Creating a Cognitive Exoskeleton!

imminentpoppedAI and Robotics

Feb 23, 2014 (3 years and 3 months ago)

64 views

QUEST:
integrated human computer
‘solutions’
for the 'wicked' problems we face



Is It possible to Create a Computer That
Feels
?

Creating a
Cognitive Exoskeleton!

Steve “Capt
Amerika
” Rogers, Ph.D., SES/ST

Senior Scientist for ATR and Sensor Fusion

Sensors and Information Directorates

Air Force Research Laboratory

Apr 2010

Profs Bauer,
Oxley,

Mendenhall


AFIT ATR

Profs Raines
, Mills, Baldwin, Kurkowski, Galloway, Okolica, Humphries, Borghetti,
Grimaila



AFIT Cyber

Matt Kabrisky, Adam Rogers
-

Quale LLC

Drs. Wilson, Priddy, Williams, Perlovsky, and Wicker, Maj Weir,
A. Bryant
,M. McClure, G. Lukens, R. Malhotra,
Vogel


AFRL/RY

Dr. Brian Tsou, Janet Peasant, Catherine Harrison,
Dr. Laurie Fenstermacher, Bob Patterson, Byron Pierce


AFRL/RH

Dr. R Linderman


AFRL/RI

Pete Collins


AFIT EMAG

Chuck Sadowski


ACC/A8

Don Wunsch


Univ Mo Rolla

Hidden Units:
Mark Derriso (RB)
, Col Ryer, Tim Lacey, Maj Eyster,
Capt Birrer
, Cindy Krieger,
Capt Dube

# We shouldn’t speak


of solutions just speak


of subjectively


acceptable responses


to ‘wicked’ problems

Outline


1. Premise


computational intelligence abstraction tie
together mini tracks
(representations applicable to
‘wicked’ problems
-

OODA
)


2. Define
agents



data, information, knowledge
and
context



key to ‘representation’


3. What
Turing

meant to say


‘alignment’ key


4. Adaptable foe
generalization for cross domain
insight


cyber, asymmetric warfare, and cancer
(
adaptable

-
>
wicked
)


5. QUEST


QUalia

Exploitation of Sensor Technology


general ‘solution’ approach to wicked problems

Questions welcome as we go through the material or at the end


wicked’ problems we care about are often


characterized by interaction between sentient


agents

When one of the interacting agents is continually modifying its representation


to compensate for actions being taken against its goals (changing requirements)


-

conflicting requirements and
changing requirements
suggest

that as you solve part of the problem, you negatively impact other aspects

Wicked Problems

Term introduced in 1967

By
C. West Churchman

Defining characteristics of wicked problems:

1.
The problem is not understood until after the formulation of a solution.

2.
Wicked problems have no stopping rule.

3.
Solutions to wicked problems are not right or wrong.

4.
Every wicked problem is essentially novel and unique.

5.
Every solution to a wicked problem is a 'one shot operation'

6.
Wicked problems have no given alternative solutions.





-

By Jeff Conklin



cannot be tackled by the traditional approach
in which problems are defined,

analyzed, and solved in sequential steps.’


most paradigmatical examples of wicked problems come from the areas of public

planning and policy
: these include global
climate change
,
natural hazards
, healthcare

in the United States and elsewhere, the AIDS epidemic, pandemic influenza,

international drug trafficking, homeland security, nuclear weapons, and nuclear

energy and waste.’

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wicked_problem

Suggest many of the issues we are discussing


in this conference are ‘wicked’


so why are


we ignoring the ‘wickedness’ and

discussing
#

point solutions for them?

#

‘Solution’ to n doesn’t necessarily help with n + 1


It may help but it DEPENDS!

