Bt

igocheddarBiotechnology

Dec 14, 2012 (4 years and 6 months ago)

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R. Shanthini
11 March 2010

Modern agricultural biotechnology includes

manipulation of the genetic make
-
up of organisms

for use in the production or processing of agricultural products.

Agricultural Biotechnology:

Why Agricultural Biotechnology?


-

to raise and stabilize yields


-

to improve resistance to pests and diseases


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to improve resistance to drought, cold, etc.


-

to enhance the nutritional content of foods

R. Shanthini
11 March 2010

Agricultural biotechnology uses genetic engineering which is a

process of inserting a foreign gene into a plant/animal cell and
cloning that cell into a genetically engineered crop/animal
.

Agricultural Biotechnology:

R. Shanthini
11 March 2010

http://www.greenfacts.org/en/gmo/2
-
genetically
-
modified
-
crops/

2
-
genetic
-
engineering.htm

Agricultural Biotechnology:

When the bacterium infects the plant,

it penetrates the plants cells and
transfers its modified DNA to the plant.

The genetically modified plant is then grown from the
transformed cell.

Once the DNA reaches the cell nucleus, it inserts itself
at random into one of the host chromosomes.

The DNA may also be physically shot into the plant
nucleus carried on microscopic particles of tungsten or
gold using gene guns.

R. Shanthini
11 March 2010

Agricultural Biotechnology:

Bt toxin bred GM crop

Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is a
common soil bacterium that
produces crystals containing
proteins that are toxic to certain
insects.

The Bt gene was successfully inserted
into the genome of several crops.

The insertion of the Bt gene directly into the genome of crops
allowed the crops to constantly produce Bt toxin crystals in all
tissues of the plant. No application of any pesticide is required
to protect the crop from a large number of pests.

R. Shanthini
11 March 2010

Crop productivity could be increased by introducing
such qualities as disease resistance and increased
drought tolerance to the crops.



Genes from naturally drought
-
resistant plants can be
used to increase drought tolerance in many crop
varieties growing in dry climates so that crops shall
use water as efficiently as possible.

Source: http://www.ctahr.hawaii.edu/gmo/risks/benefits.asp

Agricultural Biotechnology:

Increased crop
productivity

R. Shanthini
11 March 2010

An effective transgenic crop
-
protection technology can
control pests better and more cheaply than existing
technologies.


For example, with
Bt

toxin bred into a corn crop, the
entire crop is resistant to certain pests.


In these cases, yields increase as the new technology
provides more effective control.

Source: http://www.ctahr.hawaii.edu/gmo/risks/benefits.asp

Agricultural Biotechnology:

Enhanced crop
production

R. Shanthini
11 March 2010

The first GM food product to receive regulatory approval,
in 1990, was
chymosin
, an enzyme produced by
genetically engineered bacteria.


It replaces calf rennet in cheese
-
making and is now
used in 60% of all cheese manufactured.


Its benefits include increased purity, a reliable supply, a
50% cost reduction, and high cheese
-
yield efficiency.

Source: http://www.ctahr.hawaii.edu/gmo/risks/benefits.asp

Agricultural Biotechnology:

Improvement in
food processing

R. Shanthini
11 March 2010

Transgenic crops in development include


-

soybeans with higher protein content,


-

potatoes with more nutritionally available starch and
an improved amino acid content,


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beans with more essential amino acids, and


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rice with the ability produce beta
-
carotene, a
precursor of vitamin A, to help prevent blindness in
people who have nutritionally inadequate diets.

Source: http://www.ctahr.hawaii.edu/gmo/risks/benefits.asp

Agricultural Biotechnology:

Improved
nutritional value

R. Shanthini
11 March 2010

Flavor can be altered by enhancing the activity of
plant enzymes.


Types of peppers and melons with improved flavor
are currently in field trials.

Source: http://www.ctahr.hawaii.edu/gmo/risks/benefits.asp

Agricultural Biotechnology:

Improved
flavour

R. Shanthini
11 March 2010

Genetic modification can result in improved keeping
properties to make transport of fresh produce easier, giving
consumers access to nutritionally valuable whole foods
and preventing decay, damage, and loss of nutrients.


Transgenic tomatoes with delayed softening can be vine
-
ripened and still be shipped without bruising.


The shelf
-
life of some processed foods such as peanuts
has also been improved.

Source: http://www.ctahr.hawaii.edu/gmo/risks/benefits.asp

Agricultural Biotechnology:

Fresher
produce

R. Shanthini
11 March 2010

When genetic engineering results in reduced
pesticide dependence, we have less pesticide
residues on foods, we reduce pesticide leaching into
groundwater, and we minimize farm worker exposure
to hazardous products.


With
Bt

cotton’s resistance to three major pests, the
transgenic variety now represents half of the U.S.
cotton crop and has thereby reduced total world
insecticide use by 15%

Source: http://www.ctahr.hawaii.edu/gmo/risks/benefits.asp

Agricultural Biotechnology:

Environmental
benefits

R. Shanthini
11 March 2010

Antibiotic resistance genes are used to identify and
trace a trait of interest that has been introduced into
plant cells.


Use of these markers has raised concerns that new
antibiotic
-
resistant strains of bacteria will emerge.


The rise of diseases that are resistant to treatment with
common antibiotics is a serious medical concern of
genetic engineering.

Source: http://www.ctahr.hawaii.edu/gmo/risks/benefits.asp

Agricultural Biotechnology:

Antibiotic
resistance

R. Shanthini
11 March 2010

New transgenic crops might cross
-
pollinate with
related weeds, possibly resulting in “superweeds”
that become more difficult to control.


