Chapter 12 - Berkeley Women in Business

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Feb 21, 2014 (3 years and 6 months ago)

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Chapter 11
-

Segment Reporting, Dec
entralization, and the Balanced Scorecard


11
-
1

Chapter 11

Segment Reporting
,

Decentralization
, and
the Balanced Scorecard

Solutions to Questions

11
-
1

In a decentralized organization,
dec
i
sion
-
making

authority

isn’t confined to a few
top executives, but rather is spread throughout
the organization with

lower
-
level managers and
other employees empowered to make decisions.

11
-
2

The benefits of decentralization include:
(1)
by delegating day
-
to
-
day problem solving to
lower
-
level managers, top management can
concentrate on bigger issues such as overall
stra
tegy
;
(2)
empowering lower
-
level managers
to make decisions puts decision
-
making
autho
r
ity in the hands of those who tend to
have the most detailed and up
-
to
-
date
information about day
-
to
-
day operations
; (3)
by
eliminating layers of decision
-
making and
app
rovals, organizations can respond more
quickly to customers and to changes in the
operating environment
;
(
4
)
gran
t
ing decision
-
making authority helps train lower
-
level
managers for higher
-
level positions
;

and

(
5
)
empowering lower
-
level managers to make
dec
isions can increase their motivation and job
satisfaction
.

11
-
3

The manager of a

cost center has
control over cost, but not revenue or

the use of

investment funds. A profit center ma
n
ager

has
control over both cost and revenue. An
investment ce
n
ter manager

has control over
cost and revenue and
the use of
i
n
vestment
funds.

11
-
4

A segment is any part or activity of an
organization about which

a

manage
r seeks cost,
revenue
, or profit

data. Examples of segments
include departments, operations, sales
territ
o
ries
, divisions,

and

product lines.

11
-
5

Under the contribution approach, c
osts
are assigned to a segment if and only if the
costs are traceable to the segment

(i.e., could
be avoided if the segment were eliminated).

Common costs are not allocated to segments
under the contribution a
p
proach
.

11
-
6

A traceable cost of a segment is a cost
that arises specifically because of the existence
of that segment. If the segment were
elim
i
nated, the cost would disappear. A common
cost, by contrast, is a cost that supports m
ore
than one segment, but is not traceable in whole
or in part to any one of the segments. If the
departments of a company are treated as
se
g
ments, then examples of
the
traceable costs
of a department
would include the salar
y

of
the
d
e
partment
’s supervisor
, depreciation of
machines

used exclusively by the department
,
and

the costs of supplies used by the
department
. E
x
amples of common costs would
include

the sa
l
ary of the
general counsel of the

entire co
m
pany,
the lease cost of the
headquarters buil
d
ing
, co
rporate image
advertising, and periodic depreciation of
machines shared by several d
e
partments.

Chapter 11
-

Segment Reporting, Decentralization, and th
e Balanced Scorecard


11
-
2


11
-
7

The contribution margin is the
difference

between
sales revenue
and

variable expenses.
The segment margin is

the

amount

remaining
after deducting traceabl
e fixed expenses from
the contribution margin. The contribution margin
is useful as a planning tool for many decisions,
particularly

those in which fixed costs don’t
change. The segment margin is useful in
asses
s
ing the overall profitability of a segment.

11
-
8

If common costs were allocated to
se
g
ments, then the costs of segment
s

would be
overstated and
their

margin
s

would be
unde
r
stated. As a consequence, some segments
may appear to be unprofitable and managers
may be tempted to eliminate them. If a segmen
t
were eliminated because of the existence of
arbitrarily allocated common costs, the overall
profit of the company would decline

and

t
he
common cost that had been allocated to the
segment would be reall
o
cated to the remaining
segments

making them appear l
ess profitable.

11
-
9

There are often limits to how far down
an organization a cost can be traced. Therefore,
costs that are traceable to a segment may
b
e
come common as that segment is divided into
smaller segment units. For example,
the costs of
national T
V and print
advertising might be
traceable to a

specific

product

line
, but be a
common cost of the
geographic
sales territories
in which that product line is sold.

11
-
10

Margin refers to the ratio of net
opera
t
ing income to total sales. Turnover refers
to
the ratio of total sales to average operating
assets. The product of the two numbers is the
ROI.

11
-
1
1

Residual income is the net operating
income an investment center earns above the
company’s minimum required rate of return on
operating assets.

11
-
1
2

If
ROI is used to evaluate performance,
a manager of an investment center

may reject

a

pro
fitable investment opportunity whose rate of
return

exceed
s

the company’s required rate of
return

but whose rate of return is less than the
investment center’s current R
OI.

The residual
income approach overcomes this problem
because

any project whose rate of return
exceeds the company’s minimum required rate
of return will result in an increase in residual
income.

11
-
13

A company’s balanced scorecard should
be derived fro
m and support its strategy.
Because different companies have different
strat
e
gies, their balanced scorecards should be
diffe
r
ent.

11
-
14

The balanced scorecard is constructed
to support the company’s strategy, which is a
theory about what actions will furth
er the
co
m
pany’s goals. Assuming that the company
has financial goals, measures of financial
perfor
m
ance must be included in the balanced
scorecard as a check on the reality of the theory.
If the internal business processes improve, but
the financial outco
mes do not improve, the
theory may be flawed and the strategy should
be changed.

Chapter 11
-

Segment Reporting, Dec
entralization, and the Balanced Scorecard


11
-
3


Exercise
11
-
1

(15 minutes)


Total

Weedban

Greengrow

Sales
*

................................
...


$300,000

$90,000

$210,000

Variable expense
s
**

..............



183,000


36,000


147,000

Contribution margin

...............


117,000

54,000

63,000

T
raceable fixed expenses

.......



66,000


45,000


21,000

Product line segment margin

..


51,000

$

9,000

$

42,000

C
ommon fixed expenses not
trac
e
able to products

...........



33,000



Net operating income

.............


$

18,000




*

Weedban: 15,000 units × $6
.00

per unit
= $90,000.

Greengrow: 28,000 units × $7.50 per unit = $210,000.

**

Weedban: 15,000 units × $
2.40

per unit = $
36
,000.

Greengrow: 28,000 units × $
5
.
25

per unit = $
147
,000.

Chapter 11
-

Segment Reporting, Decentralization, and th
e Balanced Scorecard


11
-
4


Exercise
11
-
2
(10 minutes)

1.

Net operating income
Margin =
Sales
$600,000
= = 8%
$7,500,000


2.

Sales
Turnover =
Average operating assets
$7,500,000
= = 1.5
$5,000,000


3.

ROI = Margin × Turnover
= 8% × 1.5 = 12%

Chapter 11
-

Segment Reporting, Dec
entralization, and the Balanced Scorecard


11
-
5


Exercise
11
-
3

(10 minutes)

Average operating assets

......................


