M.A. in Linguistic - BHU

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Oct 24, 2013 (3 years and 9 months ago)

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M.A. LINGUISTICS


Eligibility:
Graduation

under 10+2+3 pattern with 50% marks in the aggregate. Or
Post
-
graduation
(following graduation under 10+2+3 pattern) in any language
-
literature, Philosophy, Anthropology,
Psychology, Sociology, Mathematics and Comp
uter Science with 50% marks in the aggregate both at
the graduate and post
-
graduate levels.

SEMESTER
-
I

Note:
Courses LNG 101 & 102 are compulsory. Students will have the option to choose any two from
the rest of the courses or from those offered by other D
epartments.


Full marks


Credits

LNG

101

Phonetics

100

5

LNG

102

Morphology


100

5

LNG EL

1.
1

Language Teaching Methods


100

5

LNG EL

1
.
2

Sociolinguistics

100

5

LNG EL

1
.
3

Historical and Comparative

Linguistics

100

5


SEMESTER
-
II

Not
e:
Courses LNG 201, 202 &203 are compulsory. Students will h
ave the option to choose any one

from the rest of the courses or from those offered by other Departments.

LNG

201

Phonology

100

5

LNG

202

Syntax

100


5

LNG

203

Semantics
-
I

100


5

LNG EL

2
.
1

Langua
ge Testing


100


5

LNG EL

2
.
2

Psycholinguistics


100


5

LNG EL

2
.
3

Writing Systems


100


5

SEMESTER
-
III

Note:
Course

LNG 301
is

compulsory. Students will have the option to choose any t
hree
from the rest of
the courses or from those off
ered by other Departments.

LNG

301

Semantics
-
II

100

5

LNG EL

3.
1

Pragmatics

100

5

LNG EL

3
.
2

Natural Language Processing

100

5

LNG EL

3
.
3

Language Processing,

Parsing and Generation

100

5

LNG EL

3
.
4

Translation

100

5

LNG EL

3
.
5

Philosophical unde
rpinnings

of Modern Linguistics

100

5

LNG EL

3
.
6

Indian Grammatical

Traditions

100

5

LNG EL

3
.
7

Sociology of Language

100

5

(
14

)

LNG EL

3
.
8

Applied Linguistics

100

5

LNG EL

3
.
9

Lexicography

100

5

LNG EL

3
.
10

Stylistics

100

5

SEMESTER
-
IV

Note:
Courses

LNG 401 and 402 are compulsory. Students will have the option to choose any two from
the rest of the courses or from those offered by other Departments.

LNG

401

Dissertation

100

5

LNG

402

Advanced Syntax

100

5

LNG EL

4
.
1

Computational Morphology

100

5

LNG EL

4
.
2

Syntactic Models

100

5

LNG EL

4
.
3

Corpus Linguistics

100

5

LNG EL

4
.
4

Language Universals and Typology

100

5

LNG EL

4
.
5

Child Language Acquisition

100

5

LNG EL

4
.
6

History of Linguistics

100

5

LNG EL

4
.
7

Semiotics

100

5

LNG EL


4
.
8

Neurolinguistics

100

5


Scheme of Examination

T
he M.A. Linguistics will be a four
-
semester course. Students will be required to choose four courses in
each semester, thus the total numbe
r of courses to be studied will

be 16. Each course offered by th
e
department will be

of

five credits. The total credits to be done by each student will be 80.

Each course will carry 100 marks whose distribution will be as under:

1.

Mid
-
semester test

10 Marks.

2.

Weekly class test

10 Marks.

3.

Seminar

05 Marks.

4.

A
ttendance & Conduct

05 Marks.

5.

Final Examination

70 Marks.

The final examination question paper shall have the following format:

1.

Four long answer questions of 15 marks each based upon the whole syllabus will be asked, out of
which students s
hall attempt

any two questions in about 500 words each
.

2.

Six short answer questions each of 8 marks based upon the whole syllabus will be asked out of
which the students shall answer any three questions in about 250 words each.

3.

16 Objective type questions of one mark e
ach will be asked and students will have to attempt

them
all.

(
15

)

SEMESTER
-
I

Note:

Courses L
NG

101 & 102 are compulsory. Students will have the option to choose any two from
the rest of the courses or from those of
fered

by
other Departments.

LNG 101
:

PHONE
TICS

It is a basic course in articulatory and acoustics phonetics
-
starting with the mechanisms of speech,
description of segments and suprasegmentals and going on to cooarticulation, training in transcription
and the basics of acoustic phonetics.

1.

The An
atomy and Physiology of Speech:

Vocal tract, respiratory system, laryngeal system;
supralaryngeal system.

Initiation of Speech:

Air stream mechanism; phonation.


Articulation:

Consonant and vowel; velum; direction of air flow; manner of articulation; place

of
articulation; three term labels.

2.

Obstruents:

Plosives; fricatives, affricates;

ejectives;

implosives and clicks.

Sonorants:


Sonorant consonants and vowels.

Suprasegmentals:

Stress; length; pitch; intonation; voice quality;
rhythm, nasalization, ju
ncture.

3.

Multiple articulation and Co
-
articulation:

Double articulation; secondary articulation; co
-
articulation; parametric phonetics.

Phonetic Transcription:

Principles and methods; terminology
relating to transcription; learning skills; phonemic and
phonetic transcription.

4.

Acoustic Characteristics of Speech:

Transmission; frequency; pitch; amplitude; resonance;
measuring frequency; pitch, Auditory Phonetics.

Readings:

Abercrombie, D. 1967. Elements of General Phonetics. Edinburgh: Edinburgh Univer
sity

Ball, M.J.and Rahilly, J. 2000. Phonetics: The Science of Speech. London: Arnold.

Catford, J.C. 1988. A Practical Introduction to Phonetics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Ladefoged, P.1993. A Course in Phonetics. Fort Worth, TX: Harcourt Brace Co
llege Publishers. (3rd
Edition)

Ladefoged, P & Maddieson, I. 1996. The Sounds of the World’s Languages. Oxford: Blackwell.

Leiberman, P. & Blumstein, S. 1988. Speech Physiology, Speech Perception and Acoustic Phonetics.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Pres
s.

LNG 102
:

Morphology

This course covers the basics in morphological theory ranging from morpheme, word structure to
morphological typology.

1.

Word Classes and Morpheme Classes:

Grammatical category, inflection and derivation.


Analysing Morphologica
l Structure:

Complex words.1.Variation in Morphology:

Types of
variation.

The Hierarchical Structure of Words:

Trees and labeled brackets; heads and hierarchy.

2.

The Status of Words:Word boundaries and clitics; the lexicon;

Problems in Morphological
Analy
sis:

Zero derivation; unmarked forms; discontinuous morphemes.


3.

Morphology and Typology:

Syntactic word order and morpheme order.

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16

)

Readings:

Anderson, S.R.1992. A
-
morphous Morphology. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT

Aronoff, M. 1976. Word F
ormation in Generative Grammar. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press.

Fromkin, V.(ed.)2000. Linguistics: An Introduction to Linguistics. Cambridge: Blackwell.

Spencer, A. 1991. Morphological Theory. Oxford: Blackwell.

LNG EL 1
.
1 Language Teaching Methods

1.

Learning Theories:

Acquisition vs. learning; language, mind and society; empirical (S
-
R) theories
of learning; cognitive theories; implications for language teaching; second/foreign language
learning; identity and contrastive hypothesis in learning a
second language; input hypothesis.

2.

Learner:

Innate potential of the learner creativity; social psychological aspects such as aptitude,
intelligence, attitude, stereotypes and motivation.


3.

Learner Output:

Language interference; mistakes and errors;
errors as learning Strategies;
interlanguage,

idiosyncratic dialects and approximate systems.

4.

Methods:

Approach, technique and method; grammar
-

translation method; direct method; audio
-
lingual approaches; cognitive approaches; communicative approaches;

the silent way;
suggestology; systems of evaluation: integrated approaches for teaching and evaluation;
translation, dictation and cloze; innovative materials for language teaching.

