Unit 19 - Biotechnology

igocheddarBiotechnology

Dec 14, 2012 (4 years and 6 months ago)

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Biotechnology

Objectives


Define Biotechnology


Compare and contrast biotechnology and
genetic engineering


Explain how biotechnology helps increase
production


List uses of biotechnology in plant and
animal science


Explain historical uses of biotechnology

What is

D
N
A
?




Hereditary information
stored in chromosomes


Stored as sequence of
nucleotides


Five carbon base sugar


Phosphate group


Nitrogenous base

(c) http://whyfiles.org/075genome/images/dna.gif

What is Biotechnology?


Management of biological systems for
benefit of humanity


Applied to general sciences

Uses of Biotechnology in Plant and
Animal Science


Cloning


Herbicides


Increasing shelf
life



©
http://www.amnh.org/exhibitions/genomics/5_reshaping/
images/dolly.jpg



Biotechnology

vs
Genetic Engineering

Biotechnology


All subjects of science


Bigger picture



Genetic Engineering


Genetics


Gene splicing,
replication, and
transfer of genes


More concentrated

How does Biotechnology increase
Production?


Develop new forms of plants and animals


Modify plants and animals to improve their
life processes


Improving the quality of food


Longer shelf life for perishables

Historical Uses of Biotechnology


Earliest techniques were used to
make cheese and wine


Spoiled milk fermented to
make cheese


Grape juice fermented to make
wine


Today…we not only see wine
and cheese but also yogurt
and bread made from
processes of biotechnology




Activity


THE OLD RED DOG WAS TOO BIG FOR HIS
BED



Have a deletion that would delete the D in
OLD…sentence look like


THE OLR EDD OGW AST OOB IGF ORH ISB ED



If mutation caused inversion of word DOG…


THE OLD RED GOD WAS TOO BIG FOR HIS
BED


Biotechnology

Biotechnology in Plant Science

Number of Chromosomes


What is polyploidy?


Contain more than one haploid
set of chromosomes (n)


How does polyploidy affect
plants?


About 30
-
70% of angiosperms
are polyploids


Peanut is 4n, Banana and
apple 2n or 3n, and cotton is
4n


Deliberate polyploidy in
marigolds, snapdragons, and
watermelons



Biotechnology

Biotechnology

In Animal Science

Epistasis


Define epistasis.


Having one or more genes
that mask the effect of the
dominant gene


Example: In Labrador
Retrievers, BB/Bb gives
black, bb gives brown,
EE/Ee gives normal coat
color, and ee gives yellow.

Cross BBEE with bbEE,
what is the F1
generation?

Now cross the F1
generation, what is
the F2?


©
www.belquest.com/ homelogo02.jpg





Polyploidy


What is polyploidy and what kinds of
animals are polyploids?


Polyploidy means having one or more set of
haploid chromosomes (n).



In animals this phenomenon is rare, but one does
see it in reptiles, amphibians, and insects


In the September 1999 issue of
Nature
, scientists
revealed they found a tetraploid (4n) rat in
Argentina

Biotechnology

Genetic Engineering

Genetic Engineering


What is genetic engineering?


Also called recombinant DNA technology or gene
manipulation. Two major techniques: 1) Genes
are engineered into organisms such as microbes,
bacteria, for mass
-
production and 2) insertion of
select genes into organisms to improve their
genotype


Identify a procedure of genetic engineering.


1) Isolate the genes, 2) Recombination, 3)
Transformation, 4) Screening, and 5) Induction

Gel Electrophoresis


Uses an electric current to
separate various fragments
of DNA to different lengths
on the gel.


DNA fragments are
attracted to the positive
side of the gel


The larger fragments
migrate slower than the
smaller fragments

(c)
http://medlib.med.utah.edu/block2/biochem/Formosa/Fi
gures/Lecture6/6
-
01%20Agarose%20gel.GIF



Genetic Engineering in Agriculture




How is genetic engineering applied
to agriculture?


Crops have been developed that
resist insect damage and spoilage.
Some species of plants have the
ability to kill off weeds surrounding
fruits and vegetables them. Scientists
now insert a gene to prolong the shelf
life of.



What are some uses of genetic
engineering in agriculture?


Black walnut has ability to kill off
surrounding weeds in its area. Once
this gene is isolated, scientists can
apply it to other plants. Tomato has a
gene to increase its shelf life.


(c) http://www.isu.edu/pics/treewalk/black
-
walnut1.gif