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Simulation and Analysis of
Wireless Mesh Network In
Smart Grid / Advanced
Metering Infrastructure





Masters Thesis


Philip Huynh



Spring 2011

Outline of the Talk


Introduction


Related work


Real
-
time Smart Grid Meter Data
C
ollection
using Hybrid WiMAX/Wi
-
Fi Networks


Smart Grid Wireless Infrastructure Planning
(SG
-
WIP) Tool.


Simulation Results of SG
-
SIM


Lessons Learned


Future Direction


Conclusion




Masters Thesis Philip Huynh


Spring 2011

Introduction


What is the Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI)?


The need to collect metering data in real
-
time


Save the material usage for the electric power generation by
correctly predict the load demand and build the load profile




Masters Thesis Philip Huynh


Spring 2011

Wireless Mesh Network for AMI


High scalable and performance networks


Can deploy on the large service areas: urban, suburb


Low cost installation and maintenance


Secured networks: IEEE802.16, IEEE 802.11s



Masters Thesis Philip Huynh


Spring 2011

Wi
-
Fi mesh networks with WiMAX backhaul

Wireless technologies (source: Intel)

CSU AMI Infrastructure

Masters Thesis Philip Huynh


Spring 2011

Related Work

1.
“Wireless Mesh Networks: A Survey” [AWW05]


The

author

presented

many

open

research

issues

needed

to

be

solved

such

as

scalability,

self
-
organization

and

self
-
configuration,

security,

network

integration
.

The

critical

factors

influencing

protocol

design

were

discussed

for

improvement

objectives
.

2.
“The Nominal Capacity of Wireless Mesh Networks”
[JS03]


The

authors

shown

that

for

WMNs

the

throughput

of

each

node

decreases

as

O(
1
/n),

where

n

is

total

number

of

nodes

in

the

network
.

Moreover,

for

a

given

topology

and

the

set

of

active

nodes,

the

upper

bounds

on

the

throughput

of

any

node

can

be

exactly

calculated
.

3.
“Architecture and Algorithms for an IEEE 802.11
-
based
Multi
-
channel Wireless Mesh Network” [RC05]


The

author

proposed

a

novel

multi
-
channel

WMN

architecture

that

effectively

addresses

the

bandwidth

problem

by

fully

exploiting

non
-
overlapped

radio

channels

that

the

IEEE

802
.
11

standards

make

available
.




Masters Thesis Philip Huynh


Spring 2011

Related Work (2)

4.
“Multi
-
Channel Mesh Networks: Challenges and
Protocols” [KSCV06]


The

authors

considered

the

use

of

multi
-
channel

to

improve

the

throughput

of

Wireless

Mesh

Network

(WMN)
.

The

main

challenges

were

highlighted

and

two

link
-
layer

protocols

were

presented

for

utilizing

multiple

channels

5.
“Capacity of Grid
-
Oriented Wireless Mesh
Networks” [ANMK08]


The

author

presented

an

analytical

framework

for

determining

the

nominal

capacity

of

multi
-
radio

multi
-
channel

Wireless

Mesh

Network

(WMN)
.

As

the

research

conclusion,

the

effects

of

WMN

design

parameters

such

as

network

topology,

network

size,

routing

methods,

channel

assignment

schemes

etc
.

are

interlinked

and

a

judicious

selection

is

essential

to

maximize

capacity
.

6.
“Coverage and capacity of a wireless mesh
network” [HWC05]


The

authors

proposed

a

scalable

multi
-
channel

ring
-
based

WMN

architecture

and

developed

an

analytical

framework

to

evaluate

the

capacity

and

coverage

of

such

a

network
.

Masters Thesis Philip Huynh


Spring 2011

Related Work (3)

7.
“The IEEE 802.11s Extended Service Set Mesh
Networking Standard” [CK08]


The

author

presented

how

the

developing

IEEE

802
.
11
s

ESS

Mesh

Networking

Standard

draft

addresses

technical

challenges

of

the

pervasive

development

of

wireless

mesh

networks

(WMNs),

the

efficient

allocation

of

mesh

resources

(routing

and

MAC

layers),

the

protection

of

network

resources

(security

and

power

savings),

and

the

elimination

of

spatial

bias

(congestion

control)
.

8.
“An Improved IEEE 802.16 WiMAX Module for the ns
-
3 Simulator” [IPGT10]


The

authors

presented

the

new

features

and

enhancements

that

were

integrated

within

the

ns
-
3

WiMAX

module
.

These

proposed

features

can

make

easier

and

more

realistic

the

evaluation

and

design

of

WiMAX

systems
.