Readings
:

Agnihotri, R.K.and Khanna, A.L.(ed) 1994. Second Language Acqui
sition: Socio
-
cultural and Linguistic
Aspects of English in India. New Delhi: Sage Publications.

Agnihotri, R.K. and Khanna, A
.

L
.

(ed.)1995. English Language Teaching in India: Issues and
Innovations. New Delhi: Sage Publications

Brumfit, C.J. and Roberts
, J.T.1983. Language and Language teaching. London:

Batsford

Cook, V. 1993. Linguistics and Second Language Acquis
i
tion. London: Macmillan.

Dulay, B., Burt,M.and Krashen, S.1982. Language
T
wo. New York: Oxford University

Press.

Ellis, R.1985, Understanding

Second Language Acquisition, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Halliday, M.A.K.et.al.1964. The Linguistic Sciences and Language Teaching. London: Longman.

Prabhu, N.S.1987. Second Language Pedagogy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Richards, J.C.1974. Erro
r Analysis: Perspectives on Second Language Acquisition. Essex: Longman.

LNG EL 1
.
2 Sociolinguistics

1.

Sociolinguistics & the
S
ociology of language; Language & Society; Speech community; Verbal
Repertoires; speech Acts & Politeness Hierarchy; L
inguistic competence & communicative
competence, Linguistic variability; Patterns of Variation; Sociolinguistic Universals.

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)

2.

Language Varieties: Regional &
S
ocial, Formal & Informal, Standard & Non
-

standard;
Vernacular; Non
-
native Varieties; Registers &

S
tyles;
D
iscourse;
L
anguage in Mass media &
advertising; language and gender; language &
e
ducation.

3.

Languages in Contact: Bilingualism, Types of Bilingualism
;

Diglossia; Code
-
mixing & Code
-
switching; Language maintenance & shift; Borrowing; Pidgins & C
reoles; language death;
Multilingualism;
C
onvergence.

4.

Sociolinguistics Methodology: Methodological Preliminaries: selection of speakers & linguistic
variables; collecting the texts; Identifying linguistic variables and their variants in texts; data
proc
essing & interpretation; Method of quantification of linguistic variation; types of variables;
Variable Rules; ethno methodology, Sapir
-

Whorf hypothesis; observer’s paradox.

Readings:

Dittmar, N.1976; Sociolinguistics; London; Edward A
rn
old.

Fasold, R. 19
84; The Sociolinguistics and the Sociology of Language. Oxford; Basil Blackwell.

Hudson, R.A.1979; Sociolinguistics; Cambridge Univ. Press.

Humes, D.H. 1977; Foundations o
f

Sociolinguistics; Cambridge Univ. Press.

Milroy, L; 1980; Language

and

Social Netwo
rks; Baltimore; Univ. Park Press.

Trudgill, P
.

1974, Sociolinguistics


An Introduction. Penguin.

Downes William: Language and Society. CUP.

Singh, Rajendra
.

Lectures against Sociolinguistics
.
Munshiram Manoharlal.

Gumperz, JJ: Language and Social identit
y.

LNG EL 1
.
3 Historical and Comparative Linguistics

1
.

Introduction: Synchronic and diachronic approaches to Language; use of written records for
historical studies; language classification; notion of language family. Criteria for identifying
family re
lationships among languages; definition of the word cognate; language isolates; criteria
for typological classification


agglutinative, inflectional, analytic,
s
ynthetic and polysynthetic;
basic word order typology
-
SVO, SOV, etc.

2
.

Linguistic Change and
Reconstruction: Sound changes; Neogrammarian theory; genesis and
various types of regularity and spread of sound change, phonetic and phonemic change; split and
merger, grammatical change, semantic change; lexical diffusion of sound change; reconstructing
the proto
-
stage of languages, internal reconstruction and comparative method
-

their scope and
limitations, innovation and retention; sub grouping within a family; family tree and wave models.

3
.

Language Contact and Dialect Geography : Linguistic borrowing
-

lexical and structural;
motivation
-
Prestige and need; Classification of loan words
-
l
oan translation, loan blend, calques,
assimilated and unassimilated loans (tadbhava and tatsama); Bilingualism; dialect, idiolect;
isogloss; methods of preparing dialect
atlas, focal area, transition area and relic area.

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18

)

Readings:

Antilla,R.1972 An Introduction to Historical & Comparative Linguistics; New York;

Macmillan.

Bhat, D.N.S. 1972 Sound Change; Poona; Poona Bhasha Prakashan.

Bynon, T. 1977 Historical Linguistics
; CUP.

Hoenigswald, H.M 1960 Language Change & Linguistic Reconstruction
.

Chicago: Chicago Univ. Press.

Lehman, W.P 1962 Historical Linguistics
-

An Introduction; New York
:

Holt Rinchart & Winston.


SEMESTER


II

Note:

Courses L
NG

201,202 & 203 are compulso
ry. Students will have the option to choose any one
from the rest of the courses or from those of
fered by

other Departments.

LNG 201 Phonology

The course takes the student through classification of sounds, distinctive features, the phonemic
principl
e; rule writing and the construct ‘syllable’.

1.

Sounds of Speech:

Natural classes; distinctive features; major class features; laryngeal features;
secondary articulation; prosodic features.

2.

Distinctiveness and the Phonemic Principle:

Phonemicization;

formaliza
t
ion; minimal pairs;
complementary distribution.

3.

Natural Class:

The psychological reality of the phoneme; phonetic similarity; variation.

4.

Morphology:

Connection to morphology; neutralization;

5
.

Rule writing; rule ordering.


Readings:

Fro
mkin, V. (ed.) 2000. Linguistics: An Introduction to Linguistics. Cambridge: Blackwell.

Goldsmith, J (ed.) 1999. Phonological Theory: The Essential Readings. Cambridge: Blackwell.

Goldsmith, J (ed.) 1995. The Handbook of Phonological Theory. Cambridge; Bla
ckwell.

Kenstowicz, M. 1994. Phonology in Generative Grammar. Cambridge; Blackwell.

Rocca, I. & Johnson, W.1999. A Course in Phonology. Oxford: Blackwell.

LNG 202 Syntax

1.

Phrase Structure Grammar and Transformational Grammar

:



Constituency and Con
stituency Tests
-

Phrase Structure grammar
-

inadequacy of PS grammars
;
transformations
-
deep and surface structure (the Aspects model).

2.

Rules and Constraints on Rules:

Types of Rules: Phrase Structure Rules, Transformations, and
Interpretive Rules
;

Types

of transformational operation: movement, deletion, insertion


constraints on rules: the Ross constraint.

3.

The Theory of Government and Binding
:

Universal Grammar, the Innateness Hypothesis
;

Principles and parameters


D
-
structure, S
-

structure, PF and

LF (the GB model)
;

the projection
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19

)

principle
;
movement and trace
;

anaphors, pronouns, R
eferring

expressions and the binding
principles


c
-
command
;

thematic (theta) roles: agent, patient or theme, experience, goal etc.
T
he
theta criterion


Case (structura
l and inherent), Case assignment, the Case Filter
;

bounding theory
(subjacency)


PRO and the control.

Readings:

Culicover, P.W.1976. Syntax. London: Academic Press.

Culicover, P.W.1997. Principles and Parameters: An Introduction to Syntactic Theory, Oxfor
d: Oxford
University Press.

Fabb, N. 1994. Sentence Structure. London: Routledge.

Freidin, R. 1992. Foundations of Generative Syntax. Cambridge, Massachusetts:
MIT Press
.

Fromkin, V.A. (ed.) 2000. Linguistics: An Introduction to Linguistic Theory. Cambridg
e,
Massachusetts: Blackwell,

Haegeman, L. 1992. Introduction to Government and Binding Theory. London: Blackwell. (2
nd

edition)

Haegeman, L. & Gueron, J. 1999. English Grammar: A Generative Perspective. London: Blackwell.

