Human Genetics Research in Vietnam - Center for Ethics of Science ...

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Dec 14, 2012 (4 years and 8 months ago)

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Human Genetics Research
in Vietnam


and
Ethical Aspects



Le Dinh Luong

Vietnam National University

The ASEAN
-
EU
-
LEMLIFE Project


24
-
26 January 2004, Bangkok, Thailand


Current Status

of
Human Genetics Research
in Vietnam



1.
National Research Programs


2001
-
2005

2.
Research

Institutions Involved


3.
Publications 2003

4.
Research and Service Areas

5.
BioArchive System in Vietnam





National Research Programs

2001
-
2005

1.
Sequencing of mitochondrial DNA of different
Vietnamese ethnic groups and directed
applications.

2.
Application of molecular techniques for diagnosis
of human hereditary diseases in Vietnam.

3.

Application of molecular techniques for human
pedigree determination and for forensics in
Vietnam.

4.
Animal stem cell research for genetic engineering.




Institutions Involved in
Human Genetics Research



1.
Institute of Biotechnology, NCST, Hanoi

2.
Nat. Inst.of Malariology, Parasitology and Entomology

3.
Institute of Oncology, Hanoi

4.
University of Natural Sciences, VNU, HCM

5.
Hanoi Medical University

6.
National Institute of Pediatrics, Hanoi

7.
Center of Biotechnology, VNU, Hanoi

8.
Pasteur Institute, HCM

9.
University of Natural Sciences, VNU, Hanoi

10.
Biochem. Technology Dept, Ministry of Public Security

11.
Forensic Science Institute, Ministry of Public Security




Publications (2003)

1. The Polymophism of HLA
-
DRB1,
-
DBB1 And G6PD Deficiency of Muong
Ethnic In Hoabinh


Vietnam.

Vu Trieu An at al. Hanoi University of
Medicine

2. Screening 3 Case Mutated Dystrophin Gene In Total 11 Vietnamese
Duchenne And Becker Muscular Dystrophy.

Nguyen Duc Bach at al.
Institute of Biotechnology, NCST, Masafumi MatsuoKobe University
Graduate School of Medicine, Japan

3. Molecular
-
Based Study On Breast Cancer Samples Of Vietnamese
Patients Using Mitochrondrial D
-
loop As Genetic Markers.

Nguyen
Thanh Dam at al. Institute of Oncology

4. Establisment of Ames Test And Application In Detection of Carcinogen,
Mutagen
.
Huynh Ngoc Vi Ca at al. University of Natural Sciences, VNU,
HCM

5. Detecting G6PD Deficiency And Analyzing Variants of DNA Mutation of
Some Individuals with G6PD Deficiency from Kinh, Muong, Racley, Tay,
Katu Ethnic Groups Living in Hanoi, Hoa Binh, Hue and Khanh Hoa
Provinces
.
Nguyen Thi Ngoc Dao at al. Institute of Biotechnology, Kaoru
Nishiyama Kobe University School of Medicine, Japan


Publications 2003 (continued)

6. Determination of D13S317 Allele Frequencies In A Group of
Vietnamese
.
Nghiem Xuan Dung. Biochemistry Technology Deparment

7. Identification of Remains by mtDNA Analysis
.
Le Quang Huan at al.
Institute of Biotechnology, NCST

8. Designing Expression Vector for a Gene Coding Antigen CD25 Specific
for Blood Cancer
.

La Thi Huyen at al. Institute of Biotechnology

9. DNA Fingerprinting in Vietnamese Populations by Sex Chromosome
Located Loci
.
Le Dinh Luong, at al. Center of Biotechnology, VNU, Hanoi

10. Primary Determination of Allele Frequencies of CSF1PO Locus in
Vietnamese Populations
. Ngo Tien Quy at al. Institute of Forensics

11. Using PCR Multiplex for Forensic Analysis and Paternity
Determination by Some Single Locus STR Primers.
Trinh Tuan Toan.
Forensic Science Institute

12. Detection of the 30bp Deleted Mutation in C
-
Terminus of LMP1 Gene
from Vietnamese Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma.
Nguyen Van Do at al.
Hanoi Medical University


Research and Service Areas

1.
Genetic Testing

2.
Diagnosis of Genetic Diseases

3.
Genetic Counseling

4.
Forensics

5.
Courts


BioArchive System

in Vietnam


THERMOGENESIS CORP
. sold a BioArchive System
to the Blood Transfusion & Hematology Center in
HCM City
for about US$200,000

(
June 2000).