£2,800,000



Net operating income

............................


£

600,000

Minimum required return:

18% ×
£2,800,000

.............................



504,000

Residual income
................................
....


£


96,000

Chapter 11
-

Segment Reporting, Decentralization, and th
e Balanced Scorecard


11
-
6


Exercise
11
-
4

(45 minutes)

1.

MPC’s previous manufacturing strategy was focused on high
-
vo
l
ume
production of a limited range of paper grades. The goal of this strategy
was to keep the machines running constantly to maximize the number
of tons produced. Changeovers were avoided bec
ause they lowered
equipment utilization. Maximizing tons produced and minimizing
changeovers helped spread the high fixed costs of paper manufacturing
across more units of ou
t
put. The new manufacturing strategy is focused
on low
-
volume production of a wide

range of products. The goals of this
strategy are to increase the number of paper grades manufactured,
d
e
crease changeover times, and increase yields across non
-
standard
grades. While MPC realizes that its new strategy will decrease its
equi
p
ment utilizat
ion, it will still strive to optimize the utilization of its
high fixed cost resources within the confines of flexible produ
c
tion. In
an economist’s terms the old strategy focused on econ
o
mies of scale
while the new strategy focuses on economies of scope.


2.

Employees focus on improving those measures that are used to evaluate
their performance. Therefore, strategically
-
aligned performance
mea
s
ures will channel employee effort towards improving those
aspect
s
of performance that are most important to obtai
ning strategic
obje
c
tives. If a company changes its strategy but continues to evaluate
employee pe
r
formance using measures that do not support the new
strategy, it will be motivating its emplo
y
ees to make decisions

that
promote the old strategy, not the ne
w strategy. And if employees make
decisions that promote the new strategy, their performance measures
will suffer.




Some
performance
measures that would be appropriate for MPC’s old
strategy include: equipment utilization percentage, number of tons of
pa
per produced, and cost per ton produced. These

performance

measures would not support MPC’s new strategy because they would
dis
courage

i
n
creasing the range of paper grades produced, increasing
the number of changeovers performed, and decreasing the batch
s
ize
pr
o
duced per run.

Chapter 11
-

Segment Reporting, Dec
entralization, and the Balanced Scorecard


11
-
7


Exercise
11
-
4

(continued)

3.

Students’ answers may differ in some details from this solution.



































Sales

Contribution
margin per ton

Fina
n
cial

Time to fill

an o
r
der

Customer satisfa
c
tion with
breadth of product offe
r
ings

Number of new

customers a
c
quired

Cu
s
tomer

Average change
-
over time

Number of different
paper grades pr
o
duced

Average
manufactu
r
ing
yield

Inte
r
nal

Bus
i
ness

Proc
ess

Number of e
m
ployees
trained to support the
flex
i
bility strategy

Lear
n
ing

and Growth

+


=
H
=
H
=

=
H
=
H
=
H
=
H
=
Chapter 11
-

Segment Reporting, Decentralization, and th
e Balanced Scorecard


11
-
8


Exercise
11
-
4

(continued)

4.

The hypotheses underlying the ba
lanced scorecard are indicated by the
arrows in the diagram. Reading from the bottom of the balanced
scor
e
card, the hypotheses are:




°

If the number of employees trained to support the flexibility strategy
increases, then the average changeover time wil
l decrease and the
number of different paper grades produced and the average
man
u
facturing yield will increase.




°

If the average changeover time decreases, then the time to fill an
o
r
der will decrease.




°

If the number of different paper grades produc
ed increases, then the
cu
s
tomer satisfaction with breadth of product offerings will increase.




°

If the average manufacturing yield increases, then the contrib
u
tion
margin per ton will increase.




°

If the time to fill an order decreases, then the numbe
r of new
customers acquired, sales, and the contribution margin per ton will
i
n
crease.




°

If the customer satisfaction with breadth of product offerings
i
n
creases, then the number of new customers acquired, sales, and
the contrib
u
tion margin per ton will

increase.




°

If the number of new customers acquired increases, then sales will
i
n
crease.




Each of these hypotheses can be questioned. For e
x
ample, the time to
fill an order is a function of additional factors above and beyond
changeover times. Thus,
MPC’s average changeover time could decrease
while its time to fill an order increases if, for example, the shipping
d
e
partment proves to be incapable of efficiently handling greater
product diversity, smaller batch sizes, and more frequent shipments.
The
fact that each of the hypotheses mentioned above can be
questioned does not invalidate the balanced scorecard. If the scorecard
is used correctly, management will be able to identify which, if any, of
the hypotheses are invalid and modify the balanced scor
ecard
accor
d
ingly.

Chapter 11
-

Segment Reporting, Dec
entralization, and the Balanced Scorecard


11
-
9


Exercise
11
-
5

(20 minutes)

1.

ROI computations:


ROI = Margin × Turnover
Net operating income Sales
= ×
Sales Average operating assets



Osaka Division:


¥210,000 ¥3,000,000
ROI = ×
¥3,000,000 ¥1,000,000
= 7% × 3 = 21%



Yokohama Division:

¥720,000 ¥9,000,000
ROI = ×
¥9,000,000 ¥4,000,000
= 8% × 2.25 = 18%


2.


Osaka

Yokohama


Average operating assets (a)

......................


¥1,000,00
0

¥4,000,000






Net operating income

................................


¥


210,000

¥


720,000


Minimum required return on average
ope
r
ating assets: 15% × (a)

...................



150,000



600,000


Residual income

................................
........


¥


60,000

¥


120,000


3.

No, the Yokohama Division is simply larger than the Osaka Division and
for this reason one would e
xpect that it would have a greater amount of
residual income. Residual income can’t be used to compare the
performance of divisions of different sizes. Larger divisions will almost
a
l
ways look better. In fact, in the case above, the Yokohama Division
does
not appear to be as well managed as the Osaka Division. Note
from Part (1) that Yokohama has only an 18% ROI as compared to 21%
for Osaka.

Chapter 11
-

Segment Reporting, Decentralization, and th
e Balanced Scorecard


11
-
10


Exercise
11
-
6

(15 minutes)

1.

ROI computations:


ROI = Margin × Turnover
Net operating income Sales
= ×
Sales Average operating assets



Queensland Division:


$360,000 $4,000,000
ROI = ×
$4,000,000 $2,000,000
= 9% × 2 = 18%



New South Wales Division:



$420,000 $7,000,000
ROI = ×
$7,000,000 $2,000,000
= 6% × 3.5 = 21%


2.

The manager of the New South Wales Division seems to be doing the
better job. Although her margin is three percentage points lower than
the margin of the Queensland Division, her
turnover is higher (a
turnover of 3.5, as compared to a turnover of two for the Queensland
Division). The greater turnover more than offsets the lower margin,
resul
t
ing in a 21% ROI, as compared to an 18% ROI for the other
division.