Masters Thesis Philip Huynh


Spring 2011

Challenges & Approach


Challenges in Design and Deployment AMI Network
using WMN


How to evaluate the network performance: hundred thousands of
smart meters, complicated architecture


How the scalability affects to the performance


Approach


Develop a Network Topology Planning Tool


Develop a Network Simulator for AMI Communication Network


Simulate the network model and Analyze the results


Goals


Develop techniques and tools to evaluate the performance of
AMI WMN.


Masters Thesis Philip Huynh


Spring 2011

Hybrid WiMAX/Wi
-
Fi Network Model

Masters Thesis Philip Huynh


Spring 2011

Hybrid WiMAX/Wi
-
Fi Network Model

(a) Example of WiMAX network (WAN)

(b) Example of Wi
-
Fi mesh network (NAN)

(a)

(b)

SG
-
WIP Tool


A mashup that overlays the wireless
infrastructure and GIS data (street light
poles, housing units) on the Google Maps


Visually planning the Antenna mounting
place for the WiMAX/Wi
-
Fi network


Export the network topology as XML file
for further research


Can be integrated to the network
simulator



Masters Thesis Philip Huynh


Spring 2011

SG
-
WIP: GUI

Masters Thesis Philip Huynh


Spring 2011

GUI includes components: Main Menu, Network Topology Overlay,
Google Maps, and Topology Information Panel.

SG
-
WIP: Navigating Topologies

Masters Thesis Philip Huynh


Spring 2011

Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) using
WiMAX point
-
to
-
multi point: grid 10x10,
10 km x 10 km (WxH)

Neighborhood Area Network (NAN)
using Wi
-
Fi mesh: grid 10x10, 1 km x 1
km (WxH)

SG
-
WIP: Exporting Topology

Masters Thesis Philip Huynh


Spring 2011

Local Area Network (LAN) using Wi
-
Fi
point
-
to
-
multi point: square, 100 m x
100 m (WxH)

Exporting the LAN topology as an XML file

SG
-
WIP: Changing Antennae Position

Masters Thesis Philip Huynh


Spring 2011

WiMAX base station’s antennae: (a) Before changing, location at (5, 5); (b) After
changing, location at (6, 9)

(a)

(b)

SG
-
WIP: Code

// Calculate the center point of the
Colo

Sprgs

boundary house/building units

// Show the map of Colorado Springs

var

csCenter

=
getCenter
(new
GeoRectangle
(
csSW
,
csNE
));

var

latlng

= new
google.maps.LatLng
(
csCenter.Latitude
,
csCenter.Longitude
);

// Map's options

var

myOptions

= {


zoom:
startZoom
,


center:
latlng
,


mapTypeId
:
google.maps.MapTypeId.ROADMAP
,


mapTypeControl
: true,


navigationControl
: true,


scaleControl
: true


};

// Map object instance

map = new
google.maps.Map
(
document.getElementById
("map
-
canvas"),
myOptions
);


// Add the network topology as an overlay object on map

polygon = new
google.maps.Polygon
({


paths: paths,


strokeColor
:
FillColor
,


strokeOpacity
: 1,


strokeWeight
:
LineWeight
,


fillColor
:
FillColor
,


fillOpacity
: 0.01


});

polygon.setMap
(map);

overlaysArray.push
(polygon);



Masters Thesis Philip Huynh


Spring 2011

// Handle the Click event

on the network topology

google.maps.event.addListener
(polygon, 'click',
function(event) {

var

lat =
event.latLng.lat
();

var

lng

=
event.latLng.lng
();

Network.clickEvent
(lat,
lng
); }


/
/ Geographical coordinates helper functions

//This uses the ‘
haversine
’ formula to calculate great
-
circle
distances between

//the two points


that is, the shortest distance over the
earth’s surface



// giving an ‘as
-
the
-
crow
-
flies’ distance between the points
(ignoring any hills!).

function
distance_between
(lat1, lon1, lat2, lon2){


var

dLat

= (lat2
-
lat1)*
degrees_to_radians
;


var

dLon

= (lon2
-
lon1)*
degrees_to_radians
;


var

a = Math.sin(
dLat
/2) * Math.sin(
dLat
/2) +


Math.cos(lat1*
degrees_to_radians
) *
Math.cos(lat2*
degrees_to_radians
) *


Math.sin(
dLon
/2) * Math.sin(
dLon
/2);


var

c = 2 * Math.atan2(
Math.sqrt
(a),
Math.sqrt
(1
-
a));


var

d =
earth_radius

* c;


return d;

}

});

