Amnesty International Senegal (mission report) - Channel Research ...

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Feb 21, 2014 (3 years and 5 months ago)



10, 2008

Mission report submitted by Cosette Thompson and Augustin Ngendakuriyo

At its March 08 Meeting, the IMT Grants Committee

reviewed AI Senegal’s third annual IMT application
and “requested a th
orough evaluation of the Section’s human rights impact, membership activism and
growth, and financial systems and management.”

Based on this GC decision, the Terms of Reference for the evaluation mission spelled out

the three areas
to be assessed:


Human r
ights impact of the Section’
s work (especia
lly of campaigning work related to
discrimination and violence against women, torture, death penalty, and arms control)


Membership data (baseline, record keeping, categories, growth trends and targets) and
ntribution of current activists, supporters, groups, and committees.


Financial and human resources management: review of 06 and 07 audits
, including internal
audit reports; meeting with external accounting firm; assessment of tax debt issue; review of
unting of Konrad Adenauer Foundation grants; assessment of implementation of
Consultant’s recommendations regarding employment practices and salaries.

Two consultants spent 6 days in Dakar to conduct this evaluation:


Cosette Thompson, IMT Consult
ant, and former Grant Officer for AI Senegal.


Augustin Ngendakuriyo, external evaluat
or (Channel Research Consultant, based in Burundi)

The evaluat
ion process included the following meetings and interviews:

IS consultations:



MSU Coordinator (IMP) on

30/9 at the IS

in London


Erwin Van der Borght,
Africa Program,

on 01/10 at the IS


Salvatore Saguès,
IS researcher and
Paule Rigaud,
IS Campaigner, in Paris on 13/10

Meetings held in AI’s Dak
ar Office:


Bureau Executif
(6 members) and
Section’s Director (Seydi Gassama)
on 04/10 (4



(Diene Ndiaye)

on 04/10 (3 hours)



BE President

(Louis Mendy)

n 06/10 (3 hours) and 10/10

(2 hours)


h the
Growth & Activism Coordinator

(Abdoulaye Seck)

(3 hours)


with the

Administrative Assistant
(Fatou Sall)

(2 hours)

Meetings held outside Dakar:



on 08/10 (approx. 4 hours). Augustin Ngendakuriyo met with

members of
the local AI G
roup as well as a member of the local City Council.


on 08/10 (approx.

4 hours). Cosette Thompson met with
members of the local
AI Group

(including Presidents of AIS’ Women and Campaigns Committees),
as well as
representatives of 3 NGOs (w
orking on women’s righ
ts issues).


on 09/10

(1 hour ½): consultants

met with 10 members of AIS Theatre Group





(Rencontre Africaine pour la Dé
fense des D
roits de l’Homme)

: m
eeting with
President .


sation Nationale des Droits de l’Homme)

: mee
ting with Executive Director
+ 2





Centre de Gestion Agréé (CGA):
external Accounting Firm


Salustro, Reydel & Fall:
Auditing Firm


AIS internal auditors
(Mamadou Sy and Mohammed Sall)




Dame Salle & Ansou Djallo
(Youth Representatives on National Council)


Theatre Group Coordinator


MSP Coordinator


CAP Coordinators
for Zimbabwe

, and West Africa


President of Section’s
Women Committee




Konrad Adenauer Foundation
(meeting with Dr. Ute Gierczynski


Oumar Gaye,
Magistrat Conseiller, Office of the President of the Republic of Senegal,

former President of AI Senegal

Jurists Committee.


Ibrahima Kane,

of study of AI Senegal salary r
eview and employment



Daniel Bolomey,
Secretary General of AI Switzerland (Facilitator of AI Senegal’s training
on Staff/Board relations, May 08)


Philippe Henmans,
Director, AI Belgium (assisting AI Senegal with website)

In summary, the mission delegates

with all

members of the N
ational Secret
ariat (3 full time
staff), all

members of the Bureau Executif (Board),
3 groups, representatives of 3 Commissions
ques (Coordinating Committees) and 3 CAPs,

adding up to
a total of

43 activists


The mission delegates wish to thank all of those Section leaders and activists who w
ere so generous
with their time and helpful with their

and suggestions. They are especially
grateful to the Section’
s Director for s
etting up
in advance
all the requested meetings and to the
President for maki
ng himself so available in spite of not residing in Dakar.

The evaluation methodology is outlined in the attached terms of reference. It included the revie
w of
several additional

documents (especially in the financial area) made available only at the time of
the visit or subsequently. Most of them are referenced and/or quoted in this report

and all of them
have been transferred to the IMT files.



The main questions to be addressed by this part of the evaluation were:


hat is the actual status of the Section’s membership
(categories, numbers, location)

and data collection?


How does the Section meet its




What is the role a
nd contribution of activists


Is the Section addressing IMT’s concerns and implementing its recommendations?


Membership data

Membership statistics provided in the 3 IMT appli
cations (06
08) have been

unreliable because
approximations and fluctuations due to flawed data gathering
and record keeping
These were
mostly attributed to the lack of an electronic

to the reliance on groups to
provide membership data
, to the “erratic” involvement and responsiv
eness of many
, and to challenges related to the collection of fees and registration follow

Conversations with the D
akar staff

ve made it quite clear that many of the above issues

resulted, until recently, from

the lack of profe
ssional staff in charge of membership

as well as the lack of clear responsibilities and efficient systems.

Since January 2008, the Section finally has a
fulltime and seemingly very competent Growth,
Activism, and Training Coordinator whose job

description prioritizes the
updating and
management of all
membership related data.

The new

Coordinator has set up a database that organizes the membership in the following


Paying members


Group members
the office database includes a memb
ership lis
t for each group
As of
October 31, 2008,
there was a total of


group members.


Individual members


reside where there is no group or do not wish to attend group

at the time of writing,
only 160 of those 1,46
0 paying members have actually paid their
annual dues, but the deadline for payment of membership fees is only December 20



These are individuals who are Urgent Action writers
, petition signers,

or whose names have
been captured through enr
olment forms distributed at

blic actions such as marches,

seminars, etc. They have been broken down into two sub



individuals who have participated in at least one activity but

do NOT
want to become members (mostly becau
se they do not want their name to be associated
with AI).



individuals who have expressed the desire to become members but
are not yet formally registered. Some of them may later join existing groups or become
individual members.

At this stage
represent the total number of group members since all members of the
committees listed below are also registered group members.