Jacobs, R.A. & Rosenbaum, P.S. 19
68. The English Transformational Grammar. Waltham,
Massachusetts: Blaisdell Publishing Company.

Radford, A. 1988. Transformational Grammar. Cambridge University Press.

Radford, A. et.al. 1999. Linguistics: An Introduction. Cambridge: Cambridge University
Press.

Riemsdijk, H. Van & Williams, E. 1986. Introduction to the Theory of Grammar. Cambridge,
Massachusetts: MIT Press.

Roberts, I. 1997. Comparative Syntax. London: Arnold..

LNG 203 Semantics

I

1
.


Lexical Semantics
;

Psycho lexicology
;

The lexica
l matrix; synonymy, antonymy, hyponymy,
meronymy.

Nouns and lexical inheritance systems
;

Adjectives
;

Verbs

2
.


Formal Semantics
;

Formal Languages
;

Syntax and semantics, Propositional logic.


First Order Predicate Logic.

3
.


Pragmatics: Role of context in m
eaning.

Speech Acts.

Readings:

Austin, J.L. 1976. How to do Things with Words. Oxford University Press.

Lyons. J. 1995. Linguistic Semantics: An Introduction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Matilal, B.K. 1990. The Word and the World: India’s Contri
bution to the Study of Language. New
Delhi: Oxford University Press.

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20

)

LNG EL 2
.
1 Language Testing

1.

The Nature of Psychological Tests and their uses:


Test structure: hidden traits and elicited performance representing them; Purposes served by tests:
e
ducational, administrative, research; formative and summative evaluation, evaluation as part of
the teaching process (pedagogic uses).

2.

Language Evaluation: (Clarifying what language tests seek to measure):


The nature of language ability
-
individual tra
it vs. rule system of speech community; describing
language ability: progression from beginner


learner to use; Components of overall proficiency.
(Models of Carrol, Valette and Bachman); Proficiency level schemes and the terms to describe
levels.

3.

Res
ources for Assessing Language Ability:

Test types and task formats; written (paper and
pencil), oral tests and performance tests; Selection and supply type task formats, (problem of
stems and distractor in multiple choice items); Discrete point and integra
tive tests; tests of
extended writing / speaking, mixed skills and interaction on dyadic and group settings; special test
types; Cloze, C
-
test, portfolio assessment, meta
-
linguistic ability tests.

4.

Basic Concepts of Measurement:

Criterion referencing an
d norm referencing; maximum
performance and typical performance; Validity and reliability.

5.

Stages in Test Construction:

Decisions regarding purpose, time, nature of items and content of
test; Pilot design and trailing for instruction, time and administ
ration; assembling the finished test;
reviewing validity and reliability; establishing norms.

Readings:

Allen, H.B.& Campbell, R.N.(eds.) 1972. Teaching English as a Second Language. New Delhi
: Tata
McG
raw Hill.

Bell, R.T. 1981 An Introduction to Applied L
inguistics. London: Batsford Academic and

Educational Ltd.

Davies, A. 1990. Principles of Language Testing. Cambridge: Basil Blackwell.

Hughes, A. 1989. Testing for Language Teachers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Meenakshi. 1994. Modern Tre
nds in Educational Evaluation and Measurement. Chandigarh: Arun
Publishing.

Weir, C.1990. Communicative Language Testing. London: Prentice Hall.

LNG EL 2
.
2 Psycholinguistics

A.

Child Language Acquisition

1.

Phonological development:

Early speech product
ion and perception(categorical perception, word
segmentation, babbling) to mature system.

2.

Syntactic and semantic bootstrapping

Stages of sentence production; emergence of functional
categories and projections.

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21

)

3.

Lexical acquisition:

Lexical categories and

the natural partitions hypothesis (the noun
advantage), regular and irregular morphology; lexical mapping.

4.

Learnability issues:

Development of UG principles (qualification and binding) and parameter
setting;
Diary

Studies, large sample studies and longitu
dinal studies; language acquisition and
multilingualism; motherese; emergence of linguistic awareness; acquisition of discourse
strategies.

B.

Language Disorders:


1. Broca and Localization of the Language Faculty


2. Linguistic Aphasiology


a.

Linguisti
c descriptions and aphasic syndromes (Clinical varieties of Aphasia)


b.

Disturbances of the sound system


c
.

Acquired dyslexia


d
.

Disturbances of sentence production; agrammatism.


e
.

Disturbances of sentence comprehension


f
.

Overview of linguistic

aphasiology.


Readings:

Baker, C.L. & Mc Carthy, J. (eds.) 1981. The Logical Problem of Language Acquisition. Cambridge,
Massachusetts: MIT Press.

Clark, E.V. 1993. The Lexicon in Acquisition. New York: Cambridge Univ. Press.

Crain, S and Diane Lillo
-
Ma
rtin. 1999. An Introduction to Linguistic Theory and Language Acquisition.
Blackwell textbooks in Linguistics.

Ingram, D. 1989. First Language Acquisition. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press.

Jusczyk, P. 1997. The Discovery of Spoken Language. Cambridge, Ma
ssachusetts
: MIT.

Lakshmi Bai, B. 2000. Sounds and Words in Early Language Acquisition: A Bilingual Account. Shimla:
Indian

Institute of Advanced Study.

Lust, B., Suner, M., and Whitman, J.(eds.) 1994. Syntactic Theory and First Language Acquisition:
Cros
s Linguistic Perspectives. Vol.I: Heads, projections and Learnability; Vol.II: Binding,

Dependencies and Learnability. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates: Hillside.

Rithie, W. and Bhatia, Tej

(eds.) 1999. Handbook of Child Language Acquisition. New

York:
Academic Press.

Caplan, D.1987. Neurolinguistics & Linguistic Aphasiology: An Introduction. Cambridge Studies in
Speech Science & Communication. Cambridge & New York; CUP.

Benson, D.F.1979. Aphasia, Dyslexia & Agraphia. New York: Churchill Livingsto
n.

Caplan, D. 1992. Language Structure. Processing and Disorders, Cambridge Massachusetts: MIT Press.

Caplan, D., Lecours, A.R.

and Smith, A.(eds.)Biological Perspectives in Language. Cambridge.
Massachusetts: MIT Press.

Caramazza, A. & Edgar B.Z.(eds.)197
8. Language Acquisition and Language Breakdown: Parallels &
Divergencies. Baltimore and London: John Hopkins University Press.

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22

)

Curtiss, S. 1997 Genie: A Psycholinguistic Study of a Modern
-
day “Wild Child”. New York:

Academic Press.

Ellen P. Language Mixi
ng. In Segalowi, S. (ed.) Language Function & Brain Organization. New York:
Academic Press. (pp 227
-
44)

Goodgrass, H. 1993. Understanding Aphasia. Santiago: Academic Press.

Grojean. F. 1982. Life with Two Languages: An Introduction to Bilingualism. Cambrid
ge,
Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.

Hyltenstam, K. and Obler, L.K. (eds.) Bilingualism Across the Lifespan. Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press.

Jakobson, R. 1968. Child Language, Aphasia & Phonological Universals. The Hague: Mouton.

Laranth, P.

2000. Empowerment of Mothers of Hearing impaired children in CBR programmes. Asia
Pacific Disability Rehabilitation Journal. Vol.10
-
1.

Lightfoot, D.1982. The Language Lottery: Toward a Biology of Grammars. Cambridge: MIT Press.

LNG EL

2
.
3


Writing Systems

1.

Linguistics, Writing systems and Semiotics. Origin and development of scripts. Units of speech
and units of writing . The visible speech. Written records.

2.

Major Writing systems: Theocratic script of Egypt, Cun
e
iform Writing, Chinese Writing system
,
Semitic writing , The alphabet. Their critical appreciation, Dead scripts.

3.

Writing in India: Brahmi, Kharosthi,
S
harda
, the regional scripts. South Indian scripts, Devanagari.

4.

Creating new alphabet, Writing reforms, Transcription and transliter
ation, script mixing and script
switching, Style and
A
rt in writing. Graph, allograph, grapheme. Script and Sociolinguistic
identity.

