A Vehicle-to-Vehicle Communication Protocol ... - ArunKumarAnand

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Nov 21, 2013 (3 years and 10 months ago)

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1

Vehicle
-
to
-
Vehicle Wireless
Communication Protocol for
Collision Warning


Arunkumar Anand

No 2, S
7
ECE







http://arunkumaranand.bizhat.com/seminar



Seminar Presentation 2006

Dept. of Electronics & Communiactions.

Govt. Engg. College, Wayanad.

28
th

September 2006


2

Contents


Motivation


Application

Levels


Overview

of

Vehicular

Communications


Needs

and

Assumptions


Protocol

for

Vehicular

Comm
.


Application

Challenges


State

Transition


Future

Works


Conclusion


References





3

Motivation

Study shows
-

“About
60%

roadway collisions could be
avoided if the operator of the vehicle was provided
warning at least
one
-
half second

prior to a collision”


(
-

US. Patent No. 5,613,039)


Constraints of human drivers’ perception

Line
-
of
-
sight limitation of brake light

Large processing/forwarding delay for emergency
events.

Accidents have been taking thousands of lives each year

4

1. Line of Sight Limitation

What’s in front of
that bus ?

What’s behind
the bend ?

On rainy days

On foggy days

Constraints of human drivers’ perception

Fig.1

5

2.
Large forwarding delay for emergency events.


Constraints of human drivers’ perception

Three Cars, namely

Car A

Car B

Car C

Reaction time ranges from 0.7sec to 1.5sec

Animation. 1

6

Data Base

Traffic Management Center

(TMC)

Communication

Hot Spots
(DSRC)

Satellite to

Vehicle

(GPS)

Vehicle

-

to

-

Vehicle

( DSRC)

Vehicle

-

to

-

Roadside

(DSRC)

Overview of Different Vehicular Communications

Petrol Pump,
Workshop etc..


( V2V )

( V2R )

Scope of this Paper

Fig.2

7

Application Levels

Traffic Safety can be improved if drivers have the ability to
see further down the road.


If traffic information was provided to Drivers, Police and other
Authorities; roads would be safe and traveling on them would
be more efficient


Vehicle
-
to
-
Vehicle
(
V2V
) and
Vehicle
-
to
-
Roadside
(
V2R
)
Communication can bring out the following achievements.


Presence of obstacles on road.


Emergency Braking of a preceding vehicle.


Information about Blind Crossing, School proximity, Railway crossing etc…


Entries to Highways.


High Speed Internet Access.


Electronic Toll Collection.


Parking Space locater in Cities.


Nearest Petrol Pump, Workshop etc..


8

for a vehicle participating in V2V communication

Is

able

to

obtain

its

own

geographical

location

and

determine

the

relative

positions

on

the

road
.
(Digital

Maps,

GPS)


Is

equipped

with

at

least

one

wireless

transceiver

Needs and Assumptions

Interested

on

Direction,

Speed,

Position

etc


9

Protocol for Vehicular Comm.


Unreliable

wireless

link


Congested

channel


Versatile

topology

due

to

high

mobility

of

vehicles


Low

Latency


Dynamically

form

wireless

loops

Challenges and Requirements

Technology

for

ITS

especially

for

v
2
v

and

v
2
r

communication

Service

rules

for

DSRC

are

developed

by

the

ASTM


DSRC

is

based

on

IEEE

802
.
11
a

technology

10m

Min. Separation

1000m

Max Range

1
-
54Mbps

Data Rate

7 channels

Channels

QPSK OFDM

Modulation

75MHz (5.850


5.925GHz)

Bandwidth

DSRC (
Dedicated Short Range Communication
)

10


DSRC for
cooperative vehicle
information

position

speed

intent…

Analyze a practical
situation

Animation. 2

11


DSRC for
cooperative vehicle
information

position

speed

intent…

For me!

Not For
me!

Who affects the
most ?

Animation. 2

12

Terms

Abnormal

Vehicle

(AV)


A

vehicle

acts

abnormally,

e
.
g
.

deceleration

exceeding

a

certain

threshold,

dramatic

change

of

moving

direction,

major

mechanical

failure,

etc
.


Emergency

Warning

Messages

(EWM)


Messages

generated

by

an

AV

to

warn

other

surrounding

vehicles,

which

include

the

geographical

location,

speed,

acceleration

and

moving

direction

of

the

AV
.