Currently the Section has
30 groups
f these are in Dakar, including groups based in
academic inst
groups of journalists, jurists, d
octors, p
eople with disabilities, and a
heatre group.

The other groups


are in the following 11

cities: Thies

, Mbour

, St. Louis, Mpal,
u, Touba, Kolda, Ziguinchor,

olack, Tambacounda, and D

AI Senegal also has
5 school clubs,
all in Dakar.


are also organized through various national committees:


“Commissions techniques”:








Human Rights Education


Fundraising (in the process of being set up)






(Zimbabwe, Nigeria, Sudan, DRC, West Africa)





Finally, the
Growth/Activism Coordinator now keeps a file of all the correspondence (requests for
information/enrolment) received from people who have contacted the Office through the

The collection and updating of the membership data, as far as we could see, is now done in a
professional and systematic way
. Two main issues remain:


Collection of fees
: membership fees

from group members often have

to be collected in
In the past this has

ed group visits and the process has
been very unreliable,
including because of

inadequate record
. The new Coordinator is now personally
responsible for the collection of membership fees and


in the process of followi
ng up
monthly reminders).

It is worth noting that no one we met with complained about
the fees but all pointed at collection problems. The added challenge of both groups and
roup members having to pay fees

will be addressed at the next AGM.


the current office database does not allow an efficient, detailed
record keeping.
The office sorely needs new IT systems.


Membership growth

The last IMT application (submitted for the March 08 GC Meeting) showed a decline in dues
members a

a sharp increase in supporters and activists. Our assessment is that

trends w
based on unreliable records and calculations.

According to Activity and AGM reports:


There were 104 dues
paying members by the end of 2006 and 182 by the end of 2007


Between the last 2 AGMs (
March 07 and August 08), 287 dues
paying members were

Based on

this and

the records

we were shown in Dakar (see p.4), the number of dues
members is therefore growing. The goal stated in the Section’s Strategic
Plan is to reach 1,000
members by 2010.

This target will be exceeded if

registered members (1,460) actually pay their
dues by the end of the year.

The 20
08 Operation Plan includes the following

specific growth targets:


To quadruple the membership ret
ention rate


To increase membership by 25% by the end of the year


To recruit 200 members/supporters through SVAW activities,
650 through the UDHR 60
campaign, 100 through the HRE trainings,
20 through CAP work, and 100 through the
completed website.

Our me
etings in Dakar confirmed that the following steps and initiatives have been taken

in order to
foster growth in the Section:


According to the new Statutes, one member of the Bureau Executif is now responsible for
“overseeing the design and implementation
of the Section’s Growth and Training Strategy.”


The job description of the new

highlights the “recruitment of
different categories of members (individual, on
line, professionals, youth, supporters)
throughout the country”.


ce February he has attended monthly group meetings in Dakar and has visited 6
groups in the country.

The purpose of t
hose visits was to introduce

to a
mobilization approach


on growth, integration of support
ers, and work with NGO
In spite of some resistance, the Coordinator is hopeful that groups will gradually
embrace this approach. Ac
cording to the Director, the previous

Coordinator had refused to implement the mobilization strategy discussed at the time of the

visit in May 06.



those group visits also had a training component driven by the previous year’s
needs assessment.

The Growth/Activism Coordinator recognizes
, however,

that he cannot
continue to deliver all trainings himsel
f. Theref
ore Group Coordinators have been asked to
take responsibility for the training of their own members and

a team of volunteer trainers
will be put in place before the end of the year.

In May 2008, as part of the SLA entered with IMP in March 07, a 2
day tra
ining facilitated by
a staff member of the French Section

included session
s and techniques on retention, new
forms of involvement, recruitment of supporters, etc.

Group and

ommittee representatives (27) were asked to commit to follow
up workplans.

So f
however, only 5 groups have submitted them.


UDHR 60 Caravan
: this activity was designed with a strong recruitment/growth component.
The first phase took place in July. The 3
day, 7
city bus tour

resulted in the registration of
approximately 300 new

members. Names have been entered in the new database and
provided to groups in the cities with an already established AI presence. In

recruitment took place in publi


and the Office is staying

in touch with individual
members v
a e
mail updates and actions.
It is also planning to encourage the organizing of
local activities to consolidate commitments.

New pre
groups and clubs will be set up in the
towns of Bargny, Tivaouane, Kebemer, and Louga.
Follow up visits will be organiz
ed to local
gh schools.


Focus on Youth

the Section is prioritizing y
outh recruitment and mobilization
, especially
given the high percentage of youth a
mong the literate population and their role as agents of

It was pointed out that t
he neces
y to focus on youth was also

the main
conclusion of the Summer

07 Meeting of African S/s held in Dakar.

Several 2008 initiatives illustrate this commitment:


Operational Plan: Youth/students are the
organizers or
specific target of several
es an
launch of UDHR 60 Campaign on UCAD C
ampus in Dakar

closing Concert,

Theatre Project,
second phase of the

(November 08)
, development of website


Darfur Action (45 days): targeted
schools in Dakar through exhibits and
actions. The membership of participating groups did increase.


Support of the Youth Theatre Group: thanks to the financial support of AI Holland a TV
film and radio


was produced in wolof

with the members of the Group and the
DVD version wi
ll be used for outreach purposes.


Organizing of the first Youth Assembly at the August 08 AGM


Statute amendments that now allow minors to be members of AI as long as they are
members of an AI School Club
, and that include

school clubs in the definition of


Growth in diversity


Youth still constitute a majority of
the Section’s membership and the number of school
clubs and other youth groups has definitely increas
ed since the first IMT grant. In
addition, t
hanks to a recent statute amendment, as

of 2009

members electing the
Bureau Executif will have to “take into account the need to have youth representation”.


Previous gender statistics have been
unreliable or misleading. Current
membership database still does not keep track of gender.

2005 data showed 40% of

and 2006 d
ata 20%. This drop, as it turns out, was

essentially due to the closing
of a large AI Group in a High Sc
hool for Girls in Dakar. Currently, the percentage of
women is increasing again due to the establishment of

new School Clubs where

girls, for
the past few years, have been

a majority.

Since 2007, the Vice
Chair of the Board is a woman. However, of all the activists with
national responsibilities that we met with, only 2 were women.


It is worth noting that AI S
enegal is one of the r
are IMT
funded S/s

to have included
people with disabilities in its

recruitment initiatives.