SG
-
SIM Simulator


Implements the proposed hybrid
WiMAX/Wi
-
Fi Network Model on NS
-
3
platform


The network simulator NS
-
3 is


Open source project


Popular and accepted by network research
community


Parameters of the Simulator


Network types: WAN, MAN, NAN, LAN


Number of nodes, Transmission Rate


Others: network initialization time,…




Masters Thesis Philip Huynh


Spring 2011

SG
-
SIM: Code

// Install node location for WiMAX base station, gateways

MobilityHelper mobility;

mobility.SetPositionAllocator ("ns3::
GridPositionAllocator
",


"
MinX
",
DoubleValue

(0.0),


"
MinY
",
DoubleValue

(0.0),


"
DeltaX
",
DoubleValue

(1000),


"
DeltaY
",
DoubleValue

(1000),


"
GridWidth
",
UintegerValue

(5),


"
LayoutType
",
StringValue

("
RowFirst
"));

mobility.SetMobilityModel

("ns3::
ConstantPositionMobilityModel
");

mobility.Install

(
bsNodes
);

mobility.Install

(
ssNodes
);


// Create a packet sink to receive these packets

Address
sinkLocalAddress

(
InetSocketAddress



(Ipv4Address::
GetAny

(), 50000));

PacketSinkHelper

sinkHelper

("ns3::
UdpSocketFactory
",


sinkLocalAddress
);

ApplicationContainer

sinkApp

=
sinkHelper.Install

(
serverNode
);

sinkApp.Start

(Seconds (start));

sinkApp.Stop

(Seconds (duration));


Masters Thesis Philip Huynh


Spring 2011

// Install the app on the SS nodes

for (
int

i
=0;
i
<
nbSS
;
i
++) {


// build the application


Ptr
<
SgOnOffApplication
>
sgOnOff

=


CreateObject
<
SgOnOffApplication
>();


sgOnOff
-
>
SetAttribute

("Protocol",


StringValue

("ns3::
UdpSocketFactory
"));


sgOnOff
-
>
SetAttribute

("
OnTime
",


RandomVariableValue

(
ConstantVariable

(1)));


sgOnOff
-
>
SetAttribute

("
OffTime
",


RandomVariableValue

(
ConstantVariable

(0)));


sgOnOff
-
>
SetAttribute

("
DataRate
",


DataRateValue

(
DataRate

(
m_packetDataRate
)));


sgOnOff
-
>
SetAttribute

("
PacketSize
",


UintegerValue

(
lenPacket
));


sgOnOff
-
>
SetAttribute

("Remote",


remoteAddress
);


sgOnOff
-
>
SetStartTime

(Seconds (start + 0.000001*
i
));


ssNodes.Get

(
i
)
-
>
AddApplication
(
sgOnOff
);


}


Simulation Experiments


Experiment Design Vision


Evaluate the performance of AMI Infrastructure


How the scalability impacts to the performance


Measure the performance of network with many
source nodes at the specific Constant Bit Rate (CBR)


Confirm to smart meter density analysis (using SG
-
WIP)






Masters Thesis Philip Huynh


Spring 2011

LAN Simulation Results

0
5,000
10,000
15,000
20,000
25,000
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
Time (us)

Packets

SMs

WLAN (IEEE 802.11a) w/ variable SMs
Simulation

Packets Tx
Packets Rx
Total Processing Delay (us)
Masters Thesis Philip Huynh


Spring 2011


Tx packets = Rx packets


Total processing delay increases linearly with the number of smart
meter

NAN Simulation Results

0
5,000
10,000
15,000
20,000
25,000
30,000
0
100
200
300
400
500
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Time (us)

Packets

APs

WNAN (IEEE 802.11s Mesh) w/ variable APs
Simulation

Packets Tx
Avg. Packets Rx
Total Processing Delay (us)
Masters Thesis Philip Huynh


Spring 2011


Tx packets = Rx packets


Total processing delay increases rapidly with the number of mesh
routers.

MAN Simulation Results

920,000
930,000
940,000
950,000
960,000
970,000
980,000
990,000
1,000,000
0
200
400
600
800
1,000
1,200
1,400
1,600
1,800
2,000
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Time (us)

Packets

GWs

WMAN (IEEE 802.16d) w/ variable GWs
Simulation

Packets Tx
Avg. Packets Rx
Total Processing Delay (us)
Masters Thesis Philip Huynh


Spring 2011


Tx packets = Rx packets


Total processing delay converges to 930 msecs. It
caused by 5 msecs fixed frame time in IEEE 802.16
standard.

