History-Social Science Framework Draft Chapter 3 - California ...

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History

Social Science Framework
Field Review Draft

Chapter 3




Copyright © California Department of Education

July 17
, 2009


43

Chapter 3: Course Descriptions for Kindergarten
T
hrough Grade
1

Five

2

When teachers employ engaging and thoughtful history

social science
3

instruction
at

the primary grade

level
s, students can connect to
people, ordinary
4

and extraordinary, who came before and

whose stories build sensitivity and
5

appreciation for times past and for the long continuity of human experience.

6

Moreover, history

social science instruction in
kindergarten through grade five

7

provides teachers with multiple opportunities to develop
a fou
ndation of civic
8

knowledge needed for participation in a democratic society.

9

Developmental Considerations
: Kindergarten
T
hrough Grade Two

10

Students enter school with spatial, temporal, and causal understandings
11

learned at home, in their communities
,

and in
early school experiences. The
12

primary curriculum builds on this knowledge to develop an ever
-
expanding sense
13

of place within the world. To extend these understandings, teachers must
14

recognize the critical role of students’ previous learning

learning anchor
ed in
15

the young child’s language, family, and immediate world. These primary studies,
16

therefore, begin by centering first on the child’s immediate present and/or prior
17

knowledge
and
then move spatially outward to develop important linkages with
18

the larger
geographic, historical, political, and economic world.


19

The primary curriculum introduces important concepts in history

social
20

science
,

concepts
that

serve as building blocks for later grade

level
s while
21

providing rich opportunities for students to learn a
cademic language, read and
22

write expository texts, and develop higher
-
level thinking and problem
-
solving
23

History

Social Science Framework
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Chapter 3




Copyright © California Department of Education

July 17
, 2009


44

skills. Creating opportunities for students to actively investigate the world through
24

observation, asking questions, discussion, drawing, reading, writ
ing, and other
25

visual and performing arts will engage students in the study of history

social
26

science while building conceptual knowledge, problem
-
solving and critical
-
27

thinking skills. As part of their history

social science instruction, students need
28

oppo
rtunities to practice the
k
indergarten
t
hrough
g
rade
f
ive Historical and Social
29

Sciences Analysis Skills.
The analysis skills provide a roadmap for teach
ing the
30

content standards and

the kinds of intellectual skills and habits of mind to
31

develop. For examp
le, students develop chronological thinking through making
32

and reading timelines that correspond to their unit of study.
They begin to
33

develop geographic skills by using maps to identify the absolute and relative
34

locations of places and environments.
Stude
nts also begin to develop civic skills
35

by participating in rule
-
making processes in their classrooms, decision
-
making
36

scenarios, and service
-
learning activities that address real problems in their
37

school or communities.

Finally, students at this level are
beginning to identify
38

themselves as economic
figures

and to learn how to conduct cost
-
benefit
39

analyses by reviewing their personal economic choices and understand the cost
40

of those choices.

41

Developmental Considerations
: Grades Three
T
hrough Five

42

In the la
ter elementary grades, students broaden their study from themselves
43

and their immediate surroundings to their locality, state, and nation. They
44

continue to develop the skills introduce
d

in
k
indergarten through grade two but
45

with greater depth and complexit
y. Students in this age group are better able to
46

History

Social Science Framework
Field Review Draft

Chapter 3




Copyright © California Department of Education

July 17
, 2009


45

grasp more abstract concepts, although they continue to apply those concepts to
47

concrete examples.
Students begin to use and differentiate between primary and
48

secondary sources as well as ask questions of th
ese sources as they study
49

history. Students
continue to
develop spatial thinking skills as they use maps and
50

globe skills
to

analyze how the advantages and disadvantages of a place can
51

change over time.

They also continue to develop their civic skills thro
ugh the
52

study of the workings of local, state, and national government.
S
tudents apply
53

cost
-
benefit analyses on a broader scale to improve their understanding of the
54

workings of the larger economic world around them.

55


56

The course titles for each grade level

are as follows:

57

Kindergarten

Learning and Working Now and Long Ago

58

Learning and Working Together

59

National and State Symbols

60

Working Now and Long Ago

61

Geography of the Neighborhood

62

Time and Chronology

63

Reaching Out to Times Past

64

Grade One

A Child’s Place in
Time and Space

65

The Rights and Responsibilities of Citizenship

66

Geography of the Community

67

Symbols, Icons, and Traditions of the United States

68

Life Today and Long Ago

69

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Social Science Framework
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Chapter 3




Copyright © California Department of Education

July 17
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Cultural Literacy: One Nation, Many People

70

Economics
:

Goods and Services

71

Grade Two

People W
ho Make a Difference

72

Families Today and in the Past

73

Geography and Mapping Skills: People, Places, and Environments

74

Government Institutions and Practices

75

Economics: People Who Supply Our
Goods and Services

76

Biographies: People Who Made A Difference

77

Grade Thr
ee

Continuity and Change

78

Geography of the Local Region

79

American Indians of the Local Region

80

Development of the Local Community: Change Over Time

81

American Citizens, Symbols, and Government

82

Economics of the Local Region
: Choices
,

Costs,
and
Human Capital

83

Gra
de Four

California: A Changing State

84

Physical and Human Geographic Features that Define California

85

Pre
-
Columbian Settlements and People

86

European Exploration and Colonial History

87

Missions, Ranchos, and the Mexican War for Independence

88

The Gold Rush and Stat
ehood

89

California as an Agricultural and Industrial Power

90

Modern California: Immigration, Technology, and Cities

91

Local, State, and Federal Government
s

92

History

Social Science Framework
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Chapter 3




Copyright © California Department of Education

July 17
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47

Grade Five

United States History and Geography: Making a New Nation

93

The Land and People Before Columbus

94

A
ge of Exploration

95

Cooperation and Conflict in North America

96

Settling the Colonies

97

Southern Colonies

98

Life in New England

99

The Middle Colonies

100

The Road to War

101

The American Revolution

102

The Development and Significance of the U. S. Constitution

103

Life in the Young

Republic

104

The New Nation’s Westward Expansion

105

106

History

Social Science Framework
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Chapter 3




Copyright © California Department of Education

July 17
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48

Histor
ical
and Social Sciences Analysis Skills

107

Kindergarten Through Grade Five

108


109

The intellectual skills noted below are to be learned through, and applied to, the
110

content standards for kindergarten through gra
de five. They are to be assessed
111

only in conjunction with
the content standards in kindergarten through grade five.