13


Requiring to support multiple
co
-
existing
AVs

over a longer period of time


Co
-
existing AVs
: AVs whose existences overlap in time
and whose transmissions may interfere with each other

An AV can exist for an extended period of time

Chain effects of emergency road situation

Application Challenges <1>

Fig.3

14

Application Challenges <2>


Differentiation of emergency events and
elimination of redundant EWMs

Unnecessary EWMs should be avoided so that the
channel bandwidth can be better utilized for useful
EWMs

Fig.4

15

Eliminate redundant EWMs

State transitions of AVs

Initial

AV
:

When

an

emergency

event

occurs

to

a

vehicle,

the

vehicle

becomes

an

AV

and

enters

the

initial

AV

state,

transmitting

EWMs

following

the

rate

decreasing

algorithm
.


Flagger

AV
:

resuming

EWM

transmissions

at

the

minimum



required

rate
.


Non
-
flagger

AV
:

nonparticipating

in

sending

EWMs

to

the



group

on

some

conditions

to

eliminate

redundant

EWMs



Each AV may be in one of three states:

16

State transitions of AVs
(condition.)


Transitions

from

Non
-
flagger

AV

to

flagger

AV

sets

a

timer

for

a

Flagger

Timeout

(

FT)

duration
.

If

it

does

not

receive

any

EWMs

from

its

followers

when

the

FT

timer

expires,

the

non
-
flagger

AV

changes

its

state

to

flagger

AV
.



Transitions

from

Initial

AV

state

to

Non
-
flagger

AV

state
:

At

least

T
alert

duration

has

elapsed

since

the

time

when

the

vehicle

became

an

initial

AV
.


EWMs

from

one

of

the


followers


of

the

initial

AV

are

being

overheard
;





Transitions

from

flagger

AV

to

Non
-
flagger

AV



If a flagger AV

receives EWMs from one of its followers, it will


relinquish its flagger responsibility, becoming a non
-
flagger AV.



17

Examples of state transitions


Fig. 5a

Fig. 5c

Fig. 5b

18

Examples of state transitions
(cont.)

Fig. 5d

19

Future Works

Car2Car Communication Consortium

(
www.car
-
to
-
car.org

)



Non
-
profit

organization

initiated

by

European

vehicle

manufacturers
.



To

create

and

establish

an

open

European

industry

standard

for


Car
2
Car

communication

systems

based

on

wireless

LAN

components



and

to

guarantee

European
-
wide

inter
-
vehicle

operability



Vehicle

manufacturers

would

install

the

technology

in

all

new

vehicles,



beginning

at

a

particular

model

year


Full
-
scale

deployment

in

both

the

vehicles

and

the

roadside



infrastructure

will

be

made

by

2008
/
9


USDOT Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) Program

20

Hi

Buddy



A
new era is arriving where vehicles will
communicate with each other,

the devices within them, and
also with the world;

making the next generation of vehicles
into communication hubs.

Conclusion


An Overview of Vehicular Comm. is given.


Protocol of Vehicular Comm. Is discussed.


Protocol Challenges are also analysed.

21

References

[1] S. Biswas, "Vehicle
-
to
-
Vehicle Wireless Communication Protocols for Enhancing
Highway Traffic Safety,"
Communications Magazine, IEEE Publication
Date:
Jan. 2006 Volume: 44, Issue: 1 page(s):74
-

82

[2] X. Yang
et al.
, " A Vehicle
-
to
-
Vehicle Communication Protocol for Cooperative
Collision Warning,"
Proc. 1st Annual Int’l. Conf. Mobile and Ubiquitous Syst:
Networking and Services
, 2004

[3] G.S Bickel, "Inter/Intra
-
Vehicle Wireless Communication" at
http://userfs.cec.wustl.edu/~gsb1/index.html

[4] Q. Xu, R. Sengupta, and D. Jiang, "Design and Analysis of Highway Safety
Communication Protocol in 5.9 GHz Dedicated Short
-
Range Communication
Spectrum,"

Proc. IEEE VTC
, vol. 57, no. 4, 2003, pp. 2451

55

[5] C.Bettstetter


"Toward Internet
-
Based Car Communications: On Some System
Architecture And Protocol Aspects"

TUM, Germany

[6] J. Zhu and S. Roy, "MAC for Dedicated Short Range Communications in
Intelligent Transport Systems,"
IEEE Commun. Mag.
, vol. 41, no. 12, 2003

[7]
http://www.car
-
to
-
car.org
/

22

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