Role and contribution of activists

Since 2006 activity r
ts a
nd project proposals submitted to IMT have not

allowed for a clear
nt of
the role and involvement

of Section activists and membership structures.

meetings and intervie
ws, howeve


us to
get a better sense of

the specific

ion of some of the key gr
oups and coordinating
entities. The following exam

the type of activism supporting the main objectives of the current operational plan:


Youth “Commission
”: technically made up of all youth group members. It has recently
been reorganized and is now led by a 5
person coordinating commi
ttee which meets
regularly to discuss and plan
activities as well as the role and involvement of youth within AI.
Planning committees are set up for new major activities

(e.g. Darfur Campaign) and informal
“surveys” are conducted in schools without AI pre
sence to gauge the interest of students in
specific campaign themes.

Youth/student activists are involved in most aspects of the UDHR 60 events.

Five student leaders (3 girls, 2 boys) attended this year the West Africa Youth Forum and
seem to have greatly
benefited from the networking opportunities (maintained through

Activism is not limited to Dakar: one of the most dynamic youth groups (“energized” by the
theatre activities) is actually in Mbour. The second phase of the UDHR Caravan will targe
schools in 5 cities outside the capital.

Finally, the 20 or so members of the Ouakam
Youth Theatre Group
(between age 9 and 25)
have a remarkable

commitment to using their skills and visibility to

inspire other y
activists around issues

of violence a
women (see impact section).


Women “Commission

: since May
07, when its

President took over, it

focused on decentralizing its activities by mobilizing regional groups around key dates
such as March 8,

November 25, December 1
0, etc.

It is currently composed of
approximately 20 activists working in different cities but sharing the same objectives

including recruiting new members and strengthening relationships with other NGOs.

has been especially effective,
it se
ems, in the city of Thies where th
group is
focusing on SVAW coalition work.

Some of the key partners mentioned were:

of Women Jurists, Association of Women Teachers (Thies Region)

Siggil Jigeen, GIPS
(Groupe Initiativ
e Progres Social),
and RADI (Res
eau Africain pour le Developpement

In collaboration with the HRE Committee, new members will be trained in the cities of St.
Louis and

Leaders of both “Commissions” have stressed, however, that their activism is

limited by t
he absence of dedicated budgets and the need for more training.


CAP Coordinators

3 of them are based in Thies (West Africa, Nigeria, and Zimbabwe) and 2
in Dakar (DRC and Sudan).

These Coordinators are activists who have developed or are
veloping a country expertise

and communicate directly with Groups’ Campaign
Coordinators to relay action requests and make sure that the

Section meets minimum action requirements through letter
writing, emba
ssy visits, media
coverage, protection of human
rights defenders, assistance with IS missions,
networking with

NGO partners, etc.

The effectiveness of
some of
hese Coordinators, though,

may be



the lack of training (an issue already raised in 2005 by the IEC in a follow u
p letter to the
Periodic Section Review),

the fact that they don’t

work as part of a team, and that some
of them wear multiple “activist hats”

including, in two instances, as Board members).


MSP Coordinator:
This very dedicated and experienced activ

also a member o
f a Dakar

has held
his position since 2005. He is currently coordinating with the Section’s
Director most Control Arms campaign initiatives (see impact section). Within the NGO
coalition, AI was ass
igned the responsibilit
y to work in Touba on the issue of arms
trafficking. AI is the only huma
n rights NGO in that community

thanks to the presence of a

local group working closely w
ith the MSP Coordinator. The group has taken on
the responsibility of a very chall
enging awareness
ng campaign and provided access to
the local


Thies Group:
composed of approximately 20 active members

plus a fluctuating number of
supporters. Growth is a priority, especially through outreach outside the community of
chers which constitute the core group. Supporters have be

recruited in part through
the SVAW work. Group is also engaged in several HRE training
s and UDHR activities in local
schools (2 AI Clubs). Members intend to implement what they learned and comm
itted to
during the French Section Training (May 08). The group encourages the “self
training” of its
members (especially through the AI website) and includes “mini
trainings” in most of its
regular meetings.


Mbour Group:
on the occasion of the Section’s

December 10 event, this dynamic group has
organized a very successful bike race which received national TV coverage.

The group is
now getting ready to host the UDHR 60 Caravan.

The purpose of the visit to this group, though, was to evaluate the impact o
f the training and
radio programs on violence against women on the local community (see impact section).

No NGO partners attended the meeting. In contrast to what was just mentioned about
Thies, NGO partnerships seem weak and limited to invitations to as
opposed to participation
in activities/events.

Starting in 2008, all groups have been asked to organize at least one activity around a
commemorative date related to the Section’s
campaigns and relevant to the local community.

Although we were quite impre
ssed by the level of commitment and expertise of the
activist leaders
we met, we also
heard the call for more capacity

and financial resources. The issue of the
transmission of skills and knowledge was also brought to our attention several times:

t appears that
activists and Section leaders


in trainings
, meetings, or missions
abroad or in the
capital, do not adequately

share with others the benefits of their experience.


Implementation of IMT recommendations

In March 06, the Grants


decision asked AI Senegal “to liaise with peer
sections/structures and IMP on what their capacity
building needs might be.” In the area of
growth and mobilization, this has been partially realized through


implementation of the 07
08 Servi
ce Level Agreement
. The Director of the Belgium Section continues to work with AIS on
optimizing the use of the website both for membership recruitment and fundraising purposes.

In June 07, the GC noted that
“the section has received considerable movemen
t support in the
past and the results still have not materialized in a vibrant, dynamic and growing
organization...the GC is concerned about the lack of concrete growth, mobilization, and
membership activism achievements, and the apparent lack of strategic

thinking around
maximizing the section’s growth potential.” Consequently
, the GC requested that AIS “a)
develop a more ambitious growth and mobilization strategy with clear and achievable targets
nd b) conduct a membership and activism assessment and

review in order to establish a
baseline to measure future growth.”


assessment has been one of the priorities of the

Growth &

Activism Coordinator (see I.2)
during his first months in the office. The

membership data given above (I.1) should
from now

be used as t
he baseline.

AI Senegal, however, is
till lacking a comprehensive growth/mobilization strategy.

The only
mention in the Strategic Plan (04
08) of a related objective (V.4) is “mobilization with the aim of
membership and activism growth”.


our meetings with the Bureau Executif and Director
though, it became quite apparent that

was on the forefront of most current discussions
and new initiatives:

Our aim is to be more visible and open to new constituencies
...this can be
achieved by focusing on
outreach to youth

human rights work with a lot more domestic relevance
the pursuit of more
NGO partnerships
, and
the use of local languages”.