Readings
:

MAK Halliday: Language as a Social Semiotic.

Yuen Ren Chao, 1968: Language and Symbolic Systems.

Raj Bali Pande
y: Indian Pa
e
liography.

L. Bloomfield: Language, MLBD.

Robert A. Hall: Introductory Linguistics.

Fromkin & Rodman 1983: An Introduction to Language.

M.A. Mehendale, 1948: Ashokan Inscriptions in India.

John Defrancis, 1989: Visible speech: The Diverse Onen
ess of Writing Systems, Honolulu.

Florian Coulmas, 1989: The Writing Systems of the World. Basil Blackwell.

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23

)

SEMESTER
-

III

Note:

Course L
NG

301 is compulsory. Students will have the option to choose any three from the rest of
the courses or from those o
f
f
e
red by

other Departments.

LNG 301 Semantics
-
II

Part A: Montague Grammar


1.

Higher Order Type
-
theoretic Languages

2.

Tense and Modal Operators

3. Montague’s Intensional Logic

4.

The Grammar of PTQ

Part B: Interfaces

Computational Semantics

1.

Lexical

Semantics
;

Semantics and Cognition

2.

Semantics, Pragmatics and Natural Language Interpretation

3.

Semantics in Linguistics and Philosophy

Readings:

Dowty, D.R., Robert E. Wall & Stanley P. 1968. Introduction to Montague
Semantics
.
Dordrecht
: Reidel.

Lappin, S
. (ed). 1997. The Handbook of Contemporary Semantics. Oxford: Blackwell.

Montague, R. 1973. The Proper Treatment of Quatification in Ordinary English. In Hintikka. K.J.J.,

Moravcsik, J.M.E.and Suppes, P. (eds). 1973. Approaches to Natural Language, 221
-
242
, Reidel:
Dord
r
echt.

Montague, R. 1974. Universal Grammar. In Theoria, 36,373
-
98. Reprinted in Montague.

Montague, R. 1974. Formal Philosophy: Selected papers of Richards Montague. New Haven: Yale
University Press.

LNG EL 3
.
1 Pragmatics

1.

Definition, Se
mantics and pragmatics, Meaning and context, Peirce, Austin, Searle, Grice etc.;
theory of speech acts

Austin, Searle, etc. Locution and illocution, Performative acts;


2.

Entailment, Presupposition and Implicatures
-

Frege, Strawson, Grice etc.


3.

Dei
xis
-

Peirce, Levinson etc. Person, place and time deixis; Social deixis, Relevance theory,
Politeness Principle


Leech etc.



Readings:

Bar
-
Hilled, Y. (ed.) 1971. Pragmatics of Natural Languages. Dordrecht: Reidel.

Cole, P. (ed.) 1978. Syntax & Semant
ics : Pragmatics. N. York: Academic Press.

Davis, S.(ed.) 1991. Pragmatics: a reader, Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.

Habermas, J. 1979. Communication and the evolution of Society. Boston: Beacon Press.

Lavinson, S.C. 1983. Pragmatics: Cambridge Univ.Press.

Ve
rshueren, J. 1999. Understanding Pragmatics, London.

(
24

)

LNG EL 3
.
2 Natural Language Processing (A Paninian Perspective)

1.

NLP: Introduction:

Some Example Applications, Achievements and Brief History, Open
Problems.


(i). Major Goal


2.

Language Structu
re and Language Analyzer:

I. Introduction to Language Structure

II. Overview of
Language Analyzer:

Morphological Analyzer, Local Word Grouper (LWG), Requirements of
Computational Grammars:

Computational Aspect, Systems Aspect, Large System Aspect.


3.

Wor
ds and Their Analyzer
:

Introduction, Why Morphological Analysis, Morphological
Generation Using Paradigms, Morphological Analysis Using Paradigms, Speeding Up
Morphological Analysis by Compilation, Morphological Analyzer
-
Some Additional Issues.


4.

Local
Word Grouping:

Introduction, Verb Groups (Kriya Rupa Charts), Noun Groups, Strategy
for Grammar Development, Semantics in Stages, Some open Problems.

5.

Pa
n
inian Grammar:

Introduction, The Semantic Model, Free Word Order and Vibhakti, Paninian
Theory, (Ka
raka Relations), Active
,

Passive, Control (Karaka to Vib
h
akti Mapping, Karaka
Sharing).

6.

Paninian Parser: Introduction, Constraint Parser Using Integer Programming, Constraint Parser
Using Matching and Assignment (Reduction to Bipartite Graph Matching,
Reduction to
Assignment Problem, Preferences over Parses, Lakshan Charts for Sense Disambiguation.


7.

Machine Translation:

(a) Survey:


Introduction, Problems of Machine Translation, Is MT
Possible? Brief History, Possible Approaches, Current Status,

(b)
. Anusaraka or Language
Accessor:

Background, Cutting the Gordian Knot, The Problem, Structure of Anusaraka Systems,
User Interface, Linguistic Area, Giving up Agreement in Anusaraka Output, Language Bridges.

Readings
:

A.

Bharti, V. Chaitanya, R. Sangal. (
ed.). 2000. Natural Language Processing: Prentice Hall of India
.


LNG EL 3
.
3 Language Processing, Parsing and Generation

Part A: Parsing and Probability

Context
-
free Grammars, Chart parsing

Probability Theory, Statistical
Models, Speech Recognition,
Entropy, Markov Chains, Cross Entropy, Cross Entropy as a Markov
Evaluator
,

Trigram Models of English, Part
-
of Speech Tragging

Probabilistic Grammars, PCFGs and
Syntactic Ambiguity, PCFs and Grammar Induction,PCFGs and Ungrammatica
l
ity

Part B: Probabilisti
c
Parsing

1.

Syntactic Disambiguation of PP’,Using Semantic Information for Syntactic Disambiguation,
Relative Clause Attachment, Uniform use of Lexical / Semantic Information

2.

Clustering,

Clustering by next Word, Clustering with Syntactic Information, Problem
s with
Word Clustering.

3.

Disambiguating Word Senses with and without outside Information, Meanings and Selection
restrictions.

(
25

)

Readings:

Charniak, E. 1993. Statistical Language Learning. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press.

Kalvans, Judith L. & Resnik, P. (
eds.) 1996. The Balancing Act. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press.

LNG EL 3
.
4 Translation

Translation: The basic concept and its importance.

A.

Translation and other branches of linguistics, Definition and theories of translation; process of
tran
slation, text analysis and target language; transference of meaning, Types of translation;
translation & transliteration, criticism of Translation.

B.

Issues of translation: Equivalence, Untranslat
a
bility
-
linguistic, stylistic & cultural, meaning
variatio
n, kinds of texts
-
scientific
,

technical, legal, administrative, literary, Translation of literary
texts
-
transcreation vs transl
a
tion,
Importance of Translation in
comparative literature & in cross
cultural studies, Machine translation, Exercise problems, E
ffects of Translation on language and
literature.

Readings:

Nida, Eugine A. 1964. Toward a Science of Translation. Leiden: E.J. Brill.

Newmark, P. 1988. A Textbook of Translation. England, Hempstead: Prentice Hall.

Carter,R.; 1982; Language & Literature
-
A
n Introductory Reader in Stylistics; London; Edward Arnold.

J.C. Catford, 1965: A Linguistic Theory of Translation. OUP.

Theodore Savery: The Art of Translation.

LNG EL 3.
5 Philosophical underpinnings of Modern Linguistics

1.

The Standard Logic
-

based A
pproach


2.

The Metaphor
-
focused Cognitive Approach

3.

The Indian Approach


4.

The Deconstructionist Approach


5.

Contemporary Debates

Readings:

Derrida, J. 1976. Of Grammatology. (Tr. Gayatri C. Spivak). Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press

Lakoff
,G and Johnson, M. 1980. Metaphors We Live by. Chicago: Chicago University Press.