112

In addition to the standards for kindergarten through grade five, students
113

demonstrate the following intellectual, reasoning, reflection, a
nd research skills:

114

Chronological and Spatial Thinking

115

1.

Students place key events and people of the historical era they are
116

studying in a chronological sequence and within a spatial context; they
117

interpret time lines.

118

2.

Students correctly apply terms relat
ed to time, including
past, present,
119

future, decade, century,
and
generation.

120

3.

Students explain how the present is connected to the past, identifying both
121

similarities and differences between the two, and how some things change
122

over time and some things st
ay the same.

123

4.

Students use map and globe skills to determine the absolute locations of
124

places and interpret information available through a map's or globe's
125

legend, scale, and symbolic representations.

126

5.

Students judge the significance of the relative locat
ion of a place (e.g.,
127

proximity to a harbor, on trade routes) and analyze how relative
128

advantages or disadvantages can change over time.

129

History

Social Science Framework
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Chapter 3




Copyright © California Department of Education

July 17
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Research, Evidence, and Point of View

130

1.

Students differentiate between primary and secondary sources.

131

2.

Students pose re
levant questions about events they encounter in historical
132

documents, eyewitness accounts, oral histories, letters, diaries, artifacts,
133

photographs, maps, artworks, and architecture.

134

3.

Students distinguish fact from fiction by comparing documentary sources
135

on historical figures and events with fictionalized characters and events.

136

Historical Interpretation

137

1.

Students summarize the key events of the era they are studying and
138

explain the historical contexts of those events.

139

2.

Students identify the human and physi
cal characteristics of the places
140

they are studying and explain how those features form the unique
141

character of those places.

142

3.

Students identify and interpret the multiple causes and effects of historical
143

events.

144

4.

Students conduct cost
-
benefit analyses of
historical and current events.

145

146

History

Social Science Framework
Field Review Draft

Chapter 3




Copyright © California Department of Education

July 17
, 2009


50

Kindergarten

-

Learning and Working Now and Long Ago

147


In kindergarten, students begin the study of history

social science with
148

concepts anchored in the experiences they bring to school from their families and
149

communities
.
S
tudents explore being a good citizen, national symbols, work now
150

and long ago, geography, time and chronology, and life in the past. Teachers are
151

encouraged to build understanding of history

social science concepts while
152

furthering beginning literacy skill
s as outlined in
English

Language Arts Content
153

Standards.

For example, shared readings of narrative and expository text related
154

to the history

social science standards can reinforce academic content
155

vocabulary, concepts about print, phonemic awareness, and

the alphabetic
156

principl
e
.

157


158

Learning and Working Together

159


In Standard K.1, students explore the meaning of good citizenship by learning
160

about rules and working together
, as well as the basic idea of government
.
161

Teachers may use classroom problems that ar
ise as opportunities for critical
162

thinking and problem solving; for example, problems in sharing scarce resources
163

or space with others or in planning ahead and ending one’s activity to be on time
164

for the next activity teach students to function as a commun
ity of learners.
165

Students need help in analyzing problems; considering why the problem arose;
166

considering other alternatives; developing awareness of how alternative
167

behaviors might bring different results; and learning to appreciate behaviors and
168

values t
hat are consistent with the democratic ethic.
Students and teachers can
169

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Social Science Framework
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July 17
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dramatize issues that create conflict on the playground, in the classroom, and at
170

a home and brainstorm solutions that exemplify compromise, cooperation, and
171

respect for rules and laws
.
Students must have opportunities to discuss these
172

more desirable behaviors, try them out, and examine how they lead to more
173

harmonious and socially satisfying relationships with others.

174

Students also need guidance in understanding the purpose of rules an
d laws
175

and why a government is necessary. Teachers can discuss rules at home and at
176

school and ask why they are important. What happens when rules are not
177

followed? Students can help create classroom rules for the purpose of
178

establishing a safe environment

where learning can occur. Students can also
179

discuss possible consequences for breaking these rules.

180

Students further their study of good citizenship by learning about people who
181

exhibit honesty, courage, determination, individual responsibility, and patri
otism
182

in American and world history. Teachers may introduce students to important
183

historical figures who exhibit these characteristics by reading biographies such
184

as Now and Ben: The Modern Inventions of Benjamin Franklin

by Gene Bar
r
etta,
185

Harvesting Hope:

The Story of Cesar Chavez
by Kathleen Krull, and
The Story of
186

Ruby Bridges

by Robert Coles.

187

Stories, fairy tales, and nursery rhymes that incorporate conflict and raise
188

value issues that are both interesting and understandable
to

young students are
189

effect
ive tools for citizenship education. Students deepen their understanding of
190

good citizenship by identifying the behavior of characters in the stories, observe
191

the effect of this behavior on others, examine why characters behaved as they
192

History

Social Science Framework
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Chapter 3




Copyright © California Department of Education

July 17
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52

did, and consider w
hether other choices could have changed the results. These
193

discussions are intended to help them acquire those values of deliberation and
194

individual responsibility that are consistent with being a good citizen in a
195

democratic nation. A few examples of such

stories are “Jack and the Beanstalk,”
196

“Goldilocks and the Three Bears,” selections from Aesop’s Fables,

Tortillitas para
197

Mama

(Margot
G
riego), Helen Lester’s
Me First
,
and Virginia Hamilton’s
The
198

People Could Fly.

199


200

National and State Symbols

201

Kindergarten
students explore the strands of national identity and cultural
202

literacy by learning about national and state symbols in Standard K.2. Students
203

should learn to recognize national and state symbols such as the national and
204

state flags, the bald eagle, and th
e Statue of Liberty and how these symbols
205

relate to America’s cultural and national identity.
Students can discuss the values
206

and principles in these symbols, such as individual rights, common good, justice,
207

equality, and truth.
The teacher may choose to i
ntegrate this standard with
208

Standards K.6.1 and K.6.2 and create a larger unit on national symbols, holidays,
209

and important Americans.

Literature, such as
America the Beautiful

(Katherine
210

Lee Bate
s
)
;

Fireworks, Picnics, and Flags

(Jim Giblin)
;

and
Purple M
ountain
211

Majesties
(Barbara Younger), can both engage and develop student
212

understanding of these standards. In addition, songs such as Woody Guthrie’s
213


This Land
I
s Your Land
,”


America the Beautiful
,”
and the

Star Spangled
214

Banner


all support student enga
gement and learning.