Notice that if you l
ook at margin alone, then the Queensland Division
appears to be the stronger division. This fact underscores the
importance of looking at turnover as well as at margin in evaluating
perfor
m
ance in an investment center.

Chapter 11
-

Segment Reporting, Dec
entralization, and the Balanced Scorecard


11
-
11


Exercise
11
-
7

(15 minutes)


Division


Alpha


Bravo


Charlie


Sales

................................
...

$4,000,000


$11,500,000

*

$3,000,000


Net operating income

...........

$160,000


$920,000

*

$210,000

*

Average operating assets

.....

$800,000

*

$4,600,000


$1,500,000


Margin

................................

4%*


8%



7%*


Turnover

.............................

5*



2.5



2



Return

on investment (ROI)

.

20%



20%*


14%*



Note that Divisions Alpha and Bravo
apparently have

different strategies to
obtain the same 20% return. Division Alpha has a low margin and a high
turnover, whereas Division Bravo has just the opposite.


*Given.

Chapter 11
-

Segment Reporting, Decentralization, and th
e Balanced Scorecard


11
-
12


Exercise
11
-
8

(30 minutes)

1.

ROI computations:

ROI = Margin × Turnover
Net operating income Sales
= ×
Sales Average operating assets



Division A:


$600,000 $12,000,000
ROI = ×
$12,000,000 $3,000,000
= 5% × 4 = 20%



Division B:


$560,000 $14,000,000
ROI = ×
$14,000,000 $7,000,000
= 4% × 2 = 8%



Division C:


$800,000 $25,000,000
ROI = ×
$25,000,000 $5,000,000
= 3.2% × 5 = 16%


2.


Division A

Division B

Division C


Average
operating assets

.........


$3,000,000

$7,000,000

$5,000,000


Required rate of return
.............



×


14%


×



10%


×



16%


Minimum r
equired
return

..........


$


420,000

$

700,000

$

800,000







Actual

net

operating income

.....


$


600,000

$


560,000

$

800,000


Minimum r
equire
d
return

(above)

................................



420,000


700,000


800,000


Residual income

......................


$

180,000

$(140,000
)

$

0

Chapter 11
-

Segment Reporting, Dec
entralization, and the Balanced Scorecard


11
-
13


Exercise
11
-
8

(continued)

3.

a. and b.



Division A

Division B

Division C


Return on investment (ROI)

...........

20%


8%

16%


Therefore, if the division is

presented with an investment
o
p
portunity yielding 15%, it
probably would

...........................

Reject

Accept

Reject


Minimum required return for
co
m
puting residual income

..........

14%

10%

16%


Therefore, if the division is
presented with an investment
o
p
portunity yielding 15%, it
p
robably would

...........................

Accept

Accept

Reject




If performance is being measured by ROI, both Division A and Division C
probably would reject the 15% investment opportunity. These divisions’
ROIs currently exceed 15%; accepting a new investment with a 15%
rate of
return would reduce their overall ROIs. Division B probably would
accept the 15% investment opportunity
because

accepting it would
i
n
crease the division’s overall rate of return.




If performance is measured by residual income, both Division A and
D
i
visio
n B probably would accept the 15% investment opportunity. The
15% rate of return promised by the new investment is greater than their
required rates of return of 14% and 10%, respectively, and would
ther
e
fore add to the total amount of their residual incom
e. Division C
would reject the opportunity
because

the 15% return on the new
investment is less than its 16% required rate of return.

Chapter 11
-

Segment Reporting, Decentralization, and th
e Balanced Scorecard


11
-
14


Exercise
11
-
9

(30 minutes)

1.

Net operating income
Margin =
Sales
$70,000
= = 5%
$1,400,000
Sales
Turnover =
Average operating assets
$1,400,000
= = 4
$350,000
ROI = Margin × Turnover
= 5% × 4 = 20%


2.

Net operating income
Margin =
Sales
$70,000 + $18,200
=
$1,400,000 + $70,000
$88,200
= = 6%
$1,470,000
Sales
Turnover =
Average operating assets
$1,400,000 + $70,000
=
$350,000
$1,470,000
= = 4.2
$350,000
ROI =
Margin × Turnover
= 6% × 4.2 = 25.2%

Chapter 11
-

Segment Reporting, Dec
entralization, and the Balanced Scorecard


11
-
15


Exercise
11
-
9
(continued)

3.

Net operating income
Margin =
Sales
$70,000 + $14,000
=
$1,400,000
$84,000
= = 6%
$1,400,000
Sales
Turnover =
Average operating assets
$1,400,000
= = 4
$350,000
ROI = Margin × Turnover
= 6% × 4 = 24%


4.

Net operating income
Margin =
Sales
$70,000
= = 5%
$1,400,000
Sales
Turnover =
Average operating assets
$1,400,000
=
$350,000 - $70,000
$1,400,000
= = 5
$280,000
ROI = Margin × Turnover
= 5% × 5 = 25%

Chapter 11
-

Segment Reporting, Decentralization, and th
e Balanced Scorecard


11
-
16


Exercise
11
-
10

(
15

minutes)

1.

Net operating income
Margin =
Sales
$150,000
= = 5%
$3,000,000
Sales
Turnover =
Average operating assets
$3,000,000
= = 4
$750,000
ROI = Margin × Turnover
= 5% × 4 = 20%


2.

Net operating income
Margin =
Sales
$150,000(1.00 + 2.00)
=
$3,000,000(1.00 + 0.50)
$450,000
= = 10%
$4,500,000
Sales
Turnover =
Average operating assets
$3,000,000(1.00 + 0.50)
=
$750,000
$4,500,000
=
$750,000
= 6
ROI = Margin × Turnover
= 10% × 6 = 60%

Chapter 11
-

Segment Reporting, Dec
entralization, and the Balanced Scorecard


11
-
17


Exercise
11
-
10

(continued)

3.

Net operating income
Margin =
Sales
$150,000 + $200,000
=
$3,000,000 + $1,000,000
$350,000
= = 8.75%
$4,000,000
Sales
Turnover =
Average operating assets
$3,000,000 + $1,000,000
=
$750,000 + $250,000
$4,000,
=
000
= 4
$1,000,000
ROI = Margin × Turnover
= 8.75% × 4 = 35%

Chapter 11
-

Segment Reporting, Decentralization, and th
e Balanced Scorecard


11
-
18


Exercise
11
-
11
(45 minutes)

1.

Stu
dents’ answers may differ in some details from this solution.





































Revenue per

e
m
ployee

Sales

Profit margin

Fina
n
cial

Ratio of bil
l
able hours
to total hours

Average nu
m
ber of
errors per tax

return

Average time needed to
prepare a r
e
turn

Percentage of job
offers a
c
cepted

Employee m
o
rale

Amount of compe
n
sation paid
above industr
y ave
r
age

Average nu
m
ber of
years to be promoted

Cu
s
tomer

Internal Bus
i
ness

Processes

Lear
n
ing

And

Growth

+


=
H
=
H
=
H
=

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Chapter 11
-

Segment Reporting, Dec
entralization, and the Balanced Scorecard


11
-
19


Exercise
11
-
11
(continued)

2.