Solution to box cutter detection didn’t help with PETN


and neither solve
airline security

#
Changing requirements
often a result of


mismatch between real problem and spec for solution


to current instantiation of the problem

Slides


ROE


colors


find something that


interest you #

It may just be


subjectively


acceptable

So we shouldn’t speak


of solutions just speak


of subjectively


acceptable responses


to the ‘wicked’ problem

Mission assurance mini
-
track


1.) Mission representation

‘security must focus on
mission assurance
, not network defense’


K. Jabbour (lessons in IA)


‘its not bolt loose or bolt tight it is can I do this maneuver? Can I


perform this
mission
?’ M. Derriso (ISHM
-

quest
)



‘combat actionable information’


T Wilson (CHLOED driver
-

quest
)

These make it ‘wicked’


network defense


is worthless if I can’t assure my mission

2.) Military decision making processes


EX) Real mission is to get out of Afghanistan and have


it not become a base for attacks against U. S.


versus


take


Marjah


casted incorrectly achieving one negatively impacts


other! This mismatch between the ‘real’ problem and the


problem specification based on current instantiation results in


changing requirements! #

Bolt information is worthless


without the mission implication

Even if I could extract the concepts from streaming ISR data how


can I insert them into the human decision processes? What are


the military decision processes? How dynamic are they?

Missions are always in an environment (battle space) that is


fluid and dynamic


the ‘fog’ of war


no plan survives the


fist shot
-
> ‘wicked’

Capt Dube
-

quest

CHLOED


a system


for closing the loop



exploits the whole


set of processes
-

Wilson

Observe

Orient

Decide

Act

Update

Anticipate

Sense

Monitor

Anticipatory (predictive) reasoning

focus on anticipation
-

the entities in the
world possibly to include
intents to allow anticipation
-

ToM


Asset organization, scheduling

providing Joey insight into the
‘situation’ and efficient control
of interrogation to achieve any
given mission


like find HVT 1

taking the streaming sensor data
(RFID, camera, microphone) to
architect a
GISTing

process to
access relevant
memory/knowledge


Discerning behavior, activities, events (these
initially will be definable events like
‘casing’ or ‘trip
-
wire’


we will
investigate making the vocabulary
more robust)

Contextual situation awareness

how do we capture a
representation of the world


Human
-
machine interface

Joey/Operator (Jack also has OODA)

Beyond the OODA Nonsense


think piece
Quest group Fall 2009

#

1.


Persistent sensing doesn’t lend itself to OODA

2.


Observe has to be intelligent

3.


Observe = Orient = Decide = Cognition

4.


OODA doesn’t allow for intuition

5.


Integrated human/computer solutions are key

Military decision making processes


related quest work

Mental representation for COIN and
Asymmetric Approaches in IW


Traditional
tenets
of war in cyberspace


especially in COIN and asymmetric approaches
in IW


‘wicked’ nature of problem space

Effects
assessment must look beyond first
-
order effects on networks and

information to higher
-
order effects on systems and
missions


We can achieve effective
deterrence

without attribution by increasing the

cost and lowering the benefit to an attacker (K. Jabbour


lessons in IA)


Twitris


Prof Sheth


‘sensing public opinion using social networks’

AIFIFT2EA4


expanded kill chain (
#
QUEST group ATR article ‘07)

Vision:

Anticipate,
Interact
,
Find,
Identify
, Fix, Track,
Target, Engage, Assess


Anything, Anytime,
Anywhere

Not Sequential!

These make the problems ‘wicked’


missions change


as do the resulting ‘kill
-
chain’ or representation of effects

IW great driver problem


using social networks to


estimate public opinion

What I should anticipate will changed based on what I ID

Deterrence changes continually based on the adversary


and their changing situation

QUEST:

Integrated

human/computer ‘solutions’ are
‘wicked’


Align

the representations of both partners
in the solution

http://jareddonovan.com/blog/wp
-
content/uploads/2009/03/mental_models
-
450px.png

Old approach
one directional arrow!

Predictability




key is to be able


to GIST your partner

Predictability allows


fusion!

Leonardo = Aligning


#

Second Look = Aligning

Fundamental Principle of fusion


get what you are fusing into a common representation!


Data, Information, knowledge
and understanding must be
‘alignable’
to integrate! Only way


the computer can provide ‘information’ to the human and vice versa.