215

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Social Science Framework
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July 17
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216

Work Now and Long Ago

217


In Standard K.3, students learn about the different types of jobs and work of
218

people in their school and their local community. This standard can be integrated
219

with Standard K.4
;

as students construct school and

neighborhood maps and talk
220

about neighborhood structures such as the fire station, markets, houses, banks,
221

and hospitals, the jobs and workers can be introduced as well. As students learn
222

about daily life in the past in Standard K.6, teachers can discuss
ways in which
223

work and jobs have changed or remained the same over time.

Students should
224

understand that one purpose of school is to develop their skills and knowledge
225

and that this is as important as any job in the community. Working collaboratively
226

to do

tasks, s
tudents can practice problem solving, conflict resolution, and taking
227

personal responsibility.

228



229

Geography of the Neighborhood

230

Students begin the study of geography by exploring the immediate
231

environment of the school and their neighborhood, inclu
ding its topography,
232

streets, transportation systems, structures, and human activities in Standard
K.4
.
233

Teachers may provide students
with
opportunities to use a variety of materials
234

such as large building blocks, wood, tools, toys
, and other recycled obje
cts

to
235

construct neighborhood structures. Activities in these centers carried on through
236

group play become important beginnings of map work for young students.
237

Students are encouraged to build neighborhoods and landscapes and to
238

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Social Science Framework
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July 17
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54

incorporate such structures

as fire stations, airports, houses, banks, hospitals,
239

supermarkets, harbors, and trans
portation lines. Picture files, stories, and
240

informational texts should be used to deepen students’ information about the
241

places they are creating and the work that is
done in these places.

242


243

Time and Chronology

244


Learning about the calendar, days of the week, and months of the year are
245

important first steps towards understanding time and chronology in Standard K.5.
246

Chronological thinking can be enhanced by constructing t
imelines of the
247

kindergarten day, practicing sequencing of a story, and learning words such as
248

first, next, then,
and

finally

while sequencing story events.

249



250

Reaching Out to Times Past

251


In Standard K.6, students take their first vicarious steps into time
s past to
252

develop historical literacy and explore the theme of continuity and change.
253

Students learn about national holidays and their purposes, as well as the events
254

associated with them. Teachers may read historical accounts of famous
255

Americans which fur
ther students’ understanding of national identity and cultural
256

literacy.

257


Students also study the past and consider how life was the same
as
or
258

different
from

their lives. For example, students may learn that getting water from
259

a well, growing food and rai
sing livestock, and making clothing are examples of
260

how the past may be different from their lives today. Stories from the
My

First
261

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Social Science Framework
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Chapter 3




Copyright © California Department of Education

July 17
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55

Little House

Books

series and informational books that illustrate the work and
262

daily lives of characters and people in the p
ast can help students develop
263

historical empathy and understand life in the past. Primary sources can be
264

introduced by using photographs of transportation, homes, work, common
265

household items, and clothing while discussing which aspects of these items
266

have

changed and remained the same and what this tells us about life in the
267

past.

268


269

History

Social Science Content Standards

270

Kindergarten

271

Learning and Working Now and Long Ago

272



273

K.1 Students understand that being a good citizen involves acting in
274

certain ways.


275

1.

Follow rules, such as sharing and taking turns, and know the
276

consequences of breaking them.

277

2.

Learn examples of honesty, courage, determination, individual
278

responsibility, and patriotism in American and world history from stories
279

and folklore.

280

3.

Know belie
fs and related behaviors of characters in stories from times
281

past and understand the consequences of the characters' actions.

282

K.2 Students recognize national and state symbols and icons such as the
283

national and state flags, the bald eagle, and the Statue
of Liberty.

284

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Social Science Framework
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July 17
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56

K.3 Students match simple descriptions of work that people do and the
285

names of related jobs at the school, in the local community, and from
286

historical accounts.

287

K.4 Students compare and contrast the locations of people, places, and
288

environmen
ts and describe their characteristics.

289

1.

Determine the relative locations of objects using the terms near/far,
290

left/right, and behind/in front.

291

2.

Distinguish between land and water on maps and globes and locate
292

general areas referenced in historical legends
and stories.

293

3.

Identify traffic symbols and map symbols (e.g., those for land, water,
294

roads, cities).

295

4.

Construct maps and models of neighborhoods, incorporating such
296

structures as police and fire stations, airports, banks, hospitals,
297

supermarkets, harbors,
schools, homes, places of worship, and
298

transportation lines.

299

5.

Demonstrate familiarity with the school's layout, environs, and the jobs
300

people do there.

301

K.5 Students put events in temporal order using a calendar, placing days,
302

weeks, and months in proper o
rder.

303

K.6 Students understand that history relates to events, people, and places
304

of other times.

305

1.

Identify the purposes of, and the people and events honored in,
306

commemorative holidays, including the human struggles that were the
307

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Social Science Framework
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Chapter 3




Copyright © California Department of Education

July 17
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basis for the events (e.g
., Thanksgiving, Independence Day, Washington's
308

and Lincoln's Birthdays, Martin Luther King Jr. Day, Memorial Day, Labor
309

Day, Columbus Day, Veterans Day).

310

2.

Know the triumphs in American legends and historical accounts through
311

the stories of such people as
Pocahontas, George Washington, Booker T.
312

Washington, Daniel Boone, and Benjamin Franklin.

313

3.

Understand how people lived in earlier times and how their lives would be
314

different today (e.g., getting water from a well, growing food, making
315

clothing, having fun
, forming organizations, living by rules and laws).

316

317

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Grade One

-

A Child’s Place in Time and Space

318


Students in the first grade are ready to learn more about the world they live in
319

and about their responsibilities to other people. They begin to learn how
320

n
ecessary it is for people and groups to work together and how to resolve
321

problems through cooperation. Students


expanding sense of place and spatial
322

relationships provides readiness for new geographic learning and a deeper
323

understanding of chronology. Stu
dents also are ready to develop a deeper
324

understanding of cultural diversity and to appreciate the many people from
325

various backgrounds and ways of life that exist in the larger world that they are
326

now beginning to explore. Students also begin to develop e
conomic literacy as
327

they learn about work both in and outside the home and the exchange of goods
328

and services for money.

329


330

The Rights and Responsibilities of Citizenship

331

Students learn about the values of fair play and good sportsmanship, respect
332

for the ri
ghts and opinions of others, and
build on their understanding of
respect
333

for rules by which we all must live.
Students can discuss the class roles and
334

understand how they developed. They can also consider the questions: who is
335

responsible for enforcing the

rules? What are the consequences if these rules
336

are broken? This year teachers can divide the class into two groups
: one

to
337

create rules

and one to

evaluate the fairness of the rules. What criteria can
338

students use to determine what makes a rule fair

or u
nfair?