MAN Simulation Results (2)

955,000
960,000
965,000
970,000
975,000
980,000
985,000
990,000
0
5,000
10,000
15,000
20,000
25,000
30,000
35,000
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
Time (us)

Packets

Number of meter data packets

WMAN (IEEE 802.16d) w/ 10 GWs, various sub
-
packet lengths simulation

Packets Tx
Packets Rx
Total Sub Packet Tx
Total Sub Packet Rx
Total Processing Delay (us)
Masters Thesis Philip Huynh


Spring 2011

Impact on the network performance by aggregating meter data at the gateway


Tx packets = Rx packets when number of meter packets < 16


Tx packets > Rx packets when number of meter packets >= 16 (caused by
UDP packet fragmentation)


Total processing delay increases slowly with the number of meter packets

WAN Simulation Results

0
100,000
200,000
300,000
400,000
500,000
600,000
700,000
0
5,000
10,000
15,000
20,000
25,000
30,000
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
Time (us)

Packets

Cable
Length (km)

WAN (Star Topology) w/ various cable lengths
simulation

Packets Tx
Packets Rx
Total Meter Packet Tx
Total Meter Packet Rx
Total Processing Delay (us)
Masters Thesis Philip Huynh


Spring 2011


The total processing time was linearly increased with the length
of the optical cables.


Lessons Learned


Development of SG
-
WIP Tool


Challenges in testing and debugging source code for
Web application (used PHP/JavaScript)


GIS Information Acquisition: time consuming process


Development of SG
-
SIM Simulator


Found the bug in NS
-
3 WiMAX module that can affect
the simulation results and reported to NS
-
3 community
at:
http://www.nsnam.org/bugzilla/show_bug.cgi?id=1025


Simulation Experiments in NS
-
3


The initialization phase of wireless networks


Bugs in Wi
-
Fi Mesh, WiMAX modules



Masters Thesis Philip Huynh


Spring 2011

Future Direction


Fully integrate the SG
-
WIP tool with SG
-
SIM
simulator


Improve the antenna placement algorithm


Increase availability of wireless networks


Database systems for storing the real
-
time meter
data





Masters Thesis Philip Huynh


Spring 2011

Conclusion


The proposed WiMAX/Wi
-
Fi WMN can transport
the meter data from 160,000 smart meters in
the CSU service areas to the data center in one
second.


The high scalability property of WiMAX/Wi
-
Fi
WMN helps flexibly extend the coverage area
of the AMI wireless infrastructure without
degrading the network performance.


The proposed WiMAX/Wi
-
Fi infrastructure
allows the utilities deploying an AMI wireless
communication infrastructure not only at low
cost of installation and maintenance but also
with high performance, scalability, and security.



Masters Thesis Philip Huynh


Spring 2011

Demo


Illustrate network topology planning with
SG
-
WIP Tool

http://scad.eas.uccs.edu/sgwip/wan.html



Some demonstrations of SG
-
SIM
simulator


Masters Thesis Philip Huynh


Spring 2011

References


[DoE01] U.S. Department of Energy, “Smart Grid”, <
http://www.oe.energy.gov/smartgrid.htm
>


[DoE02] U.S Department of Energy, “Smart Grid: An Introduction”, <
http://www.oe.energy.gov/SmartGridIntroduction.htm
>


[Wiki01] “Smart Grid”, <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Smart_grid>


[NIST10] National Institute of Standards and Technology, “NIST Framework and Roadmap for Smart Grid Interoperability Standard
s,
Release 1.0”, Jan. 2010.


[NETL08] National Energy Technology Laboratory, white paper “Advanced Metering infrastructure”, February 2008.


[Chow09] Edward Chow, Lecture “Secure Smart Grids”, Department of Computer Science, University of Colorado at Colorado Spring
s,
2009.


[IEEE11] IEEE Standard 802 Part 11: Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications, 2007.


[IEEE15] IEEE Standard 802 Part 15.1: Wireless Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications for Person
al
Area Networks (WPANs), 2005.


[IEEE16] IEEE Standard 802 Part 16: Air Interface for Broadband Wireless Access Systems, 2009.


[IEEE11s] IEEE, “Draft amendment: ESS mesh networking”, IEEE P802.11s Draft 1.00, November 2006.


[Moh01]
Prasant

Mohapatra
, Lecture “Wireless Mesh Networks”, Department of Computer Science University of California, Davis.


[AWW05] I. F.
Akyildiz
, X. Wang, and W. Wang, "Wireless Mesh Networks: A Survey," Computer Networks Journal (Elsevier), vol. 47, no. 4, pp. 445
-
487, M
ar. 2005.