The system can be also used by the major Cord
Blood Banks


The BioArchive System is the international
standard for collecting, processing, and archiving
cryopreserved hematopoietic stem cells sourced
from placental/cord blood

¾
Phil Coelho,
CEO

of
THERMOGENESIS CORP
. "With
this acquisition, Vietnam is adopting the same
state
-
of
-
the
-
art stem cell technology as the major
industrialized nations"


The Diseases Diagnosed by Genetic Testing

1.
Alpha
-
1
-
antitrypsin deficiency

2.
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

3.
Alzheimer's disease

4.
Ataxia telangiectasia

5.
Gaucher disease

6.
Inherited breast and ovarian cancer

7.
Hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer

8.
Charcot
-
Marie
-
Tooth

9.
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia

10.
Cystic fibrosis

11.
Duchenne muscular dystrophy

12.
Dystonia

13.
Fanconi anemia, group C

14.
Factor V
-
Leiden


15.
Fragile X syndrome

16.
Hemophilia A and B

17.
Hereditary Hemochromatosis

18.
Huntington's disease

19.
Myotonic dystrophy

20.
Neurofibromatosis type 1

21.
Phenylketonuria

22.
Adult Polycystic Kidney Disease

23.
Prader Willi/Angelman syndromes

24.
Sickle cell disease

25.
Spinocerebellar ataxia, type 1

26.
Spinal muscular atrophy

27.
Thalassemias

28.
Tay
-
Sachs Disease


The Diseases Diagnosed by Genetic Testing

in Vietnam

1.
Duchenne muscular dystrophy/Becker
muscular dystrophy
(DMD; severe to mild
muscle wasting, deterioration, weakness)

2.
Hemophilia A and B
(HEMA and HEMB;
bleeding disorders)

3.
Thalassemias
(THAL; anemias
-

reduced
red blood cell levels)



Current Status

of Bioethics Awareness



Bioethics

awareness

from

outside


Knowledge of Bioethics comes from outside through
Media (newspapers, TV programs, Radio, Internet)


Ethical workshops or training courses organized in
Vietnam by joint effort with oversea experts or
organizations


Information comes from International Meetings


Bioethics

understanding

is

limited


No curriculum in schools and higher educational
institutions


No regular courses through over the country


Religion

influence

is

not

essential

BIOETHICAL ISSUES


In Human Genetics Research

1.
Genetic Testing


Is genetic testing regulated?


Does insurance cover genetic testing?


Prenatal testing: A modern Eugenics ?


Discrimination because it involves genetic tests?

2.
Diagnosis of Genetic Diseases


Are patients being properly informed about the risks
and limitations of genetic technology?


How does personal genetic information affect an
individual and society's perceptions of that individual?


Who owns and controls genetic information and
human materials

?


Government Decree on 15/02/2003
Banning Human Cloning


The Vietnam government decree on 15/02/2003
banning human cloning, surrogacy and all means
of choosing the sex of embryos. However,
animal
cloning and stem cell research are acceptable.


The decree allows the application of reproductive
technologies, such as in
vitro

fertilization.


Foreigners can use assisted reproductive
technology services in Viet Nam, but they are
banned from donating or receiving eggs, sperm
and embryos.


What Vietnam Should Do for
Bioethical Improvement?

1.
Improvement of public understanding of
bioethics


(Introduction of bioethical courses into secondary and
high schools; International and regional training
courses; Bioethics Societies; Regular programs in
Media...)

2.
Vietnam should improve the public
knowledge on modern biotechnology

(to narrow the gap


between traditional cultures and
modern knowledge of sciences)


3.
Facilitating individual right to keep
personal her/his own genetic information


(Legislation system,
Appropriate health care system
...)





Thank you !