Emphasis should be
339

placed on having the students solve the social problems and decision
-
making
340

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dilemmas that naturally arise in the classroom; for example, problems in sharing
341

scarce supplies
,
bullying students perceived as different
,

or in deciding

how best
342

to proceed on a group project when a dilemma arises. In using this approach,
343

students will learn that problems are a normal and recurring feature of social life
344

and that they have the capacity to examine and solve problems.

345

Teachers can also intr
oduce value
-
laden problems for discussion through
346

reading stories and fairy tales that pose dilemmas appropriate for young
347

students
, such as Paul Galdone’s
The Monkey and the Crocodile
, Lenny Hort’s
348

The Boy Who Held Back the Sea
, and Francisco Jimenez’
La
Mariposa
.
Through
349

listening to these stories and through the discussions and writing activities that
350

follow, students gain deeper under
standings of individual
rights and responsibility
351

as well as
social behavior. Throughout these lessons the teacher’s pur
pose is to
352

help students develop those civic values that are important in a democratic
353

society.

Students can again be given jobs in the classroom. Practicing
354

democratic processes in the classroom helps

students

learn

content and develop
355

social responsibili
ty
.

356

Teachers may illustrate a direct democracy and a representative democracy
357

by demonstrating how these work in the classroom setting. To teach about a
358

direct democracy, all students can vote on classroom decisions such as which
359

game will be played on a r
ainy day or which type of math manipulative will be
360

used to build patterns.
Hold a class vote using different methods (for example,
361

raising hands or casting secret ballots). Discuss the process and the outcome.
362

Was it important to have everyone vote?
Make
sure students understand that
363

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everyone had a direct voice in the decision.
Allowing students to select
364

classroom leaders or table leaders who will then make classroom decisions is a
365

way to model a representative democracy. The advantages and disadvantages
366

of these two models can then be discussed with the students to help them
367

develop a beginning understanding of citizenship and government.

368


369

Geography of the Community

370

Students


growing sense of place and spatial relationships make possible
371

important new geo
graphic learning in grade one.
To develop geographic literacy,
372

t
eachers can build on students


sense of their neighborhood and the places
373

students

regularly go

to in order

to shop, play, and visit.
Students demonstrate
374

their knowledge of this standard by
m
aking a map of their neighborhood, town,
375

and county and then
labeling a map with California, the United States, the
376

continents
,

and oceans.
Books such as
Me on the Map

by Joan Sweeney and
377

Maps and Globes

by Jack Knowlton may be used to teach students about

378

cartography as well as build conceptual knowledge of community, city, state,
379

country, continent, and world.

380


Students may construct a three
-
dimensional floor or table map of their
381

immediate geographic region. Such an activity helps develop students’
382

obser
vational skills and spatial relationships and teaches the concepts of
383

absolute and relative locations of people and places. Comparing the floor or table
384

map to a picture map of this same region will help students make the
385

connections between geographic fea
tures in the field, three
-
dimensional models
386

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of this region, and two
-
dimensional pictures or symbolic maps. Students should
387

observe that the picture
-
symbol map “tells the same story” as the floor model but
388

does so at a smaller scale. The picture
-
symbol map

can also be hung upright
389

without changing the spatial arrangement of these features and without altering
390

their relationships to one another; for example, the supermarket is still north of
391

the post office. These critical understandings are important in dev
eloping reading
392

and interpretation skills with maps.

393

Finally, students learn how location, weather, and physical environment affect
394

the way people live, including the effects on their food, clothing, shelter,
395

transportation, and recreation. Teachers may co
nnect the learning about the
396

interactions between the environment and people to
S
tandards
1.5 and 1.6.

397


398

Symbols, Icons, and Traditions of the United States

399

First grade students deepen their understanding of national identity and
400

cultural literacy by learni
ng about national and state symbols

(Standard 1.3)
.
401

Students learn to recite the Pledge of Allegiance and sing songs that express
402

American ideals (e.g., “
You’re a Grand Old Flag
”). They begin to understand the
403

significance of national holidays and the hero
ism and achievements of the people
404

associated with them. They also learn to identify
and understand
American
405

symbols, landmarks, and essential documents, such as the flag, bald eagle,
406

Statue of Liberty, U.S. Constitution, and Declaration of Independence, a
nd know
407

the people
, ideas, and

events associated with them. Teachers should focus on
408

how these symbols provide a sense of identity for Americans and a sense of
409

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62

community across time.

L
iterature

such as Deborah Kent’s
Lincoln Memorial
,
410

Ann McGovern’s
The Pi
lgrim’s First Thanksgiving
, Lucille Recht Penner’s
The
411

Statue of Liberty
, and Patricia Ryon Quiri’s

The National Anthem
,
can promote
412

student learning. Students can create a class “big book” of American symbols
413

reinforcing the idea of the United States as o
ne nation made up of peoples from
414

around the world who share common democratic values and beliefs. Teachers
415

can read to students

The Wall
, by Eve Bunting, which helps them to understand
416

the symbolic nature of monuments and how they represent civic values.

417


418

Life Today and Long Ago

419


In Standard 1.4, students learn about times past and with an emphasis on
420

continuity and change. The focus is to compare different times and different
421

places and how certain aspects of life change over time while some things stay
422

t
he same. Schools, communities, and transportation of the past provide areas of
423

study that students are familiar with in the present. Teachers can also examine
424

such areas as work, clothing, games, and holidays to compare with the students


425

lives today. Info
rmational books and stories
,

such as
My Great Aunt Arizona
by
426

Gloria Houston
,

can help students develop historical empathy and understand life
427

in the past. Primary sources can be introduced by using photographs (and videos
428

or artifacts) of schools, transpo
rtation, and clothing.

429


430

Cultural Literacy: One Nation, Many People

431

This standard focuses on the people from many places, cultures, and
432

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religions who live in the United States and who have contributed to its richness.
433

Through stories of today as well as fo
lktales and legends, students discover the
434

many ways in which people, families, and cultural groups are alike despite their
435

varied ancestry. Teachers should utilize quality literature such as
Everybody
436

Cooks Rice

by Norah Dooley
,

Whoever You Are

by Mem Fox
,

and Cinderella
437

stories for multiple cultures, such as
Jouanah: A Hmong Cinderella

by
Jewell
438

Reinhart Coburn and Tzexa Cherta Lee,
to teach and reinforce these concepts.