The hypotheses underlying the balanced scorecard are indicated by t
he
arrows in the diagram. Reading from the bottom of the balanced
scor
e
card, the hypotheses are:




°

If the amount of compensation paid above the industry average
i
n
creases, then the percentage of job offers accepted and the level of
employee morale will

increase.




°

If the average number of years to be promoted decreases, then the
percentage of job offers accepted and the level of employee m
o
rale
will increase.




°

If the percentage of job offers accepted increases, then the r
a
tio of
billable hours to

total hours should increase while the average
number of e
r
rors per tax return and the average time needed to
prepare a return should decrease.




°

If employee morale increases, then the ratio of billable hours to total
hours should increase while the ave
rage number of errors per tax
return and the average time needed to prepare a return should
d
e
crease.




°

If employee morale increases, then the customer satisfaction with
service quality should increase.




°

If the ratio of billable hours to total hours

increases, then the revenue
per employee should increase.




°

If the average number of errors per tax return decreases, then the
cu
s
tomer satisfaction with effectiveness should increase.




°

If the average time needed to prepare a return decreases, then

the
cu
s
tomer satisfaction with efficiency should increase.




°

If the customer satisfaction with effectiveness, efficiency and service
qua
l
ity increases, then the number of new customers acquired should
i
n
crease.




°

If the number of new customers acqui
red increases, then sales
should i
n
crease.




°

If revenue per employee and sales increase, then the profit margin
should increase.


Chapter 11
-

Segment Reporting, Decentralization, and th
e Balanced Scorecard


11
-
20


Exercise
11
-
11
(continued)



Each of these hypotheses
can be questioned.
For example, Ariel’s
customers may define effecti
veness as minimizing their tax l
i
ability
which is not necessarily the same as minimizing the num
ber of errors in
a tax r
e
turn.
If some of Ariel’s customers became aware that Ariel
overlooked legal tax minimizing opportunities, it is likely that the
“custom
er satisfa
c
tion with effecti
veness” measure would decline.
This
decline would probably puzzle Ariel because, although the firm prepared
what it b
e
lieved to be error
-
free returns, it overlooked
opportunities to
minimize customers’ taxes.
In this example, Ar
iel’s internal business
process measure
of

the average number of errors per tax return does
not

fully

capture the factors that drive the customer satisfaction. The
fact that each of the hypotheses mentioned above can be questioned
does not invalidate the b
alanced scorecard. If the scorecard is used
correctly, management will be able to identify which, if any, of the
hypotheses are invalid

and then modify the balanced scorecard
accor
d
ingly
.


3.

The

performance
measure “total dollar amount of tax refunds
gen
e
r
ated”
would motivate

Ariel’s employees to aggressively search for
tax minimization

opportunities for its clients. However, employees may
be too aggressive and recommend questionable or illegal tax practices
to clients. This undesirable behavior could gen
erate unfavorable
publicity and lead to major problems for the company as well as its
customers. Ove
r
all, it would probably be unwise to use this performance
measure in Ariel’s scor
e
card.




However, if Ariel wanted to create a scorecard measure to capture

this
aspect of its client service responsibilities, it may make sense to focus
the performance measure on its training process. Properly trained
employees are more likely to recognize viable tax minimization
opportun
i
ties.

Chapter 11
-

Segment Reporting, Dec
entralization, and the Balanced Scorecard


11
-
21


Exercise
11
-
11
(continued)

4.

E
ach office’s individual performance
should be based on

the scorecard
measures
only
if the

measures are controllable by those em
ployed at
the branch offices.
In other words, it would not make sense to attempt
to
hold

branch office
managers responsible for

measures such as the
percent of job o
f
fers accepted or the amount of compensation paid
above industry average
. R
ecruiting and compensation
decisions are not
typically made at the branch offices. On the other hand, it

would
make
sense

to measure the branch
offices with respect to internal business
process, custom
er, and financial perfor
m
ance.
Gathering this type of
data would be useful for evaluating the performance of employees at
each office
.

Chapter 11
-

Segment Reporting, Decentralization, and th
e Balanced Scorecard


11
-
22


Exercise
11
-
1
2

(15 minutes)


Company


A


B


C


Sales

................................
.......


$9,000,
000

*

$7,000,000

*

$4,500,000

*

Net operating income

...............


$540,000


$280,000

*

$360,000


Average operating assets

.........


$3,000,000

*

$2,000,000


$1,800,000

*

Return on investment (ROI)

.....


18%*


14%*


20%


Minimum required rate of return:







Percentage

...........................


16%*


16%


15%*


Dollar amount

.......................


$480,000


$320,000

*

$270,000


Residual income

......................


$60,000


$(40,000)


$90,000

*


*Given.

Chapter 11
-

Segment Reporting, Dec
entralization, and the Balanced Scorecard


11
-
23


Exercise
11
-
13

(20 minutes)

1.

$75,000
×

40% CM ratio = $30,000 increased contribution margin in
Minneapolis.
Because

the fixed costs in
the office and in the company as
a whole will not change, the entire $30,000 would result in increased
net operating income for the company.




It is not correct to multiply the $75,000 increase in sales by Minneapolis’
24% segment margin ratio. This appro
ach assumes that the segment’s
traceable fixed expenses increase in proportion to sales, but if they did,
they would not be fixed.


2.

a.

The segmented income statement follows:





Segments


Total Company


Chicago


Minneapolis


Amount

%


Amount

%


Amou
nt

%

Sales

..........................


$500,000

100.0


$200,000

100


$300,000

100

Variable expense
s

.......



240,000


48.0



60,000


30



180,000


60

Contribution margin

....


260,000

52.0


140,000

70


120,000

40

Trace
able fixed
expenses

.................



126,000


25.2



78,000


39



48,000


16

Offi
ce segment
ma
r
gin
.....................


134,000

26.8


$

62,000


31


$ 72,000


24

Common

fixed
expenses not
trac
e
able to
segments

.................



63,000


12.6







Net operating income

..


$

71,000


14.2










b.

The segment margin ratio rises and falls as sales rise and fall due to
t
he presence of fixed costs. The fixed costs are spread over a larger
base as sales increase.





In contrast to the segment ratio, the contribution margin ratio is
st
a
ble so long as there is no change in either the variable expenses or
the selling price pe
r unit of service.

Chapter 11
-

Segment Reporting, Decentralization, and th
e Balanced Scorecard


11
-
24


Exercise
11
-
14

(15 minutes)

1.

The company should focus its campaign on the Dental market. The
computations are:



Medical

Dental

Increased sales

................................
.............