Prof Sheth


‘to integrate


human and machine perception


the
convergence must occur at


this abstraction level … requires


a shared framework
’ #

Wicked problems require wicked ‘solutions’
# subjectively acceptable responses

Aligning to a constantly changing human representation is by definition ‘wicked’

QUEST:

TWO AGENTS

2: Agent, data, information, knowledge defined

Stimuli

Data

Sensor(s)


(uses knowledge)

Sensors take stimuli and make
data

Representation

Some Agents can use
context

Generating impact


on representation uses

Knowledge

also



representor

There is uncertainty in the representation


that is reduced by the use of knowledge
= # information

Agents exist in an environment that has


a plethora of stimuli
-

Some Agents respond to the stimuli


by acting on environment

We will define context as


stimuli from other


Agents outputs/Qualia


(previously, current or


expected qualia)
to


communicate via the


context


the two agents


have to be ‘aligned’ thus


it becomes a means to


pass ‘information’


between agents

A(s,k,r)

Agent consist of


sensors, knowledge,


representation,
can


be manmade or natural

There are types of knowledge


coded in the sensors determining what it


measures, determining the impact on the representation of the data and


about what it transmits to agents around it


also about how to use context

Not all agents require ‘context’


the most basic agent the ‘atomic agent’ doesn’t have a context


input

Agent can have internal Agents


Compound Agent

Stimuli

Data

Representation

Internal
Agent n

Internal
Agent 2

Internal
Agent 1



Each of these internal agents have sensors/knowledge and their


respective internal representations


they together make


up the representation for the compound Agent

Can have hierarchy


within the pool

context

Context is the means to allow the capturing


of the continually changing requirements


more to come on this


required for


all ‘wicked’ problems

Even if an agent could model self can it imbue that to

others? An autism deficiency.

Relevance to IDS, terrorist



intent from activity? Autistic


solutions won’t solve some


important problems!

False Belief Test

ToM is the key to intent


and intent is the key to


#

‘ANTICIPATE’. Solutions


to IW will require an


expanded ‘kill
-
chain’.

Software is the creation of the


minds of HUMANS


Correct extraction


and interpretation requires
a # ToM


which requires a solution to


#Self.

BAD NEWS ToM is ‘wicked’

In that world model we have to also place


our model of others. That
model attempts


to infer beliefs and desires and tries to


predict

what they will do from those beliefs


and desires and our assumption of what


they are sensing. As ill
-
posed as this may


seem


it is no more difficult than the ill


posed nature of what all our sensors do



assumptions are made that are


indispensable but also indefensible other


than historically they have served us well.


https://sfari.org/commentaries/
-
/asset_publis...

As pointed out earlier ‘anticipate’ is


‘wicked’

Required for Alignment!


between agents

3. Turing and code breaking and
the Imitation Game

ALAN TURING HAD AN APPROACH TO PROBLEM SOLVING


-

HE USED THAT APPROACH TO
CRACK THE NAZI CODE


HE USED THAT
APPROACH


TO INVENTING THE IMITATION GAME



THROUGH THAT ASSOCIATION WE WILL GET


BETTER
INSIGHT
INTO WHAT THE IMPLICATION OF THE IMITATION GAME MEANING


IS TO COMING UP WITH A BETTER CAPTCHA, BETTER APPROACH TO ‘
#

TRUST’

AND


AN AUTISM DETECTION SCHEME


and a unique approach to Intent from activity (malware)

Prof Oxley suggested maybe the ‘deceit’ aspect is also universal in his thoughts


he

lived a life


based on trying NOT to let people break his personal ‘code’


his sexuality

Turing, Alan M.
"Computing Machinery and Intelligence,"

Mind
, 59
(19
50
), 433
-
460

Rogers, S.K., Kabrisky, M., Bauer, K. and Oxley, M.
“Computing Machinery and
Intelligence
Amplification
,”
Computational Intelligence, The Experts
Speak

(Chapter 3),” New Jersey: IEEE Press, 2003.


http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.thetech.org/robotics/universal/images

/p13_turing_breakout.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.thetech.org/robotics/universal/breakout_

p13_turing.html&usg=__6bpeJsLNKV_XkzurPBm3h7nAZZg=&h=398&w=600&sz=

54&hl=en&start=48&itbs=1&tbnid=T4sJOvdlVD7k6M:&tbnh=90&tbnw=135&prev=

/images%3Fq%3DAlan%2BTuring%26gbv%3D2%26ndsp%3D21%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DN%26start%3D42

Meaning Turing not Ox

Static codes aren’t necessarily wicked but once the human mind is engaged and constantly


changing the types of messages and thus the symbol implication = ‘wicked’

Estimating Intelligence

Imitation Game



Turing Test

Fogel, David B.
Blondie24: Playing at the Edge of AI.