439

In developing this unit of study, teachers draw first from the rich fund of
440

literatur
e and folklore from those cultures represented among the families in the
441

classroom and school. Then, as time allows, teachers can introduce literature
442

from other cultures for comparison
,

emphasizing

on how American Indians and
443

immigrants have helped to def
ine California and America. Throughout this unit
,

444

opportunities for students to discuss and dramatize these stories and analyze
445

what these stories tell about the culture are critical. Understanding similarities
446

and differences of people from various cultur
al backgrounds allow
s

students to
447

have increased awareness of
the
beliefs, customs, and traditions of others.

448


449

Economics: Goods and Services

450

In Standard 1.6, students acquire a beginning understanding of economics;
451

for example, the use of money to purchas
e goods and services
,

and of the
452

specialized work that people do to manufacture, transport, and market such
453

goods and services. People exchange money for the goods and services they
454

want and because money is limited, people make choices about how to spend
455

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their money.

456


This standard can be taught in conjunction with, or build upon the geographic
457

exploration of the neighborhood and community. Students at this age level learn
458

that the place where they live is interconnected with the wider world. This may
459

incl
ude a focus on the trucks and railroad lines that bring products to this
460

neighborhood for eventual sale in its stores; to an industrial region, near or far
461

away, producing one or more needed products, such as bricks and building
462

materials for new home cons
truction or clothing for the stores; and to the airport
463

or regional harbor that links this place with producers, suppliers, and families
464

throughout the world.


465



Students can continue their development of analytical skills by identifying the
466

costs of thei
r decisions.
They should recognize that a cost is what is given up in
467

gaining something. This fits with the economic concept of exchange. When
468

students trade, they gain something and they give something up. What they give
469

up is the cost of the choice. It s
hould be emphasized that every choice has a cost
470

(a simple example is the story of the three little pigs, where two of the pigs give
471

up safety for play).

472

At the same time students may enjoy literature that brings these activities
473

alive and that builds sen
sitivity toward the many people who work together to get
474

their jobs done. Stories such as
T
he Tortilla Factory
by Gary Paulsen illustrate
475

the values of compassion, working together, and perseverance.

476


477

History

Social Science Content Standards

478

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Grade One

479

A C
hild's Place in Time and Space

480


481

1.1 Students describe the rights and individual responsibilities of
482

citizenship.

483

1.

Understand the rule
-
making process in a direct democracy (everyone
484

votes on the rules) and in a representative democracy (an elected group
485

of

people makes the rules), giving examples of both systems in their
486

classroom, school, and community.

487

2.

Understand the elements of fair play and good sportsmanship, respect for
488

the rights and opinions of others, and respect for rules by which we live,
489

includ
ing the meaning of the "Golden Rule."

490

1.2 Students compare and contrast the absolute and relative locations of
491

places and people and describe the physical and/ or human characteristics
492

of places.

493

1.

Locate on maps and globes their local community, Californi
a, the United
494

States, the seven continents, and the four oceans.

495

2.

Compare the information that can be derived from a three
-
dimensional
496

model to the information that can be derived from a picture of the same
497

location.

498

3.

Construct a simple map, using cardinal

directions and map symbols.

499

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4.

Describe how location, weather, and physical environment affect the way
500

people live, including the effects on their food, clothing, shelter,
501

transportation, and recreation.

502

1.3 Students know and understand the symbols, icons,

and traditions of
503

the United States that provide continuity and a sense of community across
504

time.

505

1.

Recite the Pledge of Allegiance and sing songs that express American
506

ideals (e.g., "America").

507

2.

Understand the significance of our national holidays and the

heroism and
508

achievements of the people associated with them.

509

3.

Identify American symbols, landmarks, and essential documents, such as
510

the flag, bald eagle, Statue of Liberty, U.S. Constitution, and Declaration
511

of Independence, and know the people and event
s associated with them.

512

1.4 Students compare and contrast everyday life in different times and
513

places around the world and recognize that some aspects of people,
514

places, and things change over time while others stay the same.

515

1.

Examine the structure of sch
ools and communities in the past.

516

2.

Study transportation methods of earlier days.

517

3.

Recognize similarities and differences of earlier generations in such areas
518

as work (inside and outside the home), dress, manners, stories, games,
519

and festivals, drawing from

biographies, oral histories, and folklore.

520

1.5 Students describe the human characteristics of familiar places and the
521

varied backgrounds of American citizens and residents in those places.

522

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1.

Recognize the ways in which they are all part of the same commun
ity,
523

sharing principles, goals, and traditions despite their varied ancestry; the
524

forms of diversity in their school and community; and the benefits and
525

challenges of a diverse population.

526

2.

Understand the ways in which American Indians and immigrants have
527

helped define Californian and American culture.

528

3.

Compare the beliefs, customs, ceremonies, traditions, and social practices
529

of the varied cultures, drawing from folklore.

530

1. 6 Students understand basic economic concepts and the role of
531

individual choice i
n a free
-
market economy.

532

1.

Understand the concept of exchange and the use of money to purchase
533

goods and services.

534

2.

Identify the specialized work that people do to manufacture, transport, and
535

market goods and services and the contributions of those who work

in the
536

home.

537

538

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Grade Two

-

People Who Make a Difference

539


S
tudents in the second grade are ready to learn about people who make a
540

difference in their own lives and who have made a difference in the pas
t
. They
541

develop their
own
identities as people who have

places in their communities
.
542

Students start their study of people who make a differe
nce
by

study
ing the

543

families and
people they k
now
.
Students themselves
can
make a difference by

544

engaging in service
-
learning to improve their schools or communities.

545


546

Fami
lies Today and in the Past

547


In Standard 2.1, students develop a beginning sense of history through the
548

study of the family, a topic that is understandable and interesting to them.
549

Students are introduced to primary sources related to family history includi
ng
550

photographs, family trees, artifacts, and oral histories. Students study the history
551

of a family and may construct a history of their own family, a relative’s or
552

neighbor’s family, or a family from books or personal experience. In developing
553

these activ
ities, teachers need be sensitive to family privacy and protect the
554

wishes of students and parents who prefer not to include their families in these
555

activities.

556


Members of students’ families can be invited to tell about the experiences of
557

their families.
Quality literature books may be shared to help students acquire
558

deeper insights into life in the past and the cultures from which the families came;
559

the stories, games, and festivals parents or grandparents might have enjoyed as
560

students; the work that stu
dents as well as their families would have been
561

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69

expected to do; their religious practices; and the dress, manners, and morals
562

expected of family members at that time. Students are encouraged to compare
563

and contrast their daily lives with those of families
who have lived in the past.