$40,000

$35,000

Market CM ratio

................................
.............


36%


48%

Incremental contribution margin

.....................

$
14,400

$
16,800

Less cost of the campaign

..............................


5,000


5,000

Increased segment margin and net operating
income for the company as a whole

.............

$

9,400

$11,800


2.

The $48,000 in traceable fixed expenses in
t
he previous exercise

is now
partly traceable and partly common. When we segment Minneapolis by
ma
r
ket, only $33,000 remains a traceable fixed expense. This amount
represents costs such as advertising and salaries of individuals that arise
because of the ex
istence of the Medical and Dental markets. The
r
e
maining $15,000 ($48,000


$33,000)
is

a common cost when
Minneapolis is segmented by market. This amount would include costs
such as the salary of the manager of the Minneapolis office that could
not be avo
ided by eliminating either of the two market segments.

Chapter 11
-

Segment Reporting, Dec
entralization, and the Balanced Scorecard


11
-
25


Exercise
11
-
15

(20 minutes)

1.


Division


Total
Company

East

Central

West

Sales

..............................


$1,000,000

$250,000

$400,000

$350,000

Variable expense
s

...........



390,000


130,000


120,000


140,000

Contribution margi
n

........


610,000

120,000

280,000

210,000

Trace
able fixed e
x
penses



535,000


160,000


200,000


175,000

Divisional segment
ma
r
gin
.........................


75,000

$(40,000
)

$

80,000

$ 35,000

Common

fixed e
x
penses
not traceable to
divisions*

....................



90,000




Net operating income
(loss)

...........................


$

(15,000
)







*$625,000


$535,000 = $90,000.


2.

Incremental sales ($350,000 × 20%)

.......


$70,000


Contribution margin ratio

($210,000 ÷ $3
50,000)

.........................


×

60%


Incremental contribution margin

..............


$
42,000


Less incremental advertising expense

.......



15,000


Incremental net operating income

............


$27,000




Yes, the advertising program should be initiated.

Chapter 11
-

Segment Reporting, Decentralization, and th
e Balanced Scorecard


11
-
26


Exercise
11
-
16

(20 minutes)

1.


(b)

(c)




Net

Av
erage



(a)

Operating

Operating

ROI


Sales

Income*

Assets

(b)
÷

(c)


$2,500,000

$475,000

$1,000,000

47.5%


$2,600,000

$500,000

$1,000,000

50.0%


$2,700,000

$525,000

$1,000,000

52.5%


$2,800,000

$550,000

$1,000,000

55.0%


$2,900,000

$575,000

$1,000,0
00

57.5%


$3,000,000

$600,000

$1,000,000

60.0%




*Sales
×

Contribution Margin Ratio


Fixed Expenses


2.

The ROI increases by 2.5% for each $100,000 increase in sales. This
happens because each $100,000 increase in sales brings in an additional
profit
of $25,000. When this additional profit is divided by the average
operating assets of $1,000,000, the result is an increase in the
co
m
pany’s ROI of 2.5%.


Increase in sales

................................
...................


$100,000

(a)

Contribution margin ratio

................................
.......


25%

(b)

Increase in contribution margin
and net operating
income (a) × (b)

................................
................


$25,000

(c)

Average operating assets

................................
.......


$1,000,000

(d)

Increase in return on investment (c) ÷ (d)

.............


2.5%


Chapter 11
-

Segment Reporting, Dec
entralization, and the Balanced Scorecard


11
-
27


Problem
11
-
17

(30 minutes)

1.


Present


New Line


Total

(1)

Sales

..........................

$10,000,000


$2,000,000


$12,000,000

(2)

Net

operating income

..

$800,000


$160,000

*

$960,000

(3)

Operating assets

.........

$4,000,000


$1,000,000


$5,000,000

(4)

Margin (2) ÷ (1)

.........

8%



8%



8%


(5)

Turnover (1) ÷ (3)

......

2.5



2.0



2.4


(6)

ROI (4) × (5)

..............

20.0%



16.0%



19.2
%



*

Sales

................................
..........................


$2,000,000


Variable expense
s (60% × $2,000,000)

.......



1,200,000


Contribution margin

................................
....


800,000


Fixed expense
s

................................
...........



640,000


Net operating income

................................
..


$

160,000


2.

Dell Havasi will be inclined to reject the new product line
because

accep
t
in
g it would reduce his division’s overall rate of return.


3.

The new product line promises an ROI of 16%, whereas the company’s
overall ROI last year was only 15%. Thus, adding the new line would
i
n
crease the company’s overall ROI.


4.

a.


Present

New Li
ne

Total



Operating assets

....................


$4,000,000

$1,000,000

$5,000,000



Minimum return required

........



×



12%


×



12%


×



12%



Minimum net operating
i
n
come
................................


$

480,000

$

120,000

$

600,000



Actual net operating income

...


$

800,000

$

160,000

$

960,000



Minimum net operating
i
n
come (above)

...................



480,000


120,000


600,000



Residual income

.....................


$

32
0,000

$


40,000

$

360,000




b.

Under the residual income approach, Dell Havasi would be inclined to
accept the new product line

because

adding the

product

line would
increase the total amount of his division’s residual income, as shown
above.

Chapter 11
-

Segment Reporting, Decentralization, and th
e Balanced Scorecard


11
-
28


Problem
11
-
18

(30 minutes)

1.

Breaking the ROI computation into two separate elements helps the
manager to see important relationships that might remain hidden. First,
the i
m
portance of turnover of assets as a key element to overall
profitability is emphasized. P
rior to use of the ROI formula, managers
tended to allow operating assets to swell to excessive levels. Second,
the importance of sales volume in profit computations is stressed and
explicitly recognized. Third, breaking the ROI computation into margin
and

turnover elements stresses the possibility of trading one off for the
other in attempts to improve the overall profit picture. That is, a
company may shave its margins slightly hoping for a
large

enough
increase in turnover to i
n
crease the overall rate of

return. Fourth, ratios
make it easier to make comparisons between segments of the
organization.


2.


Companies in the Same Industry



A


B


C



Sales

................................
....


$600,000

*

$500,000

*

$2,000,000



Net operating income

............


$84,000

*

$70,000

*

$70,000



Average oper
ating assets

.......


$300,000

*

$1,000,000


$1,000,000

*


Margin

................................
..


14%


14%


3.5%

*


Turnover

...............................


2.0


0.5


2.0

*


Return on investment (ROI)

...


28%


7%

*

7%






*Given.




NAA Report No. 35
states (p. 35):




“Introducing sales to measure level of operations help
s to disclose
sp
e
cific areas for more intensive investigation. Company B does as well
as Company A in terms of profit margin, for both companies earn 14%
on sales. But Company B has a much lower turnover of capital than
does Company A. Whereas a dollar of
investment in Company A
supports two dollars in sales each period, a dollar investment in
Company B supports only fifty cents in sales each period. This suggests
that the analyst should look carefully at Company B’s investment. Is the
company kee
p
ing an in
ventory larger than necessary for its sales
volume? Are recei
v
ables being collected promptly? Or did Company A
acquire its fixed a
s
sets at a price level which was much lower than that
at which Company B purchased its plant?”

