Genetic Engineering - christophersonbiology

igocheddarBiotechnology

Dec 14, 2012 (4 years and 7 months ago)

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Wake
-
up

1.
What type of
inheritance is shown in
the pedigree?


1.
Explain how you know.


1.
What would be the
genotype of individuals
IV
-
1 and IV
-
3?


1.
What would be the
genotype of individuals
of III
-
1 and III
-
2?

Genetic Engineering


Christopherson

Review: Genome

The complete set of genetic material of an organism

Review DNA and Gene

(stop 1:02)

A gene is a
portion of
DNA that
codes for a
trait

Human Genome Project

The sequence of the 3
billion base pairs
(A,T,G,C) in human DNA
was discovered.

This means that the
sequence of the genes
within our DNA is
known


Genomes in a human




Cells in a human body




Chromosomes in a human cell




Genes in a human genome

What was Found?

1

75
-
100 Trillion

46

20,500

Benefits of the Human Genome Project

1.
Improve
diagnosis of

diseases and
help with early
detection of
genetic
disorders

2.
Gene Therapy

-
Swapping an abnormal gene for a normal one

-
Repairing an abnormal gene

Example of Gene Therapy

Cystic Fibrosis: Recessive Disorder

A healthy gene for cystic fibrosis is inserted
into a vector

vehicle


and then inhaled by
an affected individual.

*

What is Genetic Engineering?

Technology used to change the DNA of
organisms to create a new useful result

How is genetic engineering possible?

Transformation
:
When a cell
takes
up
and
expresses
a
new piece of
genetic material

DNA


in order to
change the
organism

猠瑲慩瑳

DNA

Protein

Trait

RNA

Genetic Engineering requires the use
of
Recombinant DNA

Recombinant DNA
:
DNA that has been
changed by joining
genetic material from
two different sources.

A gene from one
organism is put into
the genome of a
different organism

Transgenic Organism

An organism (animals, plants, and bacteria)
that has been genetically altered.

Example #1: Diabetes and Insulin
(Medical)

What is Insulin?

Insulin (protein)
helps glucose
move from our
bloodstream to
our cells


Glucose is from
food that was
consumed

What produces insulin?

Pancreas

Type 1 Diabetes: The Pancreas does
not produce insulin

Diabetics need to
take Insulin shots

Diabetics need to
test their blood
sugar

How does someone with Type 1 Diabetes get
insulin?

History of Insulin Production

1974


Pancreas was removed from
slaughtered animals and purified for
human use

History of Insulin Production

(finish)

1978


Gene that makes insulin in humans
was inserted into E.coli (Bacteria) which
produced synthetic human insulin

Example #2: Genetically Modified Food
(GMO

s)

What are Genetically Modified Organisms


(GMO

s)?

An organism whose genetic material has
been altered using genetic engineering
techniques

Why are Organisms Genetically Modified?

Modified to be
resistant to:


Pests


Disease


Cold


Drought


Salt

Also an overall

better


quality

Example #1 of GMO:
Golden Rice

Malnutrition

is common in 3
rd

world
countries; impoverished peoples rely on
rice
for the main staple of their diet.

However,
rice does not contain adequate
amounts of all necessary nutrients
to prevent
malnutrition

More than 10 million children die of malnutrition
every year. A vast majority of these deaths is linked
to micronutrient deficiencies. The
deficiencies with
the highest impact are in iron, zinc, iodine and
vitamin A.

Vitamin A
deficiencies can
damage the
immune system
and decrease
the body

s
ability to resist
or fight
infections or
can lead to
partial to total

blindness


Golden rice was genetically engineered to contain
beta carotene, which gives the rice its yellow color


Beta carotene can provide Vitamin A to its
consumers.

GMO Example #2:

Tomato and Artic
Flounder Video
Clip

Example #3: Glowing Organisms
(purpose unclear)

Which organisms
naturally glow?

Can we make other
organisms glow using
Genetic Engineering?