“We are no longer perceived as a
n organization of jurists and intellectuals.

hanks to a more
relevant choice of issues and activities, we have been more visible in the media and we have b
able to reach a much wider

..we now have members/supporters from all layers of socie
and all parts of the country


have functi
oning groups in

more regions.”

“We are now able to retain many more young activists. We’ve chosen to invest in them because

they are becoming our future leaders
...we anticipate that they will be the backbone of the section in
15 years from now.”

“We ar
e deliberately targeting individuals and communities with the best multiplying potential
such as youth leaders, educators, and elected officials.”

“From now on each campaign activity includes a recruitment component.”

Section’s President and Directo

both stressed the usefulness of the
OSSA exercise and

the commitment to implement


recommendations that will foster growth and mobilization:



members on AI’s vision and mission


Design a capacity
building strategy that wi
ll allow the secti
on to engage and retain


Design creative approaches to membership recruitment


Encourage members to pay their fees


Focus on follow up to stay in touch with members


Set up a planning committee and make sure that all members “own” the section’s plans.

The March 08 GC decision again stressed the

“lack of information and clarity about the actual
activist contribution and size of the section’s membershi

Delays in and resistance to implementing IMT recommendations and the Section’s own mobilization
bjectives were
attributed to:


Conflicts or uncertainties around division of responsibilities between Board and Staff


Insubordination of previous Development Coordinator


Time lost during the restructuring of the National Secretariat (April


Inadequate database

(which has caused a great deal of frustration)

Within the past 12 months several steps have been taken to address
some of
these issues and


Gradual implementation of
OSSA recommendations

OSSA was conducted in


Hire of a professional
, competent

Growth/Activism Coordinator (January 08)


Completion of SLA trainings with French and Swiss sections (May 08)


New statutes (August 08) clarifying
roles of BE and Staff, and recognizing youth status and


Conclusions and recommendations:

As a result of the above steps and developments,
it is clear that the Section finally seems to be
developing a much more cooperative and cohesive approach to growth and mobilization.

It is
about to embark in the
preparation of its
next Strategic Plan

AI Senegal needs to include clear growth and mobilization goals in its next SP
, including those
derived from the OSSA recommendations.

The activist leadership seems to be embracing the
vision reflected in

the above

quotes (I.4), but both
new and old members at the group level (especially in the

more remote parts of the country)
going to
need more training and support

to stay with the organization and become effective

AI Senegal should develop a capac
building strategy for all levels of its activist membership

more specifically

and immediately:

Respond to

training needs

youth leaders

(especially given that youth
activists, with the exception of the president of the Youth Comm
ission, were not invited
to the membership seminar facilitated by the French Section).

Follow up on its current plans to:


Use future National Council members

mposed as of 2009 of all Group p
residents plus
former Bureau Executive members)
to build the ca
pacity of groups


Create a pool of trainers by the end of the year so that groups do not rely exclusively on the
Activism/Training staff Coordinator


Focus on the training of Group Coordinators

AI Senegal’s support of its activist leadership should include
the ability of key “Commissions”
(such as Youth and Women)

contributing to the movement and section priorities to submit
proposed annual workplans with dedicated budgets.

The Section has acknowledged that it has so far been unable to keep reliable members
In order
to track its future growth

AI Senegal should:

Use the membership statistics (I.1) in the current database as
a baseline.

Receive financial support from IMT to acquire Salesforce

Keep disaggregated data
(gender, age, membership renew
al, etc)


communicate and follow up on growth targets now attached to
main activities of the
Operational Plan

Set up a reliable follow up and collection system to encourage registered members to pay their

Although the
development of the web

has been mentioned by man
y as a priority, it is still
very “underused” and in need of updating. It is currently hosted for free by the French
Belgian Section. Its Director has been very generous with his time, both in a technical and
ng capacity. As we write
his report he is

updating the site which, thanks to a free
Content Management System, will not require a webmaster or any

knowledge of HTML to create new pages. Training on the system can be done by phone in a
very short ti

AI Senegal should prioritize the development and use of this new website

The new Growth/Activism Coordinator should be trained by AI Belgium so that the functioning
of the website does not continue to

on the

and good will

of the

ctors of AI
Belgium and Senegal

AI Senegal should also subscribe to Pay
al so
that, among other pursuits, it

may accept credit
card payments from the S
enegalese diaspora that it is already planning to


In spite of the fact that many more people in S
enegal have access to the internet, it has been

to our attention that
two thirds
of recruited members do not have e
. This reali
ty, combined with the

cost of public transportation, means that the Section, in
order to commu
nicate with its members, will have to rely
on mobile phone technology.

The Section

needs to develop a support and communication strategy

that will reflect this reality
in order to retain and involve its new members

Finally, we are
convinced that
growth potential of AI Seneg

(within youth population,
untapped professional categories and regions, illiterate communities, European diaspora, etc) will
soon call for new human resources.

Growth, Activism, & Training Coordinator

who was hired in

January 08 has a job description
that also includes “
planning and implementing national campaign and actions” as well as “be the
interim director when the Section Director is absent”
. Given that the Director is often solicited to go
abroad for IS meeting
s and missions, the reality is that the Coordinator already has too much on his

In order to seek and sustain activism growth, AI Senegal should take the opportunity of its
upcoming strategic planning process to prioritize and plan its future human
resource needs



Framework and general comments

The terms of reference of the evaluation focused on the impact of the work in the four ar
where AI Senegal had so far

claimed the strongest impact:

tion and violence against
women, torture, death penalty, and arms control.

Human rights education was not included since a formal evaluation of the main projects funded
by the European Commission had already been conducted by an external co
nsultant at the

of 2006.

During our interviews, IS staff and NGO representatives noted other areas of impact such as
children’s and
’s rights, as well as

impunity work. Although these are not specifically
addressed in this report, some of the comments made a
re reflected in the “Co
nclusions and
Recommendations” s

Our e
valuation is based on the following

sources of data:


Examples of impact cited in activity reports and IMT applications (2006


Meeting with Bureau Executif and Director on self
ent of section’s impact


Interviews with staff of the IS Africa Team (London and Paris)


Interviews of the heads of the 2 main NGO partners of AI Senegal (RADDHO and ONDH,
also Dakar


Interview of Legal Counsel, Office of the President (former Cha
ir of AIS’ Jurists Committee)


Interview of one major funder (Konrad Adenauer Foundation)


Meeting with stakeholders in Thies and Mbour

Because the main focus of all the projects under review, during the past 3 years, has been to

for changes at th
e legislative level it was deemed that interviews of potential
iaries would be premature.