[Kri01]
Srini

Krishnamurthy, “Smart AMI Network Solutions Enable the Smart Grid”, ElectricEnergyOnline.com,
<http://www.electricenergyonline.com/?page=show_article&mag=55&article=395>


[Met01]
MetroFi
, <
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MetroFi
>


[Sky01]
SkyPilot
, <
http://skypilot.trilliantinc.com
>


[Eka01]
EkaNet
, <
http://www.ekasystems.com/ekanet.htm
>


[JS03] J.
Jangeun

and M. L.
Sichitiu
, “The Nominal Capacity of Wireless Mesh Networks,” in IEEE Wireless Communications Magazine, October 2003, vol. 10 no. 5, pp
.
8

14.


[RC05] A.
Raniwala

and T.
cker

Chiueh
, “Architecture and Algorithms for an IEEE 802.11
-
based Multi
-
channel Wireless Mesh Network,” in Proceedings of INFOCOM
2005, March 2005, vol. 3, pp. 2223

2234.



[ANMK08]
Akhtar
,
Nadeem

and
Moessner
, Klaus, “
Capacity of Grid
-
Oriented Wireless Mesh Networks”,

3rd International Conference on Communication Systems
Software and Middleware and Workshops, Volumes 1 and 2 . pp. 631
-
636.


[HWC05] Jane
-
Hwa

Huang,


Li
-
Chun Wang,


Chung
-
Ju

Chang, “Coverage and capacity of a wireless mesh network”, Wireless Networks, Communications and Mobile
Computing, 2005 International Conference on, Vol. 1 (2005), pp. 458
-
463.


[CK08] Joseph D. Camp and Edward W. Knightly, “The IEEE 802.11s Extended Service Set Mesh Networking Standard”, IEEE Communic
ati
ons Magazine, Vol. 46, No.
8. (August 2008), pp. 120
-
126.


[KSCV06] P.
Kyasanur
, J. So, C.
Chereddi
, and N. H.
Vaidya

,”Multi
-
Channel Mesh Networks: Challenges and Protocols”, in IEEE Wireless Communications, April 2006.


[IPGT10] Mohamed Amine Ismail, Giuseppe
Piro
, Luigi Alfredo
Grieco
, Thierry
Turletti
, “An Improved IEEE 802.16 WiMAX Module for the ns
-
3 Simulator”, Proceedings of
SIMUTools

Conference, 2010 , March, 2010.


[INTL04] Intel Corporation, white paper “Understanding Wi
-
Fi and WiMAX as Metro
-
Access Solutions”, 2004.


[LLT03] B. Liu, Z. Liu, and D.
Towsley
, "On the capacity of hybrid wireless networks", in Proceedings of IEEE INFOCOM, Mar. 2003, vol. 2, pp. 1543
-
1552.


[ZR06] S. Zhao and D.
Raychaudhuri
, "On the Scalability of Hierarchical Hybrid Wireless Networks, Proceedings of the Conference on Information Sciences and Sys
tem
s
(CISS 2006), March 2006, pp. 711
-
716.


[ZSR04] S. Zhao, I.
Seskar

and D.
Raychaudhuri
, "Performance and Scalability of Self
-
Organizing Hierarchical Ad
-
Hoc Wireless Networks," Proceedings of the IEEE
Wireless Communications and Networking Conference (WCNC'04), Atlanta, GA. March 2004, pp. 132
-
137.


[OSI] “OSI Model”, <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/OSI_model>


[
Wimax
] WiMAX community, <http://www.wimax.com>


[NS3] The Network Simulator Ns
-
3, <http://www.isi.edu/nsnam/ns/>


[NCTU01]
NCTUns

6.0 Network Simulator and Emulator, <http://nsl.csie.nctu.edu.tw/nctuns.html>


[NCTU02] “The Protocol Developer Manual for the
NCTUns

6.0”, Network and System Laboratory, Department of Computer Science, National
Chiao

Tung University,
Taiwan 2010.


[HSWL07] S.M. Huang, Y.C. Sung, S.Y. Wang, and Y.B. Lin, “
NCTUns

Simulation Tool for WiMAX Modeling,” Third Annual International Wireless Internet Conference,
October 22


24, 2007, Austin, Texas, USA. (EI and ISI indexed, sponsored by ICST, ACM, and EURASIP)


[SH06] N.B. Salem and J.P.
Hubaux
, "Securing Wireless Mesh Networks," Wireless Comm., vol. 13, no. 2, 2006, pp. 50

55.


[PSC06] Michael Purvis, Jeffrey
Sambells
, and Cameron Turner, “Beginning Google Maps Applications with PHP and Ajax”,
Apress
, 2006.


[Goog01] Google Maps JavaScript V3, <
http://code.google.com/apis/maps/documentation/javascript/
>


Masters Thesis Philip Huynh


Spring 2011