Chapter 11
-

Segment Reporting, Dec
entralization, and the Balanced Scorecard


11
-
29


Problem
11
-
18

(
continued
)



Th
us, by including sales specifically in ROI computations the manager is
able to discover possible problems, as well as reasons underlying a
strong or a weak performance. Looking at Company A compared to
Company C, notice that C’s turnover is the same as A’s
, but C’s margin
on sales is much lower. Why would C have such a low margin? Is it due
to inefficiency, is it due to geographical location (requiring higher
sal
a
ries or transportation charges), is it due to excessive materials costs,
or is it due to other
factors? ROI computations raise questions such as
these, which form the basis for managerial action.




To summarize, in order to bring B’s ROI into line with A’s, it seems
obvious that B’s management will have to concentrate its efforts on
increa
s
ing turn
over, either by increasing sales or by reducing assets. It
seems unlikely that B can appreciably increase its ROI by improving its
margin on sales. On the other hand, C’s management should
concentrate its e
f
forts on the margin element by trying to pare dow
n its
operating e
x
penses.

Chapter 11
-

Segment Reporting, Decentralization, and th
e Balanced Scorecard


11
-
30


Problem
11
-
19

(45 minutes)

The answers below are not the only possible answers. Ingenious people
can figure out many different ways of making performance look better
even though it really isn’t. This is one of the reasons for a
b
alanced

scor
e
card
. By having a number of different measures that ultimately are
linked to overall financial goals, “gaming” the sy
s
tem is more difficult.


1.

Speed
-
to
-
market can be improved by taking on less ambitious projects.
Instead of working on major
product innovations that require a great
deal of time and effort, R&D may choose to work on small, incremental
improvements in existing products. There is also a danger that in the
rush to push products out the door, the products will be inadequately
teste
d and developed.


2.

Performance measures that are ratios or percentages present special
dangers. A ratio can be increased either by increasing the numerator or
by decreasing the denominator. Usually, the intention is to increase the
numerator in the rati
o, but a manager may react by decreasing the
denominator instead. In this case (which actually happened), the
mana
g
ers pulled telephones out of the high
-
crime areas. This eliminated
the problem for the managers, but was not what the CEO or the city
off
i
cia
ls had intended. They wanted the phones fixed, not eliminated.


3.

In real life, the production manager simply added several weeks to the
delivery cycle time. In other words, instead of promising to deliver an
order in four weeks, the manager promised to
deliver in six weeks. This
increase in delivery cycle time did not, of course, please customers and
drove some business away, but it dramatically improved the percentage
of orders delivered on time.

Chapter 11
-

Segment Reporting, Dec
entralization, and the Balanced Scorecard


11
-
31


Problem
11
-
19
(continued)

4.

As stated above, ratios c
an be improved by changing either the
numer
a
tor or the denominator. Managers who are under pressure to
increase the revenue per employee may find it easier to eliminate
employees than to increase revenues. Of course, eliminating employees
may reduce total
revenues and total profits, but the revenue per
employee will i
n
crease as long as the percentage decline in revenues is
less than the percentage cut in number of employees. Suppose, for
example, that a manager is responsible for business units with a total

of
1,000 emplo
y
ees, $120 million in revenues, and profits of $2 million.
Further suppose that a manager can eliminate one of these business
units that has 200 employees, revenues of $10 million, and profits of
$1.2 million.



Before elimina
t
ing
the busine
ss unit

After elimina
t
ing
the bus
i
ness unit

Total revenue

................

$120,000,000

$110,000,000

Total employees

............

1,000

800

Revenue per employee

..

$120,000

$137,500

Total profits

..................

$2,000,000

$800,000




As these examples illustrate, performance measures should be
selected
with a great deal of care and managers should avoid placing too much
emphasis on any one performance measure.

Chapter 11
-

Segment Reporting, Decentralization, and th
e Balanced Scorecard


11
-
32


Problem
11
-
20

(20 minutes)

1.

Operating assets do not include investments in other companies or in
undeveloped land.



Ending

Balances

Beginning

Balances

Cash

................................
....................


$

120,000

$

140,000

Accounts receivable

..............................


530,000

450,000

Inventory

................................
.............


380,000

320,000

Plant and equipment (net)

....................



620,000


680,000

Total operating assets

...........................


$1,650,000

$1,590,000


$1,650,000 + $1,590,000
Average operating assets = = $1,620,000
2
Net operating income
Margin =
Sales
$405,000
= = 10%
$4,050,000
Sales
Turnover=
Average operating assets
$4,050,000
= = 2.5
$1,620,000
ROI = Mar
gin × Turnover
= 10% × 2.5 = 25%


2.

Net ope
rating income

................................
..........


$405,000


Minimum required return (15% × $1,620,000)

......



243,000


Residual income

................................
..................


$162,000

Chapter 11
-

Segment Reporting, Dec
entralization, and the Balanced Scorecard


11
-
33


Problem
11
-
21

(30 minutes)

1.

ROI = Margin × Turnover
Net operating income Sales
= ×
Sales Average operating assets
$360,000 $4,000,000
= ×
$4,000,000 $2,000,000
= 9% × 2 = 18%


2.

$360,000 $4,000,000
ROI = ×
$4,000,000 $1,600,000
= 9% × 2.5 =
22.5%
(Unchanged) (Increase) (Increase)


3.

$392,000 $4,000,000
ROI = ×
$4,000,000 $2,000,000
= 9.8% × 2 =
19.6%
(Increase) (Unchanged) (Increase
)


4.

Interest is a f
inancing expense and thus it is not used to compute net
operating income.

$380,000 $4,000,000
ROI = ×
$4,000,000 $2,500,000
= 9.5% × 1.6 =
15.2%
(Increase) (Decrease) (Decreas
e)

Chapter 11
-

Segment Reporting, Decentralization, and th
e Balanced Scorecard


11
-
34


Problem
11
-
21

(continued)

5.

The company has a contribution margin ratio of 30% ($24 CM per unit,
divided by the $80 selling price per unit). Therefore,
a 20% increase in
sales would result in a new net operating income of:


Sales (1.20 × $4,000,000)

.....


$4,800,000


100

%

Variable expense
s

..................



3,360,000



70


Contribution margin

...............


1,440,000



30

%

Fixed expense
s

......................



840,000




Net operating income

............


$


600,000





$600,000 $4,800,000
ROI = ×
$4,800,000 $2,000,000
= 12.5% × 2.4 =
30%
(Increase) (Increase) (Increase)


6.