Everyone we spoke to credited AI Senegal for significant changes in legislation, attitudes of
decision and opinion

a coverage. Every
one, however, also
acknowledged the difficulties in assessing and “tracking” impact at the level of implementation
policies, cultural practices, and actual changes in people’s lives.

Taking all of this into account, the main purpose of this evaluation is

answer two main


How is AI Senegal assessing its own impact?


What types of changes is AI Senegal
seeking and contributing to as a result of its
work in the 4 areas under review?


assessment of impact

So far AI Senegal’s evalu
ation work has been mostly limited to an annual meeting during which
Staff and Board “compare the Operational Plan and annual workplans of staff with

implementation and achievements.” In other words the Section focuses on whether it has
d what it said it would (i.e. met operational targets

based on activities outputs)

on how it may have contributed to specific changes.

Its Operational Plan does relate each main activity to “expected results” b
ut, in many instances
these would be imp
ossible to achieve or measure. Examples of such “results” in OP08 were:
“Government funding

everyone access to free basic

health care....torture is eradicated from
all prisons and
detention centers....domestic violence diminishes....children tr
afficking ends....grave
human rights violations end on the African continent...the Section is more visible in Senegal and in
the world.”

In terms of measuring changes, everyone interviewed stressed how difficult it is, if not
impossible, to
the req
uired data given that its

main sources are
unavailable government
statistics or unreliable media surveys.

The President of RADDHO emphasized the lack of access
to informati
on, citing as an example the “highly protected” data about places of detention.


addition AI Senegal acknowledges its weakness in documenting the results of i
ts work. We
have no reason to question, for instance, the importance

and increase of the media coverage
mentioned by many, but


comments were based on anecdotal recollection
s and

Given that a significant percentage of AI Senegal initi
atives aim at changing

attitudes and
practices through awareness
raising, it is obviously very challenging for them to assess what can
only be long
term impact. Board and staff als
o recognize that they lack the tools, skills, and
resources to monitor and assess the impact of their main projects, but most expressed a strong
interest in acquiring them.

This being said, our initial meeting with Section leaders clearly revealed the typ
e of indicators
that they
use to claim impact:

Adoption of new or amended laws and ratification of treaties that promote and protect
human rights

fectiveness of coalition work


is often credited to the leadership

role of AI. Two
l coalitions (Death penalty and Control Arms) were actually started by AI.

Access to government officials
thanks to the credibility of the international organization
and the experience and strategic ap
proach of AIS.

to influence

opinion and decisio
through targeted training, lobbying, and
ia work.

Ability to change attitudes and perceptions in affected communities
through awareness
raising activities and radio programs in local languages.

Improved knowledge and behaviour of law enforcemen
t officers



to change


Working to abolish torture

Between 2004 and 2006 AI Senegal was one of the nine West African Sections to
participate in the
HRE Project funded by the European Commission
. Its chief long
aim was to “contribute to t
he eradication of torture through education”. The external
survey conducted at the end of 2006 was meant to “evaluate the relevance, efficiency,
impact and sustainability
” of the project based on the contribution of 4 of the
participating countries, inclu
ding Senegal.

The report
indicated that there were noticeable changes in the attitudes and behaviours
of the trainings participants and their immediate communities
, “reports of increased
cases of denunciation of violence against women and torture, and a ma
rked reduction in
household conflicts in the entourage of the trainees”
. The main conclusion, though, was
that it was premature to measure any real impact.

Currently, although the terminatio
n of the project has not permitted

follow up work, AI
Senegal see
ms to feel that the

funded trainings have contributed to the engagement
and capacity
building of many of its

activists an
d community allies and that the section

learned a lot from participants’ feedback.

Senegal was the first country to sign

the Optional
Protocol to the Con
vention against
Torture. It
s parliament

ratified it in June 2006 after a lobbying c
ampaign led by


Subsequently, AI Senegal chose to focus on the implementation of Article 17 calling on
state parties to “establish, at the latest 1 y
ear after the entry into force of the Protocol,
one or several independent national preventive mechanis
ms for the prevention of
torture at the domestic level”. Faced with its own government inaction, in 2007 AIS
hired a consultant to propose such a mechan
ism and, at the end of the year, organized a
seminar on the issue for representatives of the 4 concerned Ministries
, of local UN
agencies, and civil society.

In July 2008, under the leadership of AIS, a group of Senegalese NGOs submitted a draft
bill to
the government which proposes the establishment of
an independent
administrative body (Inspector of places of detention).

At the end of October AIS was
informed by the Chief of Staff of the Minister of Justice that they were working on the
official draft

Our interviews with AIS’ main NGO partners (RADDHO and ONDH) and the former
Chair of AI’s Jurists Group (now working for the Office of the President) were h
elpful in
confirming and clarifying the role of AI regarding the achievements summarized abov
All credited AI for:


Leading t
he efforts that resulted in the ratification of the Optional Protocol and
subsequent steps towards its domestic implementation. It was also mentioned that
when the government convened a few NGOs for 2 days while preparin
g its UPR
report, AI was the lead organisation on the issue of torture.


Lobbying effectively thanks to the expertise and credibility of its leaders and jurists
here AIS was especially credited for its

trainings for and contacts with deputies.


up strategically

to make sure that the government




obligations under the Optional Protocol and honor the commitments it made during
the December 07 seminar convened by AIS.


Contributing to the improved awareness of law enforcement officers

As a result of
AIS’ efforts, the Police Academy has included human rights training in its


public opinion by denouncing the practice of torture in Casamance and
in places of detention


Encouraging the media to report on instances o
f abuse by law enforcement


Working to abolish the death penalty

Our interviews with the Director of AI Senegal, the IS Africa Team in Paris, and the
President of RADDHO (main NGO partner re: abolitionist work) clarified the role,
strategy, and impact of

AI during the years leading to the abolition of the death penalty
n Se
negal (2004) and through

subsequent abolitionist eff
orts in the West African

In 2000 Senegal sentenced someone to death for the first time since 1968. In the
context of the W
OOC rules that prohibited campaigning on domestic issues other than
the death penalty, AI Senegal “jumped on the opportunity”
to initiate an abolitionist
strategy. In 2002 it formed a coalition of approximately 20 organizations interested in
joining its e

The new President (elected in 2000), in a meeting with AI, stated that he was personally
opposed to the death penalty but that there needed to be a public debate on the issue.
In the absence of any government f
ollow up, AI, in November 2002,
ided to organize
such a debate which was attended by many parliamentarians and widely co
vered by the

AIS’ contacts and strategy
led to Robert Badinter (ex Minister of Justice responsible
for the abolition of the death penalty in France) call
ing President Wade. This
intervention seems to have been a key factor in President Wade decision to publicly
express its opposition to the death penalty

(July 04).

