Genetic Engineering.ppt - rgreenbergscience


Dec 14, 2012 (4 years and 11 months ago)


Genetic Engineering

the manipulation of living
organisms for human use

Chapter 13

Breeding strategies

Selective breeding: only certain individuals
with certain traits to reproduce

Inbreeding: crosses individuals with
similar traits

Hybridization crosses individuals with
different traits; tend to by hardier and

Manipulating DNA

Genetic engineering: making change in the DNA
code of an organism

Restriction enzymes: cut the DNA at specific
sites by recognizing certain DNA sequences

produces more manageable pieces of DNA to
separate and analyze

Gel electrophoresis: separates DNA fragments
through a gel using electricity

Gel Electrophoresis

Using DNA

Recombinant DNA: the manipulation of
specific genes in the cells of living
organisms causing them to produce new
or unusual substances

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR): uses
DNA polymerase to create thousands of
copies of a gene

DNA fingerprinting

method of DNA analysis which identifies
individuals by examining DNA fragments

uses portions of DNA which do not code for

these sequences are unique to each individual, just
like fingerprints


sample of DNA is cut using restriction enzymes

fragments are separated using electrophoresis to
create a pattern of bands

DNA Transformation

An organism takes up DNA from another


Map the chromosomes of an organism

Locate the specific gene of interest on the

Cut the DNA with restriction enzymes

Isolate and produce many copies of that gene (PCR)

Insert gene into a plasmid then into the new
organism’s DNA and regulate the expression

DNA Transformation

Application of Gen. Eng.

Transgenic Organisms

Contain DNA from another species

Example: insulin
producing bacteria, glow in
the dark fish

52% of soybeans, 25% of corn are
genetically modified

Application of Gen. Eng.


Clone: member of a
population of
genetically identical
cells that are produced
from a single cell

In 1997, Ian Wilmut
presented “Dolly”, the
first cloned sheep

Steps of Cloning

Human Genome Project

An ongoing effort to analyze the human
DNA sequence

Started in 1990, completed in 2000

Different scientists studied random
fragments of DNA then combined their

Humans have approximately 35,000 genes