$320,000 $4,000,000
ROI = ×
$4,000,000 $1,960,000
= 8% × 2.04 =
16.3%
(Decrease) (Increase) (Decrease)


7.

$360,000 $4,000,000
ROI = ×
$4,000,000 $1,800,000
= 9% × 2.22 =
20%
(Unchanged) (Increase) (Increase)

Chapter 11
-

Segment Reporting, Dec
entralization, and the Balanced Scorecard


11
-
35


Learning

and

Growth

Internal

Business

Processes

Financial

Customer

Problem
11
-
22
(45 minutes)

1.

Students’ answers may differ in some details from this solution.



































Weekly profit

Weekly sales

Number of
menu items

Dining area
cleanliness

Percentage
of kitchen
staff
co
m
pleting
cooking
course

+

+

+

+

Customer
satisfa
c
tion with
service

Customer
satisfa
c
tion with
menu choices

+

+

Average time
to prepare an
order

Averag
e time
to take an

o
r
der

Percentage
of dining
room staff
completing
hospitality
course

+

+


=

=
Chapter 11
-

Segment Reporting, Decentralization, and th
e Balanced Scorecard


11
-
36


Problem
11
-
22
(continued)

2.

The hypotheses underlying the balanced scorecard are indicated by the
arrows in the diagram. Reading from the bottom of the balanced
scor
e
card, the hypotheses are:

o

If the percentage of dining room staff
tha
t

complete the basic
hosp
i
tality course increases, then the average time to take an order
will decrease.

o

If the percentage of dining room staff
that

complete the basic
hosp
i
tality course increases, then dining room cleanliness will
improve.

o

If the percenta
ge of kitchen staff
that

complete the basic cooking
course increases, then the average time to prepare an order will
d
e
crease.

o

If the percentage of kitchen staff
that

complete the basic cooking
course increases, then the number of menu items will increase.

o

If the dining room cleanliness improves, then customer satisfaction
with service will increase.

o

If the average time to take an order decreases, then customer
sati
s
faction with service will increase.

o

If the average time to prepare an order decreases, then
customer
satisfaction with service will increase.

o

If the number of menu items increases, then customer satisfaction
with menu choices will increase.

o

If customer satisfaction with service increases, weekly sales will
i
n
crease.

o

If customer satisfaction with
menu choices increases, weekly sales
will increase.

o

If sales increase, weekly profits for the Lodge will increase.




Each of these hypotheses

can be questioned
. For example, the items
added to the menu may not appeal to customers. So even if the number
of

menu items increases, customer satisfaction with the menu choices
may not increase. The fact that each of the hypotheses can be
questioned does not, however, invalidate the balanced scor
e
card. If the
scorecard is used correctly, management will be able to

identify which,
if any, of the hypotheses are incorrect. [See below.]

Chapter 11
-

Segment Reporting, Dec
entralization, and the Balanced Scorecard


11
-
37


Problem
11
-
22
(continued)

3.

Management will be able to tell if a hypothesis is false if an
improv
e
ment in a performance measure at the bottom of an arrow does
not, in fact, lead to i
mprovement in the performance measure at the tip
of the arrow. For example, if the number of menu items is increased,
but cu
s
tomer satisfaction with the menu choices does not increase,
manag
e
ment will immediately know that something was wrong with that
pa
r
ticular hypothesis.

Chapter 11
-

Segment Reporting, Decentralization, and th
e Balanced Scorecard


11
-
38


Problem
11
-
23

(60 minutes)

1.

Segments defined as product lines:




Product Line


Glass
Division

Flat Glass

Auto
Glass

Specialty
Glass

Sales

................................


R600,000

R200,000

R300,000

R100,000

Variable expense
s

.............



300,000


130,000


120,000


50,000

Contribution margin
...........



300,000


70,000


180,000


50,000

Trace
able fixed expenses:





Advertising

.....................


120,000

30,000

42,000

48,000

Depreciation

...................


48,000

10,000

24,000

14,000

Administration

................



42,000


14,000


21,000


7,000

Total

................................
.



210,000


54,000


87,000


69,000

Product line segment
margin

...........................


90,000

R 16,000

R 93,000

R

(19,000
)

Common

fixed expenses
not traceable to product
lines:





Administration

................



60,000




Divisional segment margin

.


R 30,000




Chapter 11
-

Segment Reporting, Dec
entralization, and the Balanced Scorecard


11
-
39


Problem
11
-
23

(continued)

2.

Segments defined as markets for Specialty Glass:




Sales Market


Specialty
Glass

Domestic

Foreign

Sales

................................
..........


R100,000

R60,000

R

40,000

Variable expense
s

........................



50,000


30,000


20,000

Contribution margin

.....................


50,000

30,000

20,000

Trace
abl
e fixed expenses:




Advertising

...............................



48,000


18,000


30,000

Market segment margin

...............



2,000

R12,000

R(10,000
)

Common

fixed expenses not
traceable to sales markets:




Depreciation

.............................


14,000



Administration

..........................



7,000



Total

................................
...........



21,000



Pr
oduct line segment margin

........


R (19,000
)




3.


Flat Glass

Auto Glass


Increased sales

................................
........


R40,000

R30,000


Contribution margin ratio:




Flat glass (R70,000/R200,000)

...............


×

35%



Auto glass (R180,000/R300,000)

............



×

60%


Incremental contribution margin

...............


R14,0
00

R18,000


Less cost of the promotional campaign

......



8,000


8,000


Increased net operating income

................


R

6,000

R10,000




Based on these data, the campaign should be directed toward Auto
Glass. Note that the analysis uses the contribution margin ratio
rather
than the segment margin ratio.

Chapter 11
-

Segment Reporting, Decentralization, and th
e Balanced Scorecard


11
-
40


Problem
11
-
24

(
60

minutes)

1.


Total

Sales Territory



Company

Northern

Southern


Sales

................................
..................


$750,000

$300,000

$450,000


Variable expense
s

................................



336,000


156,000


180,000


Contribution margin

.............................


414,000

144,000

270,000


Tr
ace
able fixed expenses

.....................



228,000


120,000


108,000


Sales territory

segment margin
.............


186,000

$

24,000

$162,000


Common

fixed expenses not traceable
to sales territories

(
$378,000

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Chapter 11
-

Segment Reporting, Dec
entralization, and the Balanced Scorecard


11
-
41


Problem
11
-
24

(
continued
)



Total

Sales Territory



Company

Northern

Southern


Sales

................................
..................


100.0
%

100
%

100
%


Variable expense
s

................................



44.8
%


52
%


40
%


Contribution margin

.............................


55.2
%

48
%

60
%


Trace
able fixed expenses

.....................



30.4
%


40
%


24
%


Sales territory

segment margin
.............


24.8
%


8
%


36
%


Common

fixed expenses not traceable
to sales territories

(
$378,000

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Chapter 11
-

Segment Reporting, Decentralization, and th
e Balanced Scorecard


11
-
42


Problem
11
-
24

(continued)

2.