In order to secure a significant
majority to s
upport the enabling legislation introduced 3

months after Badinter’s

AI met with the presidents of all
the Parliament

groups and
contributed to
wide media coverage of the debate. The law abolishing the death
penalty was voted on December 10, 2004, a symbolic date suggested by

AI Senegal.

Since then AI Senegal has been very active and visible in its support towards
abolitionist efforts in Africa,

especially in Nigeria,
Ghana, and Mali
. The new P
of AI Senegal (elected in 2007) was asked by the IS to be AI’s sp
on the issue
in two of those countries.

In 2007, the IS also asked

AIS Director to join the AI delegation that went to the UN in New York to support the
resolution calling for a global moratorium.

The President of RADDHO explained that “
n spite of a di facto moratorium under

Diouf’s presidency (1981
2000), the

majority of people (90% of Muslims in Senegal) were in
ur of the death penalty but

it was the courage and persistence of NGOs in demanding
a public debate involving members

of the Assembly
, religious leaders, and the media that
led to the abolition vote.”
He also credited the work of coalition members with
progressive Islamists, including scholars.

The AI Team in Paris also stressed the key role of AI Senegal
, especially in

not wavering
from an unconditional abolitionist position, while a few other members of the coalition
were ready to accept “exceptions”. As the local representative of an international
organisation, AIS was also able to convey the message that the aboliti
on of the

penalty would enhance the President’s

image “in the North”. AI’s leadership role in the
coalition and its work on the issue in other countries of the region

did contribute to the
effectiveness and credibility of its campaign.

In response
to the self
assessment of AIS’ impact in this area we would like to mention
however that A
IS did not credit its main NGO partners for their own co
ntribution, and
that it may have

misrepresented the impact of its own work at the UN, especially given
that Se
negal ended up not participating in the moratorium vote.


Working on Arms Control

The Section feels that the Control Arms Campaign was extremely well conceived and that its
clear objectives
have allowed them to increase groups participation and success.

AI Senegal has been wor
king on this issue since 2003
, especially

under the leadership of
his Di
rector and MSP Coordinator.
Its strategic plan states that the goal is both to

campaign for a global Arms Trade Treaty and lobby for the ratification of a region
convention on small arms
pted by the CEDEAO in June 2006).

This second goal was
tially supported by funds from Oxfam America granted in May 07, and it was reach
in November of the same year when Senegal became on
e of the first countries (with
Niger) to ratify the convention.

AIS headed the steering committee of the coalition that
contributed to this ratification.

AIS is act
ively pursuing a

track follow up strategy, i.e

lobbying the government so
that it will a) use its regional influence
to encourage other member
states to ratify the
convention and b)
amend its 1966 legislation so that it will comply with the new
convention stipulations. To that effect, AI will organize in November a day of action to
educate members of Parliament (many of

them having been elected after the
ratification process) on the shortcomings of the current legislation.

Work on the Arms Trade Treaty is an initiative of the Senegalese civil society

under the
leadership of AI, Oxfam, ONDH,
and Malao. At the
end of September, on the
occasion of t
he release of AI Report
“Blood at the Crossroads:

Making the

Case for a Global ATT”,
AI Senegal organised a one
day seminar to discuss
with representatives of the Parliament and NGO partners how the Senegalese
ent should position itself during the ATT process.

Senegal has been playing a special role in this process given that its UN Ambassador is
the president of the General Assembly Disarmament Committee.

In October, The Director of AI Senegal was also asked to

join the AI delegation that went
to New York to lobby at the UN for the Treaty.

lition partners within Senegal have taken responsibility for different parts of the
country in order to target areas where arms trafficking is taking place. AI’s assignme
is to focus on the quasi

autonomous religious city of Touba (see MSP Co
section, I.3). As a

direct result of AI’s work in that community (including a forum and
), the local authorities publicly expressed their support for its campaign.

then gendarmes patrol the city and arm stocks have been seized.


Combating Discrimination and Violence against W

We found that in this area of work, although prioritized by the Section, evidence of impact is less
apparent. This is probably du
e in part to the nature of the projects undertaken which seem to have
focused mostly on awareness raising activities such as trainings or public events around key
morative” dates such as March 8 and November 25.

It is also due
, we believe,

to the ty
pe of objectives cited in both the strategic and operational plans:


Integrate AI’s Women Commission in one of the
NGO networks


Combat discrimination through human rights education


Signing and ratification of the additional protocol to the AU Con
vention on the rights of


Improved handling (by domestic courts) of complaints and decrease of violations related to
violence against women in Senegal


Improved access to schools for girls in the F
atick region

and establishment of partnerships with
cal NGOs

These objectives either were too broad (to measure impact) or were not pursued.

The SVAW Project included in the IMT application for 2008 was designed
based on the following
expected results: “
more cases of violence against women are taken to cou
Discriminatory practices
end (re: issues of equal pay, access to elected positions, to ownership of the land, education, etc)
Communities commit to abandoning traditional practices such as FGM, forced and early marriages, etc.
Our partnerships with
women’s rights NGOs increase.”

The following

activities were planned to reach these objectives:



public survey to assess the scope of violence against women in Senegal. Unfortunately
this activity had to be dropp
ed for lack of external funding (OSI).


rch 8 event in Fatick (SE of Dakar). This activity did not take place for lack of local
organizers. It was replaced by an event in Dakar funded and hosted by the Adenauer


Theatre and film productions by the Youth Theatre Group (see below

nded by AI


Training workshops for local elected officials
in 5 communities
on discrimination and
violence against women. Focus: FGM, forced marriages of girls, girls’ access to education,
and women’s right to own land.

Six million CFA were inclu
ded in the budget (source: HRE
Regional Project).