Lyons, J. 1968. Theoretical Linguistics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Matilal, B.K. 1990. The Word and the World: India’s Conrtibution to the Study of Language. Del
hi.
Oxford Univ. Press.

McCawley, J.D. 1981. Everything Linguistics ever Wanted to Know about Logic. Chicago: Chicago
University.

Mukherji, N. 2000. The Cartesian Mind: Reflections on Language and Music. Shimla: Indian Institute of
Advanced Study.

(
26

)

LNG EL
3
.
6 Indian Grammatical Traditions

1.

Introduction

:

The place of Language Study in Indian Scholarship, Development of Language,
Place of Language in Vedangas.

Major Texts of the Indian Grammatical Tradition (Pre
-
Paninean,
astadhayayi and Kaumidi Parampara
, Commentaries on Panini, other traditions of Grammar
:

Buddhista Chandravyakarana and Saraswata Vyakarana)

2.

Phonetics


Phonetics in Ancient India, Paninean Siksa, Vajasneyi Pratisakhya.

3.

Nirvacana


Nirvacana and etymology, Nirukata, Nighantu, Paninean deriva
tion

4.

Vyakarana

Survey of pre
-
Paninean Grammatical thought (early accounts of Yuan
-
Chwang and H.
Tsing), First Ahnika of Patanjali Mahabhasya (paspasa), astadhyayi (Pratyahara Sutras, Rules
-

1
-
1.1
-
10; 1.1.1
-
17;1.4.23
-
55; 2.2.23
-
29;8.4.49,41,45,53,55,56,58,6
0,62,63)

5.

Lexicography (Amarkosa)


Readings:

1.

R.G. Bahandarkar, Development of Language and of Sanskrit.

2.

J.F. Apte, ‘The Vedangas’ in The Cultural Hertage of India, Vol.I
-
II.

3.

Satyavat, ‘Sanskrit Grammar’ in the Cultural Heritage of India, Vol.5

4.

Louis Reno
v, ‘Panini’ in Current Trends in Linguistics, Vol.5

5.

W.S.

Allen, Phonetics in Ancient India.

6.

Paniniyan Siksa and Vajasmeyi
-
Pratisakhya.

7.

Uhlenbeck, A Manual of Sanskrit Phonetics.

8.

S. Varma, Critical Studies in the Phonetic Observations of Indian Grammarians.

9.

L.Sarup, Nirukta and Nighantu

10.

V.S. Agarwal, ‘Yaska and Panini’ in Cultural Heritage of India, Vol.I

11.

Astādhyā
y
i (tr. By S.C.Vasu


S.M.Katre)

12.

Bhartrhari, Vākyapadiya (Kānda I & III )

13.

George Cardona, Panini: A Survey of Research, MLBD,1980.

14.

George Cardona,
Panini: His Work and Its Traditions,MLBD,1988.

15.

D.D.

Mahulkar, The Prāyidākhya Tradition, M.S.

University, Baroda.

16.

Goldstucker Theodor, Panini, (original in 1861), (reprint by Varanasi Chukhamba in 1965).

17.

M.D. Pandit, Zero in Panini, University of Poona, 19
90.

18.

Kapil Kapoor, (a) ‘Bhartrhari on Lexical Meaning’ in Linguistics at Large (ed. By V. Prakasam),
Hyderabad, 1991.

(b). ‘Norm and Variation : A Classical Debate’ in Language and Text,(R.N.

Srivastava, ed.),Delhi.1992.

(
27

)

LNG EL 3
.
7 Sociology o
f Language

1.

Sociolinguistics and the Sociology of Language

Formal perspectives on language and studying
language in social context; myths about language; folk linguistics; study of language and society
where the focus is on form; the study of language w
here the focus is on social issues; speech
community; ethnicity; language and identity; nation, language and religion and other symbols of
statehood.


2.

Language and Socialization


Language and social roles; construction of human knowledge in childhood;
grammar, categories
and word
-
view; Sapir
-
Whorf Hypothesis; new perspectives on linguistic relativity; deficit
hypothesis and its critique; variability hypothesis and its critique; critical language awareness.


3.

Language Standardization

Language, dialect
, variety, pidgin, creole, mixed code, standard
language; standard language
-
a social power; role of script, printing and satellite communication;
language of countercultures e.g. cults, criminals; slang; linguistic attitudes.


4.

Language Planning

Mono
-
an
d Multilingual societies; typology of linguistic situation; the colonial
period and the modern times; constitutional provisions regarding language; the case of Hindi and
Urdu; the hegemony of English; Three Language Formula.


5.

Language and ideology

Lang
uage, discourse and ideology;hegemony of English; language and
gender; literacy and its politics; orality and literacy; language in mass communication and
advertising.

Readings:

Bell, A. 1991. The Language of News Media. London: Blackwell.

Cameron, D. (ed.
) 1988. The Feminist Critique of Language. London: Routledge.

Coupland L. Sarangi, S. and Candlin, C. 2001. Sociolinguistics and Social Theory. Essex: Pearson.

Dittmar, N. 1976. Sociolinguistics, London: Edward Arnold.

Fairclough, N. (ed.) 1992. Critical L
anguage Awareness. London: Longman.

Fasold, R. 1984. The Sociolinguistics of Society. Blackwell: Oxford.

Foucault, M. 1972. The Archaeology of Knowledge. London: Taviskot.

Gumperz, J.J. ed. 1982. Language and Social Identity, Cambridge: Cambridge Universit
y Press.

Gumperz, J.J. and Hymes, D.(ed.) 1972, Directions in Sociolinguistics. New York: Holt Rhinehart and
Winston.

Gumprez, J.J. and Levinson, S.S.(ed.) 1996. Rethinking Linguistic Relativity, Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press.

Gupta, R.S. and Aggar
wal , K.(ed.) 1988. Studies in Indian Sociolinguistics. New Delhi: Creative.

Hudson, R. 1980. Sociolinguistics, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Kress, G.R. and Hodge, R.V. 1979. Language as Ideology. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.

Lankshear, C.an
d Lawler, M. 1987. Literacy, Schooling and Revolution, New York: The Falmer Press.

(
28

)

Le Page, R.B. & Tabouret
-
Keller, 1985. The Acts of Identity. Cambridge; Cambridge University Press.

Lee, D.1992. Competing Discourses: Perspective and Ideology in Language,
London: Longman.

Mesthries, R. 2001. The Concise Encyclop
a
edia of Sociolinguistics, Oxford; Elsevier Pergamon.

Niranjana, T. 1993. Siting Translation: History, Post
-
structuralism and the Colonial Context. Berkeley:
University of California Press.

Schiffman
, H.F. 1996. Linguistics,

Culture and Language Policy, London: Routledge.

Singh, R. 1998, Lectures against Sociolinguistics. New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal.

Suleri, S. 1992. The Rhetoric of English in India. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

Suner
rajan, R. (ed.) 1993. The Lie of the Land. Delhi: Oxford University Press.

LNG EL 3
.
8 Applied Psycholinguistics

Second Language Research

1.

The Linguistic Environment

First, second and foreign languages, age difference and socio
-
psychological factors.


2.

Deve
lopment Perspectives

Acquisitional orders and markedness, interlanguage, effects and non

effects of instruction, input and adjustments to input.


3.

Attainment Levels

Competencies and performance, critical age; second language loss
.


4.

Psycholinguistics

The Rea
ding Brain
,
Normal Adult Reading and its Development
,

Brain Imaging
of Reading Subprocesses
,

Acquired Dyslexia
,

Integrating Themes in Reading Research


Readings:

Agnihotri, R.K. and Khanna, A.L. 1994. Second Language Acquisition: Socio
-
cultural and Linguis
tic
Aspects of English in India, New Delhi: Sage.

Ellis, R. 1990. Instructed Second Language Acquisition: Learning in the Classroom. Oxford: Basil
Blackwell.

Ellis, R. 1991. Introduction to Second Language Acquisition Research. Oxford: Longman.

Flynn, S. a
nd O’Neil, W.(eds.) 1994. Adult Next
-
Language Acquisition and the Theory of Grammar.

