

Michael Chai; Behrouz Forouzan

Staffordshire University

School of Computing

IADCN
-

Week 5

UDP Port addresses


13/11/2013

Michael Chai; Behrouz Forouzan

Staffordshire University

School of Computing

IADCN
-

Week 5

TCP


Handling many connections









The addition of connect instance id codes makes multiple simultaneous connections
possible.

13/11/2013

Michael Chai; Behrouz Forouzan

Staffordshire University

School of Computing

IADCN
-

Week 5

Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)


Connection
-
oriented protocol and reliable transport
protocol.


Create a virtual connection between two application
programs to send data.


Virtual connection


connected as in the transport
layer


13/11/2013

Michael Chai; Behrouz Forouzan

Staffordshire University

School of Computing

IADCN
-

Week 5


13/11/2013

Michael Chai; Behrouz Forouzan

Staffordshire University

School of Computing

IADCN
-

Week 5

TCP Ports


13/11/2013

Michael Chai; Behrouz Forouzan

Staffordshire University

School of Computing

IADCN
-

Week 5

Application Layer

DNS, FTP,TFTP, SNMP,
HTTP

SCTP, TCP, UDP

ICMP, IGMP, ARP, RARP

Port Address

Logical Address

Physical Address


Application Layer

Transport Layer

Network Layer

Physical and Data
Link Layers

13/11/2013

Michael Chai; Behrouz Forouzan

Staffordshire University

School of Computing

IADCN
-

Week 5

Domain Name System (DNS)


Each terminal in network has an unique IP address and
a name (name space).


A name space maps IP address to a unique name in
either flat or hierarchical method.


DNS is used for designing hierarchical name space


Example of hierarchical name space:
www.staffs.ac.uk
,
www.fcet.staffs.ac.uk
, gawains.staffs.ac.uk,
blackboard.staffs.ac.uk


Maximum of 128 levels with maximum 63 characters
in each node of the tree.



13/11/2013

Michael Chai; Behrouz Forouzan

Staffordshire University

School of Computing

IADCN
-

Week 5

DNS


13/11/2013

Michael Chai; Behrouz Forouzan

Staffordshire University

School of Computing

IADCN
-

Week 5

Domains


13/11/2013

Michael Chai; Behrouz Forouzan

Staffordshire University

School of Computing

IADCN
-

Week 5

Domain Name and Label


13/11/2013

Michael Chai; Behrouz Forouzan

Staffordshire University

School of Computing

IADCN
-

Week 5

DNS Server


Stores domain name space information within its
domain/sub
-
domain.


13/11/2013

Michael Chai; Behrouz Forouzan

Staffordshire University

School of Computing

IADCN
-

Week 5

File Transfer Protocol


Standard protocol for copying a file from one host to
another.


It standardises the data format and structure.


Uses two TCP connections


Port 21 for control connection


Port 20 for data connection


Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) is used in
simple and quickly copy file protocol that uses the
UDP services.

13/11/2013

Michael Chai; Behrouz Forouzan

Staffordshire University

School of Computing

IADCN
-

Week 5

FTP


13/11/2013

Michael Chai; Behrouz Forouzan

Staffordshire University

School of Computing

IADCN
-

Week 5

FTP Mechanism


13/11/2013

Michael Chai; Behrouz Forouzan

Staffordshire University

School of Computing

IADCN
-

Week 5

Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)


A framework for managing devices in network using
TCP/IP protocol suite.


Manager


SNMP client program installed in the server


Agent


SNMP server program installed in the router or host


The SNMP client program can perform actions for
monitoring and maintaining the performance of the
network.


uses UDP services at port 161 and 162 for agent and
manager respectively.

13/11/2013

Michael Chai; Behrouz Forouzan

Staffordshire University

School of Computing

IADCN
-

Week 5

Slide
25

Conclusion


We have discussed the major protocols in transport
and application layers of TCP/IP protocol suite.


TCP and UDP are used for the connection mechanism
between two or more running application programs.


The application layer components such as DNS, FTP,
TFTP and SNMP are the major components for
networking programming.


Other components discussed in the previous week
were Javascript, ASP script and Applet.