To
564

deepen student understanding and engagement, students can read
Dear Juno

565

by Soyung Pak and
The Boy with Long Hair

by Pushpinder (Kaur) Singh.

566


In this standard, students also develop the concept of chronological thinking
567

as
they construct timelines to place important events in their lives in the order in
568

which they occurred. Students can construct timelines of their school day

and

569

important events in their lives and family members’ lives.

570


571

Geography and Mapping Skills: People
, Places, and Environments

572


In Standard 2.2, students learn to describe the absolute and relative locations
573

of people, places, and environments. Students learn to locate specific locations
574

and geographic features in their neighborhood or community using a
simple
575

letter
-
number grid system. Maps should be utilized frequently to provide practice
576

in the
us
e of

map elements such as title, legend, directional indicator, scale, and
577

date. Students demonstrate their knowledge of this standard by labeling a North
578

Ame
rican map with the

names of

countries, oceans,
g
reat
l
akes, major rivers,
579

and mountain ranges.

580


Students may utilize
world
maps to locate places of family origin as part of the
581

study of family history in Standard 2.1. This allows the geographic theme of
582

mo
vement to be explored
--
why people move from place to place, as well as how
583

and why they made the trip.

584

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Students also compare and contrast basic land use in urban, suburban, and
585

rural environments in California. Maps, photographs, informational books
,

and

586

W
eb resources can be used to explore differences in
and environmental impact
s

587

of
land use. This standard may be explored as part of the study of farming and
588

moving food from the farm to the market in Standard 2.4.

589


590

Government Institutions and Practices

591


In Standard 2.3, students learn about governmental institutions and practices
592

in the United States and other countries.
Students continue to develop their
593

understanding of rules and laws, the role of government, and rights and
594

responsibilities.
To help stu
dents

deepen their

understand
ing of

these concepts,
595

informational books about government and the three branches of government
596

may be utilized. Teachers may carry out a classroom simulation of the three
597

branches of government to teach this concept as well a
s use literature books
598

such as
House Mouse Senate Mouse
and other books in the series by Cheryl
599

Shaw Barnes and Peter W. Barnes
that

explain the branches of government in a
600

developmentally appropriate manner. To learn the ways in which groups and
601

nations i
nteract with one another and resolve their problems, the teacher may
602

relate these concepts to familial and classroom rules and structures and how
603

problems are solved in these more familiar settings.

604


Teachers can also discuss situations in which rules are
important at home, at
605

school, in the city, in the state, and in the country and then ask students to
606

explain what happens if someone on the playground refuses to play a game by
607

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71

the rules. Students can select one rule and use language

arts skills to create
a
608

story about why this rule is important and how life would be different without it.
609

Teachers can discuss school rules with students and how school rules are made
.

610

Students

use analytic skills to consider questions such as
:

i
s the school too large
611

for ever
yone to discuss and vote on a decision?
S
tudents can discuss
the

major
612

things governments do in the school, community, state, and nation and
give a
613

basic description of government at the
end

of the year
.

614


615

Economics: People Who Supply Our
Goods and Services

616


Standard 2.4 develops students’ economic literacy and appreciation of the
617

many people who work to supply
the products they use
. Emphasis in this unit is
618

given to those who supply food: people who grow and harvest cash crops such
619

as wheat, vegetables, and

fruit; workers who supply dairy products

such as milk,
620

butter, and cheese
; and processors and distributors who move the food from
621

farm to market.
Throughout this study, students learn basic economic concepts
622

of human wants, scarcity
,

and choice; the impor
tance of specialization in work
623

today.
In addition, students consider the interdependence of consumers,
624

producers, processors, and distributors in bringing food to market. Students also
625

develop an understanding of their roles as consumers in a complex econ
omy.
626

Ox
-
Cart Man

by Donald Hall is an engaging read that can help students develop
627

their understanding of these economic concepts.

628


As part of these studies, student explore geographic connections such as
629

how climate affects the crops a farmer grows, how

farmers protect their crops
630

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against untimely frosts or drought, the importance of water, and how irrigation
631

systems work.

632


To engage students’ interest and to help them develop an understanding of
633

the complex interdependence among the many workers in the
food industry,
634

graphic organizers or flow charts may be used to illustrate these relationships.
635

Students can observe the many linkages between their homes, the markets that
636

supply their food, the places where people work to produce their food, and the
637

tran
spor
tation systems that move these products from farm to processor to
638

market.
Field trips to local businesses and b
ooks such as
From Wheat to Pasta

639

by Robert Egan,
From Cow to Ice Cream
by Bertram T. Knight, or
Farming

by
640

Gail Gibbons are helpful for illu
strating the concepts.

641


642

Biographies: People Who Made

a
Difference

643


In Standard 2.5, the students will be introduced to the many people, ordinary
644

and extraordinary, who have contributed to their lives and made a difference. A
645

picture book
,

such as
Rosa

by N
ikki Giovanni
,

introduces students to an ordinary
646

person, Rosa Parks, whose actions made a tremendous difference in the lives of
647

others. Students learn about men, women and children whose contributions can
648

be appreciated by
young children

and whose achieve
ments have directly or
649

indirectly touched the students’ lives or the lives of others. Included, for example,
650

are scientists such as George Washington Carver, Marie Curie, Louis Pasteur,
651

Charles Drew, and Thomas Edison; authors; musicians, artists and athle
tes,
652

such as Jackie Robinson

and Wilma Rudolph
. Teachers may read biographies
653

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73

aloud as well as utilize biographies written at a variety of reading levels, such as
654

the Rookie Biography series, for students to read independently. As students
655

meet these heroe
s from long ago and the recent past, they understand the
656

importance of individual action and character in one’s life.
Students identify the
657

skills and knowledge that those people had that helped them achieve their goals.

658


Students can also make a differen
ce. Students can work together in groups to
659

brainstorm problems that exist at their school and in their community, such as
660

litter or bullying. Students can evaluate and vote on a solution, which for litter
661

might include hosting a clean
-
up day, increasing r
ecycling, or working to change
662

a rule. Students can create a plan and work in teams to carry it out. Together
663

they can then evaluate their effectiveness. For example, is there less litter?

664


665

History

Social Science Content Standards

666

Grade Two

667

People Who Ma
ke a Difference

668


669

2.1 Students differentiate between things that happened long ago and
670

things that happened yesterday.

671

1.