Johnson, J. and Newport, E. 1991. Critical Period Effects on Universal Properties of Language: The
Status of Subjacency in the Acquisition of a Second Language. In Cogniti
on 39: 215
-
250.

Kim.et.al.1997. Distinct Cortical Areas Associated with Native and Second Language Acquisition. In
Nature 388.

Strozer, J.R. 1994. Non
-
native Language Acquisition from a Principles and Parameters Perspective. In
Ottero, C.P. (ed). Noam Chom
sky: Child Assessments. Vol.IV: Tome II. Routledge.(pp. 680
-
721).

LNG EL 3
.
9 Lexicography

1.

Introduction

Introducing the field, historical and socio
-
cultural background to lexicography.


2.

Approaches to Dictionary Typology and Dictionary use.


3.

M
acrostructure and Microstructure:

Alternative dictionary formats and alternative entry formats.


(
29

)

4.

Lexical Representation:

Phonological, morphological and grammatical structure.


5.

L
exical Semantics and Pragmatics:

Sense, synonymy, polysemy, hyponymy,
hypernymy,
meronymy, troponymy, graduation and other semantic relations, collocation, approaches to
semantic and pragmatic knowledge representation.


6.

Monolingual dictionary:

Registeral, regional and other kinds of variation.


7.

Interlingual Dictionar
y, Structure and Equivalences, Problem of Intertranslatability.


8.

General and Special Purpose Dictionaries:

Pedagogical and other special purpose dictionaries,
etymological and encyclopaedic dictionaries, electronic dictionary.


9.

Lexicography and Nat
ural Language Processing:

Representation of lexical knowledge for NLP,
design of dictionaries for NLP, Universal Network Language, Wordnet.


Readings:

Atkins, B.T.S.& Zampolli, A. 1994. Computational Approaches to the Lexicon, Oxford University
Press.

Hart
mann, R.R.K. 1983. Dictionaries: The Art and Craft of Lexicography. Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press.

LNG EL 3
.
10 Stylistics

1
.


Linguistics and literature; approaches to literature:

Literacy


aesthetic and semiotic
-
linguistic;

Literature
-
figurat
ive and symbolic uses of language in literature.

2
.


Stylistics
-
its definition and scope; stylistic as an area of applied linguistics; stylistics and its
relations with semiotics, aesthetics and poetics.


3
.


The term Style
-
its various senses and diversity

of its definitions; problems in defining style.


4
.


Stylistic analysis of literary texts:


a
.

Phonological identification of style
-
features and summative word.


b
.

Lexical : Verbal and synonymic repe
ti
tion.


c
.

Grammatical
-
nominal and verbal style.


d
.

Semantic: Semantic parallelism; selectional restrictions.


e.


Foregroundin
g
, automatization and de
-
automatization.


f.


Discourse analysis.


5.


Structuralism and post
-
structuralism
;

Indian poetics.


Readings
:

Allen, H.B. (ed.) 1958. Readings in Appli
ed English Linguistics. New York: Appleton
-
Century
-
Croffs.
(Part 7)

Carter, R.A. (ed.) 1982. Language and Literature: An Introductory
R
eader in Stylistics. London
: George
Alle
n and Unwin.

(
30

)

SEMESTER


IV

Note:

Courses L
NG

401 & 402 are compulsory. Students w
ill have the option to choose any two from
the rest

of the courses or from those offered by

other Departments.

LNG 401 Dissertation

Each candidate will prepare and submit a dissertation on a topic of his choice. This will enable the
student to co
llect and analyze linguistic data and demonstrate his/her capability/knowledge of linguistic
analysis.

i.

Topic decided and delimited.

ii.

Study of earlier works: linguistic & non
-
linguistic.

iii.

Making a bibliography: list of references.

iv.

Pilot su
rvey: Seeing the site and collecting the most rudimentary data & information.

v.

Making a synopsis with chapterwise plan of the work.

B.

Data collection:

L
NG

402 Advanced Syntax

1
.

Basic issues in the Principles and parameters theory:


I
nteraction of Principles within certain Parameters; Language specific examples and the question
of basic word order; problems with the theory.

2
.

From Principles and Parameters theory to the Minimalist Program:


Reasons for discarding D
-
structure and S
-
s
tructure. How does the computational system work in
the Minimalist Program? Functional categories and the significance of DP analysis; AGRsP,
AGRoP, and Tense Phrase, scope for innovation to account for language specific phrasal
categories.

3
.

Some Key co
ncepts in the Minimalist Program:


Spell
-
out, greed, procrastination, last resort, AGR
-
based case theory, multiple
-
spec hypothesis,
strong and weak features; interpretable and non
-
interpretable features.

4
.

Transformational components:


The copy theory of

Movement, its properties, motivation for move Alpha, LF and PF movement,
checking devices and features of convergence.

5
.

Logical form:


Questions of semantic interpretation in the Minimalist Program; How does it differ from that in
the Principles and Pa
rameters theory?

Readings:

Chomsky, Noam. 1981. Lectures on Government and Binding, Dordrecht: Foris.

Chomsky, N.1995. The Minimalist Program. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press.

Hornstein, N. 1995. Logical Form: From GB to Minimalism. Oxford: Blackwell.

Kayne, Ri
chard. 1994. The Antisymmetry of Syntax. Linguistic Inquiry Monograph No. 25. MIT Press.

(
31

)

LNG EL 4
.
1

Computational Morphology

A:

Nature, Function and Applications
;

Natural language applications: speech applications, word
processing, document retrieval.

Nat
ure of morphology: Form, function and rules; morphotactics,
phonology and psycholinguistic evidence.

B: Computational Approaches
:
Computational
mechanisms, URKIMMO,KIMMO, computational complexity of two
-
level morphology, other
approaches.


Readings:

Sproat
, R. 1992. Morphology and Computation. Cambridge: MIT Press.

Antworth, E.L. PC
-
EIMMO: A Two
-
level Processor for Morphological analysis.

LNG EL 4
.
2 Syntactic Models

A
-

Unification
-
Based Grammars

Generalized Phrase Structure Grammar, Lexical FunctionalGr
ammar.

B
-

HPSG

Head
-
Driven Phrase Structure Grammar

i) Typed feature structures, Head Feature Principle,
the COMPS and SPEC features, agreement,

ii) Head
-
Complement Rule, Head
-
Specifer Rule, Head
-
Modifier Rule, Coordination Rule,

iii) Imperative rule, Vale
nce Principle, Argument Realization
Principles, Case Constraint. Minimal Recursion Semantics (MRS), Predications, Modification, Semantic
Composition.

iv)Principle, Semantic Inheritance Principle, Feature
-
Based Binding Theory, Argument
Structure list, bindi
ng in PP’s and imperatives. Structure of the lexicon, lexical types, lexical rules,
inflection and derivational rules.

C


TAG
:
Tree
-
Adjoining Grammar

TAG formalism, lexicalization,
unification
-
based features, tree selection, tree database, tree grafting, t
ree families and sub categorization
frames, case and PRO.

Verb classes, ergatives, subjects and complements, the copula, raising verbs and
small clauses, ditransitive constructions, dative shift.

Sentence types, passives, extraction, relative
clauses, adju
nct clauses, imperatives.

Gerund NPs, determiners and noun phrases, modifiers, auxiliaries,
conjunction, comparatives.


Readings:

Shieber, S.1986. An Introduction to Unification
-
Based Approaches to Grammar. Stanford:CSLI

Sells, P. 1985. Lectures on Contemp
orary Syntactic Theories. Stanford:CSLI.

Sag, Ivan & Wasow, T. 1999. Syntactic Theory: A Formal Introduction. Standard: CSLI.

The XTAG Research Group. 1999. A Lexicalized Tree Adjoining Grammar for English. Pittsburg:
Institute for Research in Cognitive Sc
ience, University of Pennsylvania.

LNG EL 4
.
3 Corpus Linguistics

1. Corpus Linguistics: Introduction

Corpus Linguistics from the 1950s to the early 1980s.