San Francisco: Morgan
Kaufmann. September 2001


Predicted: after 5 minutes


only 70% chance to correctly


determine interactions with


computer

Turing, Alan M. "Computing Machinery and Intelligence,"
Mind
, 59 (1950), 433
-
460

Estimating Intelligence/What

Imitation game = Turing Test


is a ‘wicked’ task


more to


come on this idea but the essence


is that the human mind that the


interrogator is interacting with can


continually change itself in a


non
-
algorithmic manner


making


the requirements that the interrogator


is trying to decipher continually


changing!

Code Breaking as an alignment issue

Nazi
Thoughts
(
qualia

-

symbols)

German
language
instantiation
(words
-

symbols)

Enigma
encoded
symbols

RF
transmissions
from sub

To extract from the stimuli at any point of this set
of sets and
processes requires


‘knowledge’ of the symbol set
and processes


requires ‘alignment’ with symbols/processes


resident in the entity trying to extract


the goal is to extract the symbols and deduce


their meaning to the transmitter of the symbols by ‘aligning’ with symbols


resident in the extracting entity


so for example when some
covert Allies entity captures


the RF transmissions
they have to use their

knowledge
of RF encoding/communication schemes


used by the Nazi subs to be able to extract the symbols being transmitted by the sub


thus


the
meaning

of the RF transmissions in the sense of which EM wave component is associated


with a given symbol from the sub (meaning in this sense is what the RF transmission


represented)
(another
example use of the
word ‘Eins’ (one)



and its frequency of use in Naval messages).

The result of
application of this knowledge and some brute force application of potential
other symbol alignment is a
translation of the encoded message back into German language words

The idea is that the
Allied code breaker
(human) has a thoughts


in their private qualia vocabulary

This person has the
desire to ‘understand’ the thoughts that the Nazi Submarine human is trying

to communicate to another Nazi human in a command center
(probably in terms of location, date, …)

German language is the data into the Enigma encryption system agent!

Midway example shows need for


interaction

Imitation Game
#‘aligning’


The interrogator has thoughts in its private
mentalease = qualia


Its job is to
align its symbol set with those of
the entity ‘A’
(man or computer) and ‘B’
(woman)
---

that is to
deduce the ‘meaning’
of
the symbols being used by those entities
to
those entities

and from that deduction
determine which entity is the woman!


Meaning of symbols being transmitted to the


entity that is transmitting them is the

Connection BETWEEN CODE BREAKING AND


IMITATION GAME
!
If the meaning is consistent


with what I would expect of a woman … or of a
trusted

node! (
Lacey = quest)

Mental Symbols and Representation

Midway example shows need for


interaction


Mental symbols encode sensory
experiences

both real and imagined,
forming the basis of a rich and complex
system of
communication
. Such symbols
can be kept to oneself or expressed to
others as words or pictures.
‘Mentalease’


language of thoughts


Abstract

thought permits contemplation
of things
beyond

what we can see, hear,
touch, taste or smell.

What is unique about human intelligence?
By Dr. Marc Hauser

In
Scientific American
, September 2009

We would contend that


‘feeling’ is critical to


‘thinking’


since we will


define thinking as the


generation, maintenance,


and manipulation of mental


symbols = qualia
, and that is


the language of ‘feelings


Turing solution:

Would program feel?

Does that belong on list?

‘alignment’ = KEY TO INTENT from activity!

Don’t use physics based sensory data to represent experiences

Allows representation of abstract thoughts to be ‘fuseable’

TWO WAY ALIGNMENT CAPTCHA

Tie between the imitation game and code breaking


part of


uniqueness of humanity is flexibility of our ability to align

Thus malware detection is an exercise in code breaking



the essence of code breaking is deducing the meaning of

the symbols to the entity that is transmitting them


Animated Captchas

http://blog.case.edu/singham/2009/11/08/dalmation.jpg

Captcha security


a case study


Yan et al

Completely Automated Public Turing Tests

to Tell Computers and Humans Apart

(CAPTCHAs)

# two way alignment captcha = quest

4. ‘Magic Bullet’ fallacy for cyber,
Asymmetric war and cancer


Nobel Laureate P. Ehrlich introduced the concept of
#
‘magic bullet’
over 100 yrs ago (compounds to
selectively target/kill tumor cells
or disease causing
organisms
without negative impact on normal cells
).