Trace the history of a family through the use of primary and secondary
672

sources, including artifacts, photographs, interviews, and docume
nts.

673

2.

Compare and contrast their daily lives with those of their parents,
674

grandparents, and/or guardians.

675

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3.

Place important events in their lives in the order in which they occurred
676

(e.g., on a time line or storyboard).

677

2.2 Students demonstrate map skills
by describing the absolute and
678

relative locations of people, places, and environments.

679

1.

Locate on a simple letter
-
number grid system the specific locations and
680

geographic features in their neighborhood or community (e.g., map of the
681

classroom, the school).


682

2.

Label from memory a simple map of the North American continent,
683

including the countries, oceans, Great Lakes, major rivers, and mountain
684

ranges. Identify the essential map elements: title, legend, directional
685

indicator, scale, and date.

686

3.

Locate on a map
where their ancestors live(d), telling when the family
687

moved to the local community and how and why they made the trip.

688

4.

Compare and contrast basic land use in urban, suburban, and rural
689

environments in California.

690

2.3 Students explain governmental instit
utions and practices in the United
691

States and other countries.

692

1.

Explain how the United States and other countries make laws, carry out
693

laws, determine whether laws have been violated, and punish
694

wrongdoers.

695

2.

Describe the ways in which groups and nations in
teract with one another
696

to try to resolve problems in such areas as trade, cultural contacts,
697

treaties, diplomacy, and military force.

698

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2.4 Students understand basic economic concepts and their individual
699

roles in the economy and demonstrate basic economic

reasoning skills.

700

1.

Describe food production and consumption long ago and today, including
701

the roles of farmers, processors, distributors, weather, and land and water
702

resources.

703

2.

Understand the role and interdependence of buyers (consumers) and
704

sellers (pr
oducers) of goods and services.

705

3.

Understand how limits on resources affect production and consumption
706

(what to produce and what to consume).

707

2.5 Students understand the importance of individual action and character
708

and explain how heroes from long ago and

the recent past have made a
709

difference in others' lives (e.g., from biographies of Abraham Lincoln, Louis
710

Pasteur, Sitting Bull, George Washington Carver, Marie Curie, Albert
711

Einstein, Golda Meir, Jackie Robinson, Sally Ride).

712

713

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Grade Three

-

Continuity a
nd Change

714

Third
-
graders prepare for learning California

history in the fourth grade

and
715

United States history

in the f
ifth

grade

by thinking about continuity and change in
716

their local community. In exploring their local community, students have an
717

opportun
ity
to
make contact with times past and with the people whose activities
718

have left their mark on the land. In third grade, students build on their knowledge
719

of geography,

civics,

historical thinking, chronology, and national identity
. The

720

emphasis
is
on un
derstanding how some things change and others remain the
721

same. To understand changes occurring today, students explore the ways in
722

which their locality continues to evolve

and how they can contribute to
723

improvement of
their community
. Finally, teachers int
roduce students to the great
724

legacy of local, regional, and national traditions that provide common memories
725

and a shared sense of cultural and national identity. Students who have
726

constructed a family history in grade two are now ready to think about
727

cons
tructing a history of the place where they live today.
With sensitivity toward
728

children from transient families, teachers can ask s
tudents
to
recall how the
729

decision of their parents or grandparents to move to this place made an
730

important difference in the
ir lives. Discovering who these people were, when they
731

lived here, and how they used the land gives students a focus for grade three.

732


733

Geography of the Local Region

734


Throughout California, the geographic setting has had important effects on
735

where and how l
ocalities developed. Students begin their third grade studies with
736

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the natural landscape
. T
hus teachers may utilize photographs,
I
nternet
737

resources, DVDs, and field trips to establish familiarity with the major natural
738

features and landforms of their
count
y and California
. Students should have a
739

clear understanding of the mountains, valleys, hills, coastal areas, oceans, lakes,
740

desert landscapes, and other natural features of the region. In conducting
741

research for this activity, students learn to differenti
ate between major landforms
742

in the landscape and develop an understanding of the physical setting in which
743

their region’s history has unfolded.

By
studying

the Environmental Principles and
744

Concepts (and the associated curriculum provided by the Education a
nd the
745

Environment Initiative) as well as relevant science standards, children can
746

deepen their understanding of their local region.

747


748


American Indians of the Local Region

749

In Standard 3.2, students study the American Indians who lived in the
ir

local
750

regio
n, how they used the resources of this region, and in what ways they
751

modified the natural environment. It is most appropriate that American Indians
752

who lived in the region be authentically presented, including their tribal identity;
753

their social organizati
on and customs; the location of their villages and the
754

reasons for its locale; the structures they built and the relationship of these
755

structures to the climate; the methods they used to get their food, clothing, tools,
756

and utensils and whether they traded

with others for any of these things; and
757

their art and folklore. Museums that specialize in California Indian cultures are a
758

rich source of publications, pictures, and artifacts that can help students
759

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appreciate the daily lives and the adaptation of these

cultures to the environment
760

of the geographic region.

761


762

Development of the Local Community: Change Over Time

763

Students are now ready to consider those who migrated or immigrated to their
764

region and the impact each new group has had on those who came before
. To
765

organize this sequence of events, students may develop a community timeline by
766

illustrating these events and placing these illustrations in sequence with a caption
767

under each. Depending on the local history, this sequence may include the
768

explorers who

visited the area; the newcomers who settled there; the economy
769

they established; their impact on the American Indians of the region; and their
770

lasting marks on the landscape, including the buildings, streets, political
771

boundaries, names, and the rich lega
cy of cultural traditions that newcomers
772

have brought with them.

773

Students observe how their community has changed over time and also why
774

certain features have remained the same.
The House on Maple Street
,

by Bonnie
775

Pryor, demonstrates how a place changes o
ver 300 years and may be used to
776

introduce the study of students’ local community.
Other literature, specific to their
777

local region, can deepen their appreciation for and understanding of their
778

community.
Students compare the kinds of transportation people

used, the ways
779

in which people provided water for their growing community and farmlands, the
780

sources of power, and the kinds of work people engaged in long ago. They
781

discover that the changing history of their locality was, at all stages, closely
782

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related
to the physical geography of this region: its topography, soil, water,
783

mineral resources, and relative location. Students can analyze how successive
784

groups of settlers have made different uses of the land, depending on their skills,
785

technology, and values.

Students may observe how each period of settlement in
786

their locality left its mark on the land, and predict how decisions being made
787

today in their communities will impact their communities in the future.

Through
788

this focus on place, students also deepen
their understanding of California’s
789

environment
(
see

Appendix D
).