2. What is a Corpus and What is in It?

Corpora vs. Machine


readable Texts, Text Encoding and
An
notation, Multilingual Corpora.

3. Quantitative Data:

Introduction, Qualitative vs. Quantitative Analysis, Corpus Representativeness,
Approaching Quantitative Data.

4. The Use of Corpora in Language Studies:

Corpora as Sources of
(
32

)

Empirical Data, Corpora i
n Speech Research, Corpora in Lexical

Studies, Corpora and Grammar,
Corpora and Semantics, Corpora in Pragmatics and Discourse Analysis, Corpora and Sociolinguistics,
Corpora in Stylistics and Text Linguistics, Corpora in the Teaching of Languages and L
inguistics,
Corpora in Dialectology and Variation Studies, Corpora in Psycholinguistics, Corpora and Cultural
Studies, Corpora and Social Psychology.

5. Corpora and Language Engineering:

Introduction, What
have Corpora got to Offer? Part

of
-

Speech Analys
is, Automated Lexicography, Parsing, Multilingual
Corpus Exploitation.

Programming and Corpus Linguistics:

a.
Introduction:

A. Programming in Corpus
Linguistics: The Computer in Corpus Linguistics, Which Programming Language? Useful Aspects of
Java.

Road
-
M
ap: What is Covered, Other Features of Java.

b
. Introduction to Basic Programming
Concepts: What does a Program Do? How to Express an Algorithm.

Control Flow: Sequence, Choice,
Multiple Choice, Loop.

Variables and Data Types: Numerical Data, Character Data
, Composite Data.


Reading:

McEnery,

T.&

Wilson, A. 2003: Corpus Linguistics, Edinburgh

LNG EL 4
.
4 Language Universals and Typology

1. Language typology and language universals: types of universals; genetic, typological and typological
classifications of

language; formal and substantive universals; implicational and non
-
implicational
universals. Morphological types of language
-

agglutinative, analytical (isolating), synthetic
,

fusional
(inflecting), infixing and polysynthetic (incorporating) language. Asp
iration; nasalization; retroflexion;
Trubetzk
o
y’s typology of the vowel systems, person; number; gender; case; aspect and tense.
Contribution of typological research to Linguistic theory.

2. Inductive vs. Deductive Approaches
.

Chomsky’s concept of languag
e universals and parametric variations; word order typology. Greenb
e
rg’s
word universals for verb
-
final and verb
-
medial languages and related features in terms of South Asian
languages.

3. Syntactic Typology

Word order within a sentence and a noun phrase.
Anaphora;
monomorphemic vs. polymorphemic anaphors, emphatics, verbal reflexives and reciprocals; long
distance binding; pronouns; inclusives
-
exclusives, The Principle of Binding of Chomsky; relative
-
correlative clauses; complementation and the quotative;
verb be; pro
-
drop; agreement ; conjunctive
participles; the identical subject constraint on CP formation; lexical subjects in CPs; scope of the
negative in the CP Construction.; e
r
gativity, dative
-
genitive subjects.

4. Phonological and Morphological
Typolo
gy


An in


depth study of retroflexion; vowel harmony; aspiration; nasalization; reproductive;
echo formation; onomatopoeia; morphological, lexi
c
al and periphrastic causatives

5.Convergence and
Typology
:

Linguistic Area, a critical evaluation of the evide
nce in support of ‘India as a Linguistic
Area” (with special reference to the notion developed by Chatterjee, Emeneau, Hock) ; the verb say
construction; synchronic evidence for diachronic problems. Convergence; constraints on convergence;
constraints in s
yntactic change in linguistic contact situations; phonetic and phonological, morphological
and syntactic features of Indo
-
Aryan, Dravidian, Austro
-
Asiatic.

Readings:

Abbi, A. 1994. Semantic Universals in Indian Languages. Shimla: Indian Institute of Advanc
ed Studies.

Abbi, A. 1997.(ed.) Languages of Tribal and other Indigenous People of India: The Ethnic Space. Delhi:
Motilal Banarsidass.

(
33

)

Abbi, A. Gupta, R.S. & Kidwai, A. 2001(ed.) Linguistic Structure and Language Dynamics in South
Asia: Motilal Banarsidas
s.

Arora, H.& Subbarao, K.V. 1989. Convergence and Syntactic Reanalysis: The case of so in Dakkhini.
Studies in Linguistic Science. Vol. 19.

Bazell, E. 1985.
Linguistic

Typology. London: School of Oriental and African Studies.

Bhaskararao, P. (ed.) 2001. N
onnominative Subjects. Tokyo, Japan: ILCAA, Tokyo Universtiy of
Foreign Studies, Asahi
-
cho, Fuchu
-
shi.

Bhaskarrarao, P. & S
u
bbarao, K.V. (eds.) 2001. The Yearbook of South Asian Languages and
Linguistics 2001. Thousand Oaks, London: Sage.

Butt, M., King T.
H. & Ramchand G. (eds.) 1994. Theoretical Perspective on Word Order in South Asian
Languages. Stanford, C.A.: CSLI.

Comrie, B. 1981. Language Universals and Linguistic Typology. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.

Croft, W. 1990. Typology and Universals. Cambridge: C
ambridge Univ. Press.

Emeneau, M.B. 1964. India as a Linguistic area. In. Hymes, D. Language in Culture and Society: A
Reader in Linguistics and Anthropology. New York: Harper and Row Publications.

Gair, J., B.C. Subbarao, K.V. & Wali, K. (eds.) 2000. Pron
ouns and Lexical Anaphors in Selected South
AsianLanguages. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Hawkins, J.A. 1983. Word Order Universal. New York: Academic press.

Hawkins, W. 1994. A Performance Theory of Order and Constituency . Cambridge: Cambridge
University Pr
ess.

Hempel, C.G. 1965. Aspects in Scientific Explanation. New York: Collier
-
Macmillan.

Hock, H.H. 1975. Substratum influence on (Rig
-
Vedic) Sanskrit? Studies in Linguistic Science: 5, 76
-
125. Urbana, I.L.: University of Illinois.

Lehmann W.P. (ed.) 1978.
Syntactic Typology: Studies
in Phenomenology

of Language, Austin:
Unversity of Texas Press.

Mahajan, A. 1990. The A/A
-
bar Distinction and Movement Theory. Ph
.D
. Dissertation, MIT.

Mahajan, A. 1997. Universal Grammar and Typology of Ergative Languages. In A
lexidonm A. and Hall,
T.A. (eds.) Studies in Universal Grammar and Typolog
ical

Variation. Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John
Benjamin Publishing House Co.

Malinson, G.& Blake B.J. 1981. Language Typology: Cross
-
linguistic studies in
S
yntax. Amsterdam.
North Ho
lland.

Masica, C.P. 1976. Defining a Linguistic Area: South Asia. Chicago: University Press.

Sapir, E. 1921. Language . New York: Harcourt Brace and World.

Shibatani, M. & Bynon, T. (eds.) 1995. Approaches to Language Typology. Oxford: Clarendon.

Subbarao,

K.V. 1997. Linguistic Theory and Syntactic Typology: A Proposal for a Symbolic
Relationship. In Proceedings of the International Conference on South Asian Languages. Moscow:
Moscow State University.

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34

)

Subbarao, K.V. 2000. Syntactic Typology and South Asian
Languages. In : The Yearbook of South
Asian Languages and Linguistics 2000, (ed.) R. Singh, New Delhi, Thousand Oaks, London: Sage.

Subbarao, K.V. & Saxena A. Language Universals: Inductive or Deductive? In Bashir, E. (ed.) Selected
Papers from SALA 7. Ind
ian, Bloomington: Indian University Linguistic Club.

Tomlin, R.S. 1986. Basic Word
-
Orders. London: Croom
-
Helm.

LNG EL 4
.
5 Child Language Acquisition

1.

Phonological development:

Early speech production and perception(categorical perception, word
segment
ation, babbling) to mature system.