Problems in
#
asymmetric war, cyber warfare or cancer
are related


Is it reasonable to think that there exists
some technological solution that will allow us to have
a warfare ‘magic bullet’ in any of these wars?


Even worse does the thought of a ‘magic bullet’
dominating our work cause us to not pursue
technology avenues that would bring great value!

Metastasis


‘magic bullet’ issue


As a cancer tumor undergoes metastases
it changes


and thus tumors
and many diseases like Aids requires a cocktail of drugs


thus with our
analogy to fighting a war against a foe like Al Qaeda you
can imagine a
country/countries like Iraq/Afghanistan/Pakistan is as complicated as a
body and as new ‘cells’ metastasize they change


Ex)
al Zarqawi the
Prince of Iraq wasn’t following the dictates of Bin Laden et al


thus the
strategy to fight those cells had to be different than the ones in
Pakistan/Afghanistan


BOTTOM LINE WE SHOULDN’T BE TALKING COUNTER INSURGENCY OR
COUNTER TERRORISM


WE SHOULD BE TALKING ALL OF THE ABOVE


AS
A COCKTAIL OF SOLUTIONS


In Asymmetric Approaches in IW


PETN detector


chasing the adaptable foe? Does NOT solve


the airline security problem! Airline Security requirements as


we state them will always be continually changing.

Telomerase analogy


A pathologist, once remarked that when you do cytology on cancer cells the first thing that strikes
you is how chaotic they look: like someone set off a bomb. In the billions of cells in any critter, that
undoubtedly happens all the time, yet hardly any of the bombs in us turns into a killer because no
matter what they can do, even in the matter of uncontrolled reproduction, unless their particular
chaos includes starting up the telomerase gene, they rapidly senesce, and the
malignant cell line
dies out as their telomeres are lost


That’s how nature solved the cancer problem:
NO TELOMERASE FOR ANY CELLS EXCEPT FOR
STEM
CELLS AND GERM LINE CELLS
. If that fails, and it does once in a while, you die. Fighting an immortal
cancer cell line, which can make telomerase, is like jousting with chaos. Thus we have begun to
realize that immortal cancer lines can at best be relegated to the statues of just a chronic, though
ultimately fatal, disorder like ageing (see any life expectancy table.)


Terrorist attacks and the intrinsic
metast
-
abilty

of terrorist organizations resemble the animal
cancer system and its possible self defense strategies. But the fact is that animals are successful
most of the time when cellular chaos occurs in some cell, only
because of the telomerase time
bomb built in to each cell
. That is
not the case in terrorist "tumors"
. So the analogy is that fighting
terrorism will always be jousting with chaos, and history shows that this is what happens. The
equivalent for a terrorist cell to the DNA is the
‘message’


it is immortal


you can kill off the cell
but the message still exists:
The Moving Finger writes; and, having writ, Moves on: nor all your
Piety nor Wit Shall lure it back to cancel half a Line, Nor all your Tears wash out a Word of it
--

Omar
Khayyam
The

lymphatic system is the web
-



The red ends show regions of telomeres in a chromosome (structure in the cell nucleus containing DNA, histone & nonhistone pr
ote
ins)


http://openpit.wordpress.com/2009/10/12/immortality/


Is there something in how body


fights cancer that is useful in our


‘wicked’ fights?

Suggest only hope we have is Information Warfare!

NY times article 29 dec 2009


December 29, 2009

FORTY YEARS' WAR


Old Ideas Spur New Approaches in Cancer Fight


By
GINA KOLATA


Although seemed like a radical idea:
Gene mutations
are part of the process of cancer, but mutations alone
are not enough
. Cancer involves an interaction between
rogue cells and surrounding tissue
.
A
s are all
adaptable foes


the key is preventing the enabling of
the
‘# normal population’


in cyber or in Asymmetric
war OR CANCER!

Anbar Awakenings worked because


of this realization

5. Layered Sensing challenge

http://www.armytimes.com/xml/news/2007/10/gns_spytechnology_071002/100207gotcha_800.JPG

http://www.wired.com/images_blogs/dangerroom/images/2009/02/17/gorgon_stare.jpg

The system is initially expected to

provide a main full
-
motion video and

12 pre
-
programmable sub
-
views
. Air

Force officials have previously said that

their goal is to provide up to 30 sub
-
views

in future generations of the sensor.