790

To bring earlier times alive, students may study historical photos and observe
791

the changes in the ways families lived, worked, played, dressed, and traveled.
792

Primary sources, such as maps a
nd photographs, can be utilized to observe how
793

a given place, such as Main Street, looked long ago and how it looks today.
794

Students can compare changes in their community with picture displays provided
795

by the teacher.

796

The local community newspaper, the his
torical society, or other community
797

organizations often can provide photos and articles on earlier events in the
798

region. When available, old maps can be a source of discoveries: the location of
799

the early ranchos that once occupied California; how people co
nstructed streets
800

in an earlier day and how many of them and their names survive today; how
801

boundaries have changed over the years and how settlements have grown; how
802

once
-
open fields have changed to dense urban development; how a river or
803

coastline has ch
anged in location or size because of a dam constructed
804

upstream, a great earthquake in the past, or breakwaters that have been built to
805

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change the action of the sea.

806


807

American Citizens, Symbols and Government

808

Third
-
grade students continue preparing to beco
me active and responsible
809

citizens of their communities, of California, and the United States.
In this unit,
810

students focus on developing and understanding citizenship, civic engagement,
811

the basic structure of government, and the lives of famous national a
nd local
812

Americans who took risks to secure freedoms. Through stories and the
813

celebration of local and national holidays, students learn the meaning of holidays,
814

landmarks and the symbols that provide continuity and a sense of community
815

across time. The U.
S. Constitution and the Declaration of Independence are
816

reintroduced.

Students can discuss the responsibilities of citizens, make a list
,

or
817

create an illustration of what is considered a “good citizen.”

818

Students learn about the legislative, executive, and

judicial branches of
819

government with an emphasis on the local government. Teachers may use
820

literature
and role plays by reading
The True Story of the Three Little Pigs
by Jon
821

Scieska and holding

a mock trial of Pig Brothers versus

A. Wolf. Teachers can
822

al
so use

informational texts such as
How the U.S. Government Works

by Syl
823

Sobel well
as information from local, state, and United States government
W
eb

824

sites
,

such as

http://www.Kids.gov
,

to help students understand the f
unctions of
825

government and the people who are

part of each level and branch.
Students can
826

also write a classroom constitution. In
a
discussion of what to include, teachers
827

can ask questions such as

the following
: should the constitution protect your
828

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rights
? Should your responsibilities as citizens be included?

829

Students also learn about American heroes on the national level
,
such as
830

Anne Hutchinson, Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, Abraham Lincoln,
831

Frederick Douglass, Harriet Tubman,
Clara Barton, and
Ma
rtin Luther King, Jr.,

832

as well as leaders from all walks of life who have helped to solve community
833

problems, worked for better schools, or improved living conditions and lifelong
834

opportunities for workers, families, women, and students; and students, as w
ell
835

as adults, who have been honored locally for the special courage, responsibility,
836

and concern they have displayed in contributing to the safety, welfare, and
837

happiness of others.

Teachers can invite a local leader to visit the classroom
838

through the Cha
mber of Commerce, local government or a local nonprofit
839

organization. Students interview the leader about a local problem (for example
840

homelessness or hunger) and how they are helping the community (for example,
841

a food bank, a soup kitchen, or a new law).
The speaker can be asked to
842

describe how students could help

and

what the leader thinks it means to be a
843

citizen. Students work together to plan a class project to address the problem,
844

such as a food drive, a recycling program, a clothing drive, or writing

letters
845

proposing
or

opposing a law.

846


847

Economics of the Local
Region
: Choices,
Costs,
and
Human Capital

848

Students
should continue developing

their cost
-
benefit skills and recognize
849

the importance of education in developing their human capital.
Students lear
n to
850

identify some issues that are important in their immediate community. Informed
851

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volunteers in community service or elected officials can be invited to describe
852

some of the arguments on different sides of an important issue facing the
853

community.

854


855

Histor
y

Social Science Content Standards

856

Grade Three

857

Continuity and Change

858


859

3.1 Students describe the physical and human geography and use maps,
860

tables, graphs, photographs, and charts to organize information about
861

people, places, and environments in a spatial
context.

862

1.

Identify geographical features in their local region (e.g., deserts,
863

mountains, valleys, hills, coastal areas, oceans, lakes).

864

2.

Trace the ways in which people have used the resources of the local
865

region and modified the physical environment (e.g.
, a dam constructed
866

upstream changed a river or coastline).

867

3.2 Students describe the American Indian nations in their local region long
868

ago and in the recent past.

869

1.

Describe national identities, religious beliefs, customs, and various folklore
870

traditions
.

871

2.

Discuss the ways in which physical geography, including climate,
872

influenced how the local Indian nations adapted to their natural
873

environment (e.g., how they obtained food, clothing, tools).

874

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3.

Describe the economy and systems of government, particularly
those with
875

tribal constitutions, and their relationship to federal and state
876

governments.

877

4.

Discuss the interaction of new settlers with the already established Indians
878

of the region.

879

3.3 Students draw from historical and community resources to organize th
e
880

sequence of local historical events and describe how each period of
881

settlement left its mark on the land.

882

1.

Research the explorers who visited here, the newcomers who settled
883

here, and the people who continue to come to the region, including their
884

cultura
l and religious traditions and contributions.

885

2.

Describe the economies established by settlers and their influence on the
886

present
-
day economy, with emphasis on the importance of private
887

property and entrepreneurship.

888

3.

Trace why their community was establish
ed, how individuals and families
889

contributed to its founding and development, and how the community has
890

changed over time, drawing on maps, photographs, oral histories, letters,
891

newspapers, and other primary sources.

892

3.4 Students understand the role of ru
les and laws in our daily lives and the
893

basic structure of the U.S. government.

894

1.

Determine the reasons for rules, laws, and the U.S. Constitution; the role
895

of citizenship in the promotion of rules and laws; and the consequences
896

for people who violate rules

and laws.

897

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2.

Discuss the importance of public virtue and the role of citizens, including
898

how to participate in a classroom, in the community, and in civic life.

899

3.

Know the histories of important local and national landmarks, symbols,
900

and essential documents
that create a sense of community among
901

citizens and exemplify cherished ideals (e.g., the U.S. flag, the bald eagle,
902

the Statue of Liberty, the U.S. Constitution, the Declaration of
903

Independence, the U.S. Capitol).

904

4.

Understand the three branches of governm
ent, with an emphasis on local
905

government.

906

5.

Describe the ways in which California, the other states, and sovereign