Two insights should be brought to the attention of management. First,
compared to the Southern territory, the Northern te
rritory has a low
contribution margin ratio. Second, the Northern territory has high
trac
e
able fixed expenses. Overall, compared to the Southern territory,
the Northern territory is very weak.


3.

Again, two insights should be brought to the attention of
management.
First, the Northern territory has a poor sales mix. Note that the territory
sells very little of the Paks product, which has a high contribution margin
ratio. This poor sales mix accounts for the low overall contribution
ma
r
gin ratio in the Nor
thern territory mentioned in part (2) above.
Second, the traceable fixed expenses of the Paks product seem very
high in rel
a
tion to sales. These high fixed expenses may simply mean
that the Paks product is highly leveraged; if so, then an increase in sales

of this pro
d
uct line would greatly enhance profits in the Northern
territory and in the company as a whole.

Chapter 11
-

Segment Reporting, Dec
entralization, and the Balanced Scorecard


11
-
43


Problem
11
-
25

(
60

minutes)

1.

Total
Company

Cook
-
book

Travel
Guide

Handy
Speller

Sales

................................
......


$300,000

$90,000

$150,000

$60,000

Variable expense
s:





Printing cost

.........................


102,000

27,000

63,000

12,000

Sales commissions
................



30,000


9,000


15,000


6,000

Total variable expenses

...........



132,000


36,000


78,000


18,000

Contribution margin

................



168,000


54,000


72,000


42,000

Trace
able fixed expenses:





Adv
ertising
...........................


36,000

13,500

19,500

3,000

Salaries

...............................


33,000

18,000

9,000

6,000

Equipment depreciation*

9,000

2,700

4,500

1,800

Warehouse rent**

................



12,000


1,800


6,000


4,200

Total traceable fixed expenses

.



90,000


36,000


39,000


15,000

Produc
t line segment margin

...



78,000

$18,000

$

33,000

$27,000

Common

fixed expenses:





General sales

.......................


18,000




General administration

..........


42,000




Depreciation

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*

$9,000 × 30%, 50%, and

20%, respectively.

**

$48,000 square feet
×

$3 per square foot = $144,000; $144,000
÷

12
months = $12,000 per month.

$12,000
÷

48,000 square feet = $0.25 per
square foot per month.

$0.25

per square foot

× 7,200 square feet

= $1,800;

$
0.25

per square
foot

× 24,000 square feet

= $6,000;

and
$
0.25

per square foot

× 16,800
square feet

= $4,200
.

Chapter 11
-

Segment Reporting, Decentralization, and th
e Balanced Scorecard


11
-
44


Problem
11
-
25

(continued)

2.

a.

No, the cookbook line should not be eliminated. The cookbook is
covering all of its own costs and is generating an $18,000 segment
ma
r
gin toward covering the company’s common costs and toward
profits. (Note: Problems relating to the elimination of a product line
are co
v
ered in more depth in
the next chapter
.)




b.



Cook
-
book

Travel
Guide

Handy
Speller

Contribution margin (a)

..................


$54
,000

$72
,000

$42
,000

Sales (b)

................................
........


$
90
,000

$
150
,000

$
60
,000

Contribution margin r
a
tio (a) ÷ (b)

..


60%

48%

70%





It

is probably unwise to focus all available resources on promoting the
travel guide. The company is already spending
more

on the
promotion of this

product

than

on the other two
product
s
combined
.
Fu
r
thermore, the travel guide has the lowest contribution margin ratio
of the three products.

Therefore, a dollar of sales of the travel guide
generates less profit than a dollar

of

sales of either of the t
wo other
products.

Nevertheless, we cannot say for sure which pro
d
uct should
be emphasized in this situation without more information.

The
problem states that there is ample demand for all three products,
which suggests that there is no idle capacity.

If t
he equipment is
being fully utilized, increasing the production of any one product
would require cutting back
production

of the other products. In
the
next chapter

we will discuss how to choose the most pro
f
itable
product when a

production

constraint force
s such a trade
-
off
among

products.

Chapter 11
-

Segment Reporting, Dec
entralization, and the Balanced Scorecard


11
-
45


Problem
11
-
26
(90 minutes)

1.

B
oth
companie
s view training as important
;

b
oth
companie
s need to
leverage technology to succeed in the marketplace
;
and both
companie
s
are concerned with minimizing defects. There are n
u
me
rous
difference
s
be
tween the two companies.

For example, A
p
plied Pharmaceuticals is a
product
-
focused company and Destin
a
tion Resorts International (DRI) is
a service
-
focused company. A
p
plied Pharmaceuticals’ training resources
are focused on their e
n
ginee
rs because they hold the key to the success
of the organiz
a
tion. DRI’s training resources are focused on their front
-
line employees because they hold the key to the success of the
ir

organization. Applied Pharmaceuticals’ technology investments are
f
o
cused
on supporting the innovation that is inherent in the product
dev
elopment side of the business.
DRI’s technology investments are
focused on su
p
porting the day
-
to
-
day execution that is inherent in the
customer interface side of the business. Applied Pha
r
mace
uticals defines
a defect from an internal manufacturing standpoint, while DRI defines a
defect from an external customer interaction stan
d
point.

Chapter 11
-

Segment Reporting, Decentralization, and th
e Balanced Scorecard


11
-
46


Problem
11
-
26
(continued)

2.

Students’ answers may differ in some details from this solution.


Applied Pharma
ceuticals





Return on

Stoc
k
holders’ Equity

Fina
n
cial

Customer pe
r
ception of
first
-
to
-
market c
a
pability

Customer pe
r
ception of
pro
d
uct quality

Cu
s
tomer

R&D Yield

Defect rates

Inte
r
nal

Bus
i
ness

Process

Dollars invested in

engineering tec
h
no
logy

Percentage of job
offers a
c
cepted

Dollars invested in eng
i
neering
training per eng
i
neer

Lear
n
ing

and

Growth

+

+

+

+



+

+

+

Chapter 11
-

Segment Reporting, Dec
entralization, and the Balanced Scorecard


11
-
47


Problem
11
-
26
(continued)


Destination Resorts International
































Sales

Financial

Number of repeat cu
s
tomers

Cu
s
tomer

Percentage of

error
-
free r
e
peat

cu
s
tomer check
-
ins

Average time to

resolve customer
complaint

Room cleanlines
s

Inte
r
nal

Bus
i
ness

Process

Number of employees
receiving dat
a
base
training

Employee

turnover

Survey of

employee m
o
rale

Lear
n
ing

and

Growth


=
H
=
H
=
H
=
H
=

=
H
=
H
=
Chapter 11
-

Segment Reporting, Decentralization, and th
e Balanced Scorecard


11
-
48


Problem
11
-
26
(continued)

3