"
We are going to be swimming in sensors and drowning in data,
" Gen
Deptula

told reporters at a July 7 Pentagon briefing. (09)


Processing this data
requires abstraction to concepts


-

current approaches process the raw sensory data


-

How to map the
#

data to concepts
?


-

How to do that in a general way
without having


to predefine in every detail

(which results in loss of


flexibility and robustness)




-

Close the Loop! Query to sensing to hypothesis


to new query

Concept encoding is a wicked problem because the


data is so variable and the sensors never exactly


replicated


point being the specs are changing

Alternatives to solve problems


Lots of people


even if we could resource the people they
can’t handle the data flow (
#
50 bits/sec throughput
)


Autonomous computer solutions


after 50 years we have
failed in automating conceptualization and processing in data
space won’t work


Answer:
integrated human/computer provides a ‘wicked’
solution! => as per prior discussion integrated = ‘
alignable


Cyber, Automatic Target Recognition, Integrated Systems Health Monitoring, Nurse shift


facilitator

http://www.etproductions.com/images/ai.gif

QUEST

There has been over half a century of effort into making intelligent
computer programs. One example of such a program would be
one that could understand the world that it is embedded in. BUT
A GENERAL
PURPOSE
(one that can respond to the unexpected
query in a variety of applications)

RECOGNITION ABILITY DOES
NOT EXIST
except in nature

QUEST is a unique approach to
representation

to provide the ability to

anticipate, detect, distinguish and characterize
entities in the real world


via integrated human / machine exploitation.

QUEST

QUalia Exploitation of Sensor Technology


creating a cognitive exoskeleton

Entities


IEDs, malware, suicide


bombers, aging a/c and other ISHM,
cancer,

….
‘wicked’


incomplete,
contradicting and changing information

Don’t restrict problem down to ‘selected’ well defined targets and confusers and conops


be able to respond to the


unexpected query


unintended reuse of representation.

Conceptual Encoding


QUEST is attacking the


#

DATA


CONCEPT GAP


TO GAIN FLEXIBILITY AND


ROBUSTNESS LOST WHEN


PROCESS IN SENSORY SPACE

To integrate we have to be able to


align


requires replication of


concept encoding

Our very definition of what we want for QUEST is


‘wicked’ since it doesn’t imply there is a specifiable


set it has to work over = ‘general purpose’ recognition


ability


QUEST solutions have to be ‘wicked’ solns

To account for the ‘wicked’ nature of generating an internal
representation of a changing world? Qualia = concepts

What it is like to


undergo an experience

Why do you ‘feel’ pain?


Individualized!

Why do you ‘see’


red?
#

Color

is in


your head


light


has NO COLOR! Do


Martians see red?


LSOC important

Redness is wicked

Subjective element


of the experience:


Qualia Theory of


Relativity.

Chords a great example


what you hear is evoked in your mind it isn’t just the notes! Headphones!

Pheung


individualized


basis

#
Pudding doesn’t have


a
taste

until you eat it.

‘might acquire qualia in the process of being economically encoded or “prepared” into manageable chunks as they are delivered

to

a

central executive structure higher up in the brain’


Ramachandran


QUEST view chunks used for meta
-
representations for sensory


and motor experiences. The





goal is to build a world model





that is consistent and useful not


necessarily an accurate one in


a physics sense.

What ‘perception’ is


subjectively acceptable?

QUEST Theory of Relativity

Entity One

Entity Two

Physical World


Autistic Representation

Subjective World Model


QUEST Representation

Hue
-

physical


attribute
preferential


reflects .7 um

Hue
-

physical


attribute

preferential


reflects .45 um

Subjective Representation


Entity One

Subjective Representation of


Entity Two

Color quale


link that captures


the relative


redness between


these two entities


captures relative


saturation,
intensity,


hue


axes of


experience

We have spent all our traditional bandwidth on trying to faithfully capture the physical


versus capturing a representation that can be ‘understood’ by a computer. Concept


of transposition (singing in a different key or at twice the speed is irrelevant


still song).