Genetic engineering could improve a plant’s ability
to “escape” into the wild and produce ecological
imbalances or disasters.

Source: http://www.ctahr.hawaii.edu/gmo/risks/benefits.asp

Agricultural Biotechnology:

Potential gene
escape and
development of
“superweeds”


R. Shanthini
11 March 2010

Modified crops released into the environment could
have unforeseen and undesirable effects.


Bt

corn produces a very specific pesticide intended to
kill only pests that feed on the corn. In 1999, however,
researchers at Cornell University found that pollen from
Bt

corn could kill caterpillars of the harmless Monarch
butterfly.

Source: http://www.ctahr.hawaii.edu/gmo/risks/benefits.asp

Agricultural Biotechnology:

Impacts on

non
-
target species

R. Shanthini
11 March 2010

Insect pests could develop resistance to crop
-
protection
features of transgenic crops.


There is fear that large
-
scale adoption of
Bt

crops will
result in rapid build
-
up of resistance in pest populations.


Insects possess a remarkable capacity to adapt to
selective pressures, but to date, despite widespread
planting of
Bt

crops, no
Bt

tolerance in targeted insect
pests has been detected.

Source: http://www.ctahr.hawaii.edu/gmo/risks/benefits.asp

Agricultural Biotechnology:

Insecticide
resistance

R. Shanthini
11 March 2010

While transgenic crops help ensure a reliable supply of
basic foodstuffs, loss of agricultural biodiversity and wild
biodiversity could not be overruled consequence.


Agricultural Biotechnology:

Loss of
Biodiversity

R. Shanthini
11 March 2010

Source: http://www.foodhaccp.com/memberonly/newsletter281.html

Rat babies of same age

The process of inserting a foreign gene into a plant cell and
cloning that cell into a genetically engineered crop could
cause the natural plant genes to be deleted or permanently
turned on or off, and hundreds can change their function.


This massive collateral damage is why GM soy has less
protein, an unexpected new allergen, and up to seven
times higher levels of a known soy allergen.


It also may explain why British soy allergies skyrocketed by
50% soon after GM soy was introduced.

Agricultural Biotechnology:

Allergens and
Toxins

R. Shanthini
11 March 2010

Born to and raised by
a mother on a
conventional soy diet


Born to and raised by
a mother on GM soy
diet

Source:http://www.biotech
-
weblog.com/50226711/

genetically_modified_soy_in_russia.php

Rat babies of same age

Research results of a
team led by Irina
Ermakova, Doctor of
Biology, at the Institute of
Higher Nervous Activity
and Neurophysiology of
the Russian Academy of
Sciences (RAS).

Agricultural Biotechnology:

R. Shanthini
11 March 2010

Rat babies of same age

GM corn and cotton have genes inserted that
produce a pesticide called
Bt.



If the gene transferred from corn snacks, for
example, it could turn our intestinal flora into living
pesticide factories.


Farmers on three continents link
Bt

corn varieties
with sterility in pigs and cows, or deaths among
cows, horses, water buffaloes and chickens.


Hundreds of farm workers who pick
Bt

cotton get
allergic reactions.

Source: http://www.foodhaccp.com/memberonly/newsletter281.html

Agricultural Biotechnology:

R. Shanthini
11 March 2010

Rat babies of same age

Although biotechnology may be a powerful
and intellectually stimulating tool, GM crops
are developed largely for profit motives and
therefore could carry significant yet hard to
quantify risks.

Maria Alice Garcia

Instituto de Biologia,

Universidade Estadual de Campinas

Miguel A. Altieri

University of California, Berkeley

Agricultural Biotechnology:

R. Shanthini
11 March 2010

Sustainable Agriculture

is an integrated system of plant and animal
production practices…that will




satisfy human food and fiber needs



enhance environmental quality



make the most efficient use of


nonrenewable resources



sustain economic viability, and




enhance quality of life.

1990 Farm Bill

R. Shanthini
11 March 2010

All sustainable agricultural production

systems and practices are

economically viable,

environmentally sound,

and socially acceptable.


General definition

Sustainable Agriculture

R. Shanthini
11 March 2010

economically
viable




p
rovides a secure living for farm families



provides a secure living to other workers in


the food system



provides access to good food for all

Sustainable Agriculture

R. Shanthini
11 March 2010

environmentally
sound




preserves the quality of soil, water, and air



cooperates with and is modeled on


natural systems

Sustainable Agriculture

R. Shanthini
11 March 2010

socially
acceptable




good for families



supports communities



fair to all involved

Sustainable Agriculture

R. Shanthini
11 March 2010

NAVDANYA, India

owning life, owning seeds and owning water

Source: M. Ganguly, Seeds of Self
-
Reliance. Time, Sept 02, 2002: p71.

-

encourages farmers to produce hardy native varieties of crops
that can be grown organically with natural fertilizer and no
artificial chemicals


-

has collected 2,000 native seed varieties which they distribute
among farmers


-

helps local farmers form their own self
-
supporting
organization and seed bank


-

has set up a marketing network through which farmers sell
their organic harvest


-

has shown that organic farmers with the knowledge of local
conditions and traditional methods can achieve high yields at
little cost to the environment, and thereby has set an eco
-
friendly standard

Sustainable Agriculture

R. Shanthini
11 March 2010

The good earth will fail us of
we fail her


but she will
sustain us if we treat her right

Sustainable Agriculture