2.Syntactic and semantic bootstrapping

Stages of sentence
production; emergence of functional categories and projections.

3.Lexical acquisition:

Lexical categories
and the natural partitions hypothesis (the noun advant
age), regular and irregular morphology; lexical
mapping.

4.

Learnability issues:

Development of UG principles (qualification and binding) and
parameter setting; di
a
ry Studies, large sample studies and longitudinal studies; language acquisition and
multilin
gualism; motherese; emergence of linguistic awareness; acquisition of discourse strategies.


Readings:

Baker, C.L. & Mc Carthy, J. (eds.) 1981. The Logical Problem of Language Acquisition. Cambridge,
Massachusetts: MIT Press.

Clark, E.V. 1993. The Lexicon

in Acquisition. New York: Cambridge Univ. Press.

Crain, S and Diane Lillo
-
Martin. 1999. An Introduction to Linguistic Theory and Language Acquisition.
Blackwell textbooks in Linguistics.

Ingram, D. 1989. First Language Acquisition. Cambridge: Cambridge U
niv. Press.

Jusczyk, P. 1997. The Discovery of Spoken Language. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press.

Lakshmi Bai, B. 2000. Sounds and Words in Early Language Acquisition: A Bilingual Account. Shimla:
Indian

Institute of Advanced Study.

Lust, B., Suner, M
., and Whitman, J.(eds.) 1994. Syntactic Theory and First Language Acquisition:
Cross Linguistic Perspectives. Vol.I: Heads, projections and Learnability; Vol.II: Bindiing,
Dependencies and Learnability. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates: Hillside.

Rithie, W. and Bhatia, Tej. (eds.) 1999. Handbook of Child Language Acquisition. New York:
Academic Press.

LNG EL 4
.
6 History of Linguistics

1. Linguistic Studies in Ancient Times:

(i). Eastern:

(a). Indian

(i). The Vedas, Brahmanas, Aranyakas,
Shiksha
, Pratishakhyas,Nirukata.

(ii). Panini, Katyayana, Patanjali.

(iii). Bhartrhari and after.

(iv).
Recognition of Indian Contribution by the West.

(b). Non


Indian:

Persian, Arabic, Chinese, Russian etc.

(ii). Western:

(i). The Grecko
-
Romans and
their Philo
sophy of Language: Plato, Aristotle.

(ii). The Traditional Grammar.

(iii). The Renaissance and
After.

2. Linguistic Studies in the 18
th

Century.


3. Linguistic Studies in the 19
th

Century

(i). Schleget, Rask, Grimm, Grassman, Verner, Bopp,
Humboldt, Schlet
er and their Contribution.

(ii)

Geneva, Copenhagen and Prague schools.


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35

)

(iii) Historical
-
Comparative Linguistics: The basis of Modern Linguistics.

4. Linguistic studies in the
20
th

Century:

(a). Various schools and Traditions.

(i). Sauss
ure; Geneva, Copenhagen and Prague schools.

(ii). The British Tradition.

(iii). The American structuralism.

(iv). The Late Fifties.

(b). Various Grammatical Models of Linguistic
Studies: Tagmemics, Stratificational Grammar, Systemic Grammar, Pragmatics, Tr
ansformational
Generation Grammar, Case Grammar, Communicative Grammar, Relational Grammar, Functional
Grammar.

(c). Current Trends and New Dimensions of Theoretical & Applied Linguistics:

Generative
Phonology, Instrumental Phonetics, Generative Sementics,

Neurolinguistics, Textual Linguistics,
Communication engineering, speech pathology, Discourse analysis, Body language, Forensic linguistics,
Language and Brain, Language Planning.

5. Linguistic Studies in Modern India:

(i). Premier
Institutions.

(ii). M
ajor Works done in various Field by scholars
-
foreign and Indian.

(iii). The Task
Ahead.

Reading:

Allen, W.S. 1953: Phonetics in Ancient India, Oxford Univ.

Press.

Pedersin, H 1931: Linguistic Science in the Nineteenth Century.

Waterman, J.T. 1963: Perspect
ives in Linguistics, Longman.

Dinnen, F.P. 1967: An Introduction to General Linguistics.

Sharma, R.S. 1981: Linguistics Studies in Modern India. Arya Book Depo.

Varshney, R.L.: An Introductory Textbook of Linguistics and Phonetics.

LNG EL 4
.
7 Semiotics

Introduction to Semiotics (Theories of C.S. Peirce and Saussure), Philosophy of Language and
Linguistic Philosophy, (Abelard, some thoughts of British Empiricism, French Rationalism and German
Schools of Philosophy), (Linguistic Philosophies of Bertrand R
ussell and Wittgenstein), Semiology in
French Structuralism.

Theories of Meaning in Indian Tradition from the point of view of textual interpretatio
n (Vyākarana,
Mimāmsā, Nyaya, Baudha, Jaina and Bhart
r
hari’s Vakyapadiya).

Communication and aesthetics, abhinaya in Bharatanatyasastra, Theories on Literary Semantics
(pravrttis, rasa, dhvani, alamkara,Vakrokti and aucitya), Aesthetic theories in Tantra a
nd Saiva systems.

Readings:

John Fiske, Introduction to Communication Studie
s
, Methuen,1982.

H.S. Gill, Sign and Signification, Bahri Publications

Keir Elam, The Semiotics of Theatre & Drama, Methuen, 1980.

Imis Robert E. (ed.) Semiotics ( An Introductory
Reader), Hutchinson, London, 1986.

Bharatanātyasastra

Kapil Kapoor, Literary Theory: Indian Conceptual Framework.

B.K. Matilal, The Word and the World
:
India’s Contribution to the Study of Language, Oxford Univ.
Press.

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36

)

Encyclopedia of Philosophy

Bishnupad Bhattācharya, A Study in Language
and Meaning, Progressive Publishers, Calcutta, 1962.

K. Kunjuni Raja, Indian Theories of Meaning, The Adyar Library and Research Centre, Adyar, 1963.

Zabeech, Farhag, Klemke E.D. & Jacobson Arthar, Readings in Semantics, University of Ilinois Press:
Illini
os, 1974.

Ravi Shankar Nagar, A Critical Study of Vyanjanā, Vandana Prakashan, Delhi.1977.

Harris, Roy 2003. Sassure and his Interpreters, Edinburgh University Press.

LNG EL 4
.
8
Neurolinguistics

A. Brain
-
language relationship:

Issues in neurolinguistics and ling
uistic aphasiology; approaches to
neurolinguistics and linguistic aphasiology; historical overview.

B. Models of brain
-
language relationship:

Classical connectionist model; hierarchical models, global
models, process models; clinical aphasiology and neurol
inguistics.

C. Brain pathology and language breakdown:

Aphasia and its classification; classical categories;
linguistic account; overview of linguistic aphasiology.

D. Dyslexia:

Dyslexia and its classification; overview and implications.

E. Contemporary is
sues and
trends:

Cerebral dominance, lateralization and handedness; overview of contemporary neurolinguistics;
implications.


Readings:

Arbib, A.; D. Caplan.; and J.C. Marshall, (ed.). 1982. Neural Models of Language Processes. New York:
Academic Press.

Be
nson, D.F. 1979. Aphasia, Alexia and Agraphia, New York: Churchill Livingstone.

Caplan, D. (ed.). 1980. Biological Studies of Mental Process. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press.

Caplan, D. 1987. Neurolinguistics and Linguistic Aphasiology. Cambridge: CUP.

Caplan,D
. 1997. Language: Structure, Processing and Disorders. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press.

Goodglass, H. 1993. Understanding Aphasia. San Diego: Academic Press.

Gordzinsky, Y. 1990. Theoretical Perspective on Language Deficits. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press.

Jakobson
, R. 1968. Child Language, Aphasia and Phonological Universals. The Hague: Mouton.

Lesser, R. 1978. Linguistic Investigations of Aphasia. New York: Elsevier.

Men, L. and Obler, L.K. 1990. Agrammatic Aphasia, Amsterdam: Benjamins.


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