in a Post 9/11 environment.

illnurturedtownvilleMobile - Wireless

Nov 21, 2013 (3 years and 10 months ago)

103 views

Wireless Communications to improve
transportation safety and productivity:
in a Post 9/11 environment.

Lori J. Brown

Lead Researcher

Crew Safety and Security Research Team

Western Michigan University


College of Aviation

Kalamazoo, Michigan, USA

“The attempts of those valiant flight attendants
onboard United Airlines flight 93, serve as
alarming reminders that the cabin crew is essential
to the safety of the aircraft and passengers.“


Flight Attendants as “Frontline responders.”


Photo: Av
-
Sec 2008

The cabin interphone system may
have been sufficient when designed
in the 1950’s.

Has failed in accidents/incidents

Qantas BGK, Tower Air JFK, Valujet, UAL 811, etc

"The security breaches onboard that led to
the events of 9/11; Richard Reid,
suspected "shoe bomber" on American
Airlines flight 63, December 2001; and
other subsequent threats have confirmed
the need for a wireless communication
device," Association of Professional Flight
Attendants (APFA).



Communication


Viewed from “both sides of the fortress
door”

Errors have been
documented which illustrate
the convergence of barriers
in information transfer
between the flight
attendants and pilots and
the anticipated stress
related effects on
communication.
(Chute 1996)



Western Michigan University, Pilot /Flight Attendant
Survey


(Brown &Niehaus 2009)

*Funded by WMU FRACASF Grant




0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
1: Poor (No crew briefings)
3 Average
5

1. How would you rate your airlines’ level of effective
communication between pilots and flight attendants?


*74% Average or Below


An ATR aft passenger door separated after take
-
off at an altitude of 600 feet. The flight attendant
at the door, stated that she did not think of
calling the cockpit when she heard the sound of
the door leak before it separated, because the
aircraft was under sterile cockpit conditions.



When queried as to what conditions she would
call the cockpit when sterile, she responded that
she would in case of fire or a problem passenger.
Confusion over and rigid interpretation of the
sterile cockpit rule is not unusual as our study
shows.

0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
80%
No
Yes
10. Flight Attendants: Have you as a flight attendant been
hesitant to report a problem to a pilot due to the
sterile
cockpit rule, or
fear of being reprimanded, or lack of
understanding about the problem or system?

30% STILL SAY yes

0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
No
Ye
s
10. Pilots: Have you as a pilot ever noticed that flight
attendants were hesitant to report a problem to you due to
misunderstanding of the
sterile cockpit
rule, or other
reason?

58% yes

0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
No
Yes
11. Pilots: Have you as a pilot ever had a situation where
a flight attendant discovered a problem but did not inform
you because they thought you already knew?

38%yes

0%
50%
100%
1: Would not be helpful
4:00
Positive Results
of jump
-
seating on
communications

1: Would not be helpful
2:00
3: Would be somewhat helpful
4:00
5: Would be very helpful
98% yes

0%
5%
10%
15%
20%
25%
30%
35%
40%
Yes, Pilot/Flight
Attendant
20. Have you had an experience where an
unfamiliar accent made communications
difficult?

Yes, Pilot/Flight Attendant
Yes, Pilot/Pilot
Yes, Pilot/Air Traffic Control
Yes, Other
No
Flight Attendant/Flight Attendant

Flight Attendant Passenger

Passenger, Gate Agent

0%
5%
10%
15%
20%
25%
2. Which areas have created barriers that impact effective
communications between pilots and flight attendants?
(Select all that apply)

Fortress door
Organizational structure
Lack of scenario based training
Job understanding
Procedures
Time and operational constraints
Crew scheduling
Misunderstanding of sterile cockpit rule
Aircraft interphone
All of the above
Other
*Lack of thorough pre
-
flight Briefing, Sexual orientation

0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
80%
90%
100%
No
Yes
3. Do you notice any positive work
-
related differences when
you are paired with the same flight
-
deck (or cabin) crew for
several legs, as opposed to 1 or 2 legs, of a trip?

94% YES

0%
5%
10%
15%
20%
25%
30%
35%
1: Product will not help
Discreet wireless alarms/panic buttons

1: Product will not help
2:00
3: The product may help
4:00
5: Product will definitely help, and is worth the cost
79% say may help
communications and
safety

Security breaches since 9/11 have
confirmed the need for a discreet wireless
communications device. Real time, discreet,
communication devices are needed to
improve communication between the pilots,
flight attendants and air marshals.

See STG Aerospace exhibit booth at WATS for more information

0%
5%
10%
15%
20%
25%
30%
35%
40%
1: Product will not help
4:00
Wireless pilot/flight attendant (Bluetooth style)
communication devices

1: Product will not help
2:00
3: The product may help
4:00
5: Product will definitely help, and is worth the cost
67%

Find technology

Helpful

Blue Tooth Style



Once activated into the emergency secondary mode it will


transmit text messages direct to the cockpit for pilot action.


“speaks” the alerting message to every


A completely discreet model is available for


Air Marshals.


32% of Flight Attendants surveyed


said they would not be willing to wear this type of devise


* subject to change

CAMS Beta Test


Cabin Crews

Flight Crews


Survey will run through May 9
th

in
the US


Translations to Spanish, Chinese,
Japanese, and Korean


Results published in IJAAS


Results presented at International
Aviation Psychology Symposium,
Beijing, China, November 2009


Pointed curriculum and
recommendations developed

Future Challenges


Lack of research in this area since 1995 (NASA).


Lack of funding for “Flight Attendant” research


The events of September 11th, 2001 have taken
this to a new level and compounding
communication barriers.


The new reinforced cockpit doors also impede
further communications and separate the two
groups.


Thank you to the 350 Flight Attendants and Pilots
from 24 countries.


Special Thanks to:


ALPA


AFA


CAPA


NWA


Spirit Airlines


APA


EAAP


AEPA



For more information contact
Lori.Brown@wmich.edu