Absolute pitch




1 in 10k

Theory of binding


issue


of crowding!

Horn Theory
-


Red

as a
#

concept!

Red

as a wavelength!

LSOC

Redness is ‘wicked’ since as I encode that concept


it changes the requirement for ‘blueness’

Cartesean Theater

For the purpose of this presentation I will
define qualia
as
any discernible aspect


of the illusory Cartesean theater

= any aspect of your world model that you are


aware of (meaning you know is part of, meaning you experience that aspect) as being


part of that world model,
the fact you can
‘see’
the redness of a car means that


red attribute of your world model is a quale red


any sound you
hear

(the attributes


of the sound that evoked JND aspects to them are each a quale at that moment)




any
thought

you have at that moment you are thinking it is in your world


model as a thought in your mind so there is a quale of thought associated with it AND


thoughts in fact are composed of qualia (the primitives of all thought)

Thoughts

Qualia associated with representation


of the physical environment and to


represent the thoughts you are having


all in a stable, consistent and useful way

Discernible meant to capture that there is


a difference between one state and the


alternative (blue versus brown) and the


fact that aspects are introspectively


available

Discernible aspects can be used
internally to ‘think’ or
communicated via language

to an aligned agent
-

‘What is done by what is called myself is, I feel, done by something greater than


myself in me’


James Clerk Maxwell on his deathbed, 1879 (user illusion)

Pretending to be in charge of things

beyond its control


user illusion

Although
claims to be making decisions


it


isn’t even there when the decision is
made

Qualia provide a language to capture the ‘wickedness’ inherent in everyday problems


everything is inter
-
dependent!

Can you function without Qualia?

Real World

Libet

Soup,
#
Intuitive and
autistic

Qualia

based
Cartesean

Theater

Sensor Data

Physical actions by the critter

Physical reality

Internal representation

Note related to idea


of Thalamo
-
cortical loop

Access to memory


via associative est


of similarity,


parallel processing,


fast,
(soccer pass),


biases (priming)

Logical analysis,


generation and initiation


of empiric test,
Veto rights,


controls communication,


maintains thoughts

Internally evoked via this link


(thoughts)

Externally evoked via


Libet populated

What do you lose without qualia?

11 mbits/sec

50 bits/sec
throughput b/w of consciousness


amazing code book vector capability!

No conscious free will

Pretending to be in charge of things beyond its control


user illusion

Recent article ‘Custer in Cyberspace’


by Gompert and Kugler

Required for Alignment!

Blindsight Navigation

No buffer,

no multiple alternate responses

full reference
-

de Gelder et al. "Intact navigation skills after bilateral loss of striate cortex."

Current Biology, Volume 18, Issue 24, 23 December 2008, Pages R1128
-
R1129


news article link
-

http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/science/article5385633.ece


youtube video of him going down the hall
-

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nFJvXNGJsws

QUEST Agent

Stimuli

Data

Sensor(s)


(uses knowledge)

Libet

Qualia

context

The agent can pass along aspects of its


internal representation from both the


Libet (intuition) or Qualia aspects of


its representation?

Generating impact


on representation uses

Knowledge also

Part is introspectively available


part is not = reflexive (also no buffering)

Aq(s, Rq, Rl, k)

Knowledge also has types


Ks


sensor knowledge (this


is what controls what stimuli


that gets mapped to data)


Kd


controls how data impacts the


internal representation


Kq


knowledge about other agents so


the appropriate qualia are provided as


output thus stimuli for other Agents

Context is the stimuli available


for this agent that are the


outputs of other Agents,


not just their currently


active qualia but also their


previously active qualia


and their expected to be


active qualia
---

there has


to be a Kc


a knowledge


associated with how to


process context into


impacting this agent’s


representation

Possibly context could be the source of the ‘inference task’


that determines what an Agent is trying to accomplish


for examp
le


‘context’ could prompt an Agent to ‘perceive’ some aspect of its environment


thus the agent has to gather the appropriate dat
a


to update that aspect of its representation


once this is accomplished the Agent could communicate it out to become stimuli t
o


another agent

Do QUEST agents


require a human?

Do all ‘wicked’


problems require


QUEST agent


solutions ?

Required for Alignment!











Within any given application
area performance improvements
will be demonstrated and insight
into
performance bounding
will be
generated.