Our assessment of the impact of the work actually conducted in the context
of the SVAW Campaign
is related to

the followi
ng initiatives:


International Women’s Day



Awareness programs

violence agai
t women and
“traditional practices”





Youth Theatre Group

International Women’s Day


Both in March 07 and March 08, the Section organised one
day events

in Dakar in partnership with
the Konrad Adenauer Foundation. Panelists addr
essed issues such as participation of women in the
electoral process, role of women in peace
keeping in Africa, gender and development, gender and
human rights. Both events were we
ll attended, well received,
very successful in terms of media
ge, and

allowed the section to recruit new members and supporters.

The representative of the K. Adenauer Foundation we met with characterized the “essential role” of
AI in the following terms: “
The March 08 event was attended by the Minister of Women Affairs and

National Solidarity who noticed the leading role of AIS. AI’s added value is to address the question:

how are women’s rights perceived in Senegal? Its seminars/panels foster participation in and
discussions of those issues.

In its 07 Activity Report A
IS took credit for the chain o
f events that led from its International
Women’s Day

event to a women’s march in Dakar, and to the introduction of new legislation and the
adoption of a constitutional amendment supporting
the equity principle for all elected
Our interviews did not allow us to “verify
” this specific claim and certainly did not substantiate the
assertion that this Women’s Day event “constituted a major contribution to the eradication of
discrimination and violence against women in S
enegal.” The Section did not engage in any specific
follow up work

and its leaders were actually unclear about the status of the new legislation.

It did
not acknowledge either the role of other NGOs such as

(Reseau Africain de Developpement
which has a special working group on parity.

Awareness programs on
violence against women and
traditional practices:

The importance of this type of work has been acknowledged by everyone we spoke to. It was
probably best summarized by the KA Foundation

officer who said: “
AIS’ aim is to substitute a

human rights language

to the reliance on traditional practices (for example on the issue of access to
land). AI is often perceived as the bridge between tradition and modernity”.

This work is being conducte
d mostly through human rights education workshops and community
radio programs (including in local languages).

Two anecdotes best
demonstrate the kind of results

that AI is seeking

in terms of influencing
attitudes and behaviours:

in one case, in the con
text of

awareness raising on the issue of girl
marriages, a workshop participant testified that in his neighbourhood
“if a man tries to approach a
girl, people tell him ‘watch out, she is the district attorney’s daughter
’, meaning

of course not that she i
s related to him but that she is protected under the law.”

In a different case (a
workshop on domestic violence”)

a participant who was a religious leader stated

the Prophet never
used to beat his wives

this was a transformative statement.”


to the impact of the EU
d HRE project which specifically targeted educators and
local elected officials, a Board member stated: “
during our seminars we could see the changes in
attitudes before and after the discussions. Best example was the attitud
e shifts of local officials re: the
FGM practice.”

While not questioning the validity of this statement, we also share the co
nclusions of
the previously cited evaluation regarding the lack of resources, indicators, and follow up that would
allow for a reli
able assessment of the impact of such an educational approach.

This discussion with members of the Board led to some mentioning NGOs work on FGM as the best
example of progress towards change, first in obtaining the criminalization of the practice, and sin
then through

awareness raising activities that

encourage the a
ctual implementation of the law: “
know that we made a difference and that our message has been heard because women are now the
ones who come to us.”

Our meeting in Mbour with training par
ticipants showed that th
e acquired knowledge allowed them
to understand their own rights

but was also shared with others in discussion groups in
neighbourhoods, schools, workplaces, as well as applied
to practical situations by stakeholders such
as local
elected officials, teachers, and journalists.

No one claimed that human rights violations have been eliminated in the community or even
reduced, but it seems that, thanks to the new awareness of their rights, women are more and more
to denounce and

report these violations.

Regarding the FGM issue, the preferred methodology has been to seek dialogue and
debate instead
of direct denouncements. In the absence of follow up mechanisms, local AI members have been
unable to assess whether or not the pract
ice has decreased locally.

Community radio programs in the local language also contributed to an open debate of issues
considered until then as “taboo”. However they had to be discontinued after 2 months which may
jeopardize the impact of such awareness

aising work.

The group is in contact with other NGOs working on those issues (RADDHO, Tostan) but has not
established real partnerships

and it should definitely be encouraged to do so to increase the
effectiveness of its work.

NGO partnerships

At the
national level, these do not seem to have been prioritized either. None were mentioned
during our meetings with the Section’s leadership

and only one was cited in the most recent

IMT application.

Whereas AIS has been legitimately credited for its essen
al role in several
coalitions, it is not currently engaged in ongoing partnerships with women’s rights non

governmental or community
based or

The President of RADDHO
, for instance,

indicated that their own Women’s Com
mittee did not collaborat
e with AI.

When asked about this, members of the Board indicated

that the role of AI, in this area of work,
quite distinct from other NGOs which are much more about providing direct services, whereas AI’s
is to reach and train decision

and opinion leaders so that new laws protecting women are
actually implemented”.

In contrast with this situation, we found that the AI Group in Thies, under the leadership of the
president of the AI Women “Commission”, does privilege partnerships with lo
cally represented or
based women’s
rights organizations and associations (see Section I.3).

ur meeting there
focused on the importance of partnership
s and on the specific
contribution of each partner. It was felt that
“AI’s presence through awa
reness raising events (for
instance around March 8 and November 25), workshops,


and radio programs, gradually
encourage women to
talk about the abuses they have experienced and to seek help or redress...AI is
now invited to community events.

O partner described the collaboration as
“an extraordinary
cocktail....AI provides us with basic tools and information.”
Another strength of AI was iden
tified as its
access to schools.

While other NGOs described the type of services they provide to women,

AI members raised the
issue of t
heir role being too often

limited to informal “referrals” which does not allow them to

their own direct contribution.

Meeting participants felt that the
indicators of the impact of their collaboration was th
increased number of girls gaining access to schools a
nd the increasing identification

of perpetrators

(especially in the context of family and school violence).

Youth Theatre Group

This group

has been in existence for a couple of

years and is based in O
uakam, a community in the
vicinity of Dakar airport.
As a youth troupe, it is the first of its kind in Senegal.
of its 22
range from 9 to 25.

They have written and produced 2 plays, one on early marriag
es, and
one on violence in the context
of armed conflicts
. The main purpose of the project is to raise
awareness and contribute to the prevention of “taboo” practices, using an oral form of
communication and a local language.