The ability to extend the solution
to
unexpected queries
.





Input is never considered without
context

(subjective representation of the situation)
and only has value relative to prior, current
or expected experiences (qualia)


General purpose intelligence is possible with a
representation
optimized for exploitation
versus
fidelity with physical reality.



Interaction

with the environment is critical.

MAIN ACHIEVEMENT:


Ability to use both memory and knowledge to
hierarchically represent instances to
close the loop

around the kill
-
chain, in a variety of applications, as
relative concepts (
qualia
) and map them into
plausible narratives
(in context) and manipulate
(reason) with that representation to create a
stable,
useful and consistent world model.

HOW IT WORKS:


Instead of only using exemplars, prototypes or
models for representing concepts we also use
subjective

knowledge of the environment to
populate the representation capturing the
relative characteristics (
qualia
). QUEST solutions
consist of a
quale generating kernel and a set of
processes
to manipulate/reason with that
representation. The representation is
characterized by
gists

and
links

between the
qualia
.

ASSUMPTIONS AND LIMITATIONS:


Link based representation where the links have
hierarchical relationships can represent any
concept.


There exists a universal kernel for extracting the
qualia

(concept representation).


A
qualia

representation can represent itself
within its world model.




Computer aides are limited to well
defined environments and only for
single applications
.


Variations in application or location in
kill
-
chain

(AIFIT2EA4) require re
-
engineering the solution.

•Solutions are
reflexive/‘autistic
’, with
no ability to learn concepts, adapt to
operating conditions or bound
performance

Exploitation in a layered sensing
environment

•Computation of ‘
self’
and inclusion
in world model.

•Introduction of a general
Theory of
Mind
facilitating anticipation.

What are the key

new insights?

(REPLACETHIS BOX AND INSERT
DIAGRAM(S))

QUANTITATIVE IMPACT

END
-
OF
-
PHASE GOAL

STATUS QUO

NEW INSIGHTS

QUEST Cognitive Exoskeleton

Qualia

Exploitation of Sensor Technology

An integrated human/computer solution with the ability to capture and understand concepts around the
kill chain will offer a dramatic engineering advantage over current ‘autistic’ solutions.

Note characteristics of


QUEST
solutions!

QUESTIONS?


1. Premise


computational intelligence abstraction tie
together mini tracks
(representations applicable to
‘wicked’ problems
-

OODA
)


2. Define
agents



data, information, knowledge
and
context



key to ‘representation’


3. What
Turing

meant to say


‘alignment’ key


4. Adaptable foe
generalization for cross domain
insight


cyber, asymmetric warfare, and cancer
(
adaptable

-
>
wicked
)


5. QUEST


QUalia

Exploitation of Sensor Technology


general ‘solution’ approach to wicked problems

Questions welcome as we go through the material or at the end


wicked’ problems we care about are often


characterized by interaction between sentient


agents

When one of the interacting agents is continually modifying its representation


to compensate for actions being taken against its goals (changing requirements)

QUEST:
integrated human computer solutions for the 'wicked' problems we face



Is It possible to Create a Computer That
Feels
?

Creating a
Cognitive Exoskeleton!

Steve “Capt
Amerika
” Rogers, Ph.D., SES/ST

Senior Scientist for ATR and Sensor Fusion

Sensors and Information Directorates

Air Force Research Laboratory

Apr 2010

Profs Bauer,
Oxley,

Mendenhall


AFIT ATR

Profs Raines
, Mills, Baldwin, Kurkowski, Galloway, Okolica, Humphries, Borghetti


AFIT Cyber

Matt Kabrisky, Adam Rogers
-

Quale LLC

Drs. Wilson, Priddy, Williams, Perlovsky, and Wicker, Maj Weir,
A. Bryant
,M. McClure, G. Lukens, R. Malhotra


AFRL/RY

Dr. Brian Tsou, Janet Peasant, Catherine Harrison,
Dr. Laurie Fenstermacher


AFRL/RH

Dr. R Linderman


AFRL/RI

Pete Collins


AFIT EMAG

Chuck Sadowski


ACC/A8

Hidden Units: Mark Derriso, Col Ryer, Tim Lacey, Maj Eyster,
Capt Birrer
, Cindy Krieger,
Capt Dube