The lack of funds only allowed for a few performances but, thanks to

the generous support of AI
the young actors were able to produce a film version of the 2 plays which has already been shown on
national television and is due to be be broadcast one more time before the end of the year. The
radio version was distribut
ed to over 40 community radio stations.

Both TV and radio broadcasts have generated a remarkable wave of support of and interest in AI’s
work on violence against women and have allowed them to reach a much wider audience. Needless
to say it is impossible
at this time to measure the impact of such a project

but there is
no doubt that
it has a significant

potential in terms of visibility and
attitudinal changes.

One lo
ng term objective,
for instance, is to make sure that more families know about the law ban
ning marriages under age 16
and choose to respect it.

The amount of enthusiasm, commitment, and talent coming out of this youth community is truly
remarkable, as is their awareness of the need to evaluate the

impact of their work

“ownership” of the

role of AI has significant potential in terms of the sustainable changes sought by
the organization.

In their own words “
to perform is to teach.
Seminars and meeting
s only reach “intellectuals
”, and
certainly not people who never had access to schools.

We need to communicate with our bodies and in
local languages.

TV talks about civic duties, we want to talk about human rights.

Many women now
know that there


people ready to defend their rights.

They can talk about what used to be taboo.”


usions and recommendations

In spite of the challenges and shortcomings mentioned above, the

main message needs to be that,
based on the indicators of progress summarized below, AIS is
contributing to changes
in the perception, promotion, an
d protection of human rights in Senegal.

AI’s main partners are clear about its
strengths and value
“AI is to be praised for its sustained
efforts to change attitudes in order to change behaviours and practices, through HRE and awareness
raising a
ctivities. What it brings to us is a solid conceptual framework, a large grassroots membership
base, the credibility of the international movement, and the ability to integrate different constituencies
and perspectives

(Konrad Adenauer Foundation).

“AI p
layed a key supporting role in the foundin
g of our organization and of important

coalitions. AIS
here benefits from the reputation of the international organisation in terms of its access to the UN and
the African Union. This is very important in the eye
s of the Senegalese
media. It also benefits from its

‘brand’ and historical experience

Outside the four areas of human rights work that this evaluation focused on, key contributions were
repeatedly mentioned regarding
AI’s work on migrants (es
pecially those sent back from Mauritania)
and asylum applicants, on the issue of the prosecution of Hissene Habre (former President of Chad),

its training program
the “Maitres Coraniques” regarding the plight of the


rs of progress:

Our overall positive

assessment of AI Senegal contribution to human rights impact

is based on the
indicators of progress:

Adoption and implementation of new or amended legislation

CAT Protocol, pending
legislation on prevention
mechanisms, abolition of the death penalty, CEDEAO
convention on Small Arms)

Adoption of new or improved policies
(in the areas of asylum/migration, of the training of
law enforcement officers, and the handling of complaints)

Ability to affect perception a
nd framing of issues, public opinion, and attitudes
vis a vis some traditional practices and the rights of children, and
of course the issues of
torture, impunity
and the death penalty)

Participation in monitoring or decision
making processes

(especially in the area of UN
mechanisms and refugee policies)

Increased civil society partnerships
(within multiple coalitions around issues of torture,
death penalty, impunity, and arms trade).

Increased mobilization capacity
(most noticeably

around SVA
W, Control Arms Campaign,
UDHR 60 Campaign, and CAP work)


Main c

Throughout our meetings with AIS leadership and activists, a constant refrain has been
the correlation between local relevance and visibility, both being essential to achieving

As illustrated in most of the examples cited above, A
IS is prioritizing



that demonstrate its relevance and effectiveness. However, it seems that it has
the point where its

contribution to “international solidarity” work outsi
de Africa is now

pretty much limited to the Urgent Actions program and occasional crisis response work
(e.g. Myanmar).

Another refrain was the constant risk of creating false expectations
: the more successful
the awareness
raising activities and training
s are, the more people turn to AI for di
assistance. In particular, many feel that their credibility among women who are victims
of discrimination and violence is at stake since they can’t respond to requests for
humanitarian or legal help.

In this c
ontext, of course, they question the impact that AI
can have on individual lives.

hereas AIS has often been

successful in promoting changes at the legislative level
, it is
also faced with the challenge of the numerous laws (regarding for instance early
arriages, FGM, torture and ill
treatment, freedom of the press, etc) which are
inconsistently implemented, if not ignored.
Lack of follow
up and resources (both
human and financial) have often compounded the problem and limited the impact of
successful lo
bbying initiatives.

Challenges and limitations were often linked to resources issues:
uncertainty about
sources of funding (including IMT), especially for projects follow
up; lack of translated
terials as well
resources to reach people in a multipli
city of local languages and
remote areas;
lack of tools, skills, and funding to conduct project evaluations and
monitor impact (see above section on self


In order to improve its impact in the context of the
global SVAW Campa
, AI Senegal
should consider:


Strengthening its NGO partnerships at the national level
(for instance with the Siggil Jigeen
RADI, SOS Equilibre, and Femmes Africa

Solidarite) and
partnerships with women organisations and ass
ociations in the regions
(along the Thies


Aligning its next priorities with the global campaign priorities
(for instance regarding maternal


Following up on the awareness
raising work done through the HRE project and the Theatre
Group pr
(regarding traditional practices)
and possibly conduct an assessment of
their impact in one specific community or region.


Discussing with ONDH the possibility of collaborating on one of their “Boutique

des Droits de
Homme” new EU
funded projec
These will be places that victims can turn to for
information on their rights, referrals, etc. This collaboration coul
d partially address the
needs expressed by some members outside Dakar who cannot respond to raised
expectations in the absence of a
pace where they can listen or interact.


Developing a protocol to formalize referral processes


Granting its “Women Commission” a dedicated budget based on an

annual workplan aligned
with the Section’s priorities.

The ability of the section to achieve tangi
ble results

and long
term impact will greatly
depend on its ability to
formulate specific objectives and targets
for each of the main activities
included in the Operational Plan.

The Section s
hould take advantage of the opportunity created by the preparat
ion of its next
Strategic Plan

prioritize the areas of work where it feels it has the best potential for further
or new impact
especially may bring new opportunities to increase the visibility of the
Section: Universal Periodic Review (UN Human
Rights Council, February), launch of the
Dignity Campaign, possible IS mission on migration issues
, new production of the Youth
Theatre Group on Talibe children, etc.

As already noted, t
he Section needs to develop its
capacity in terms

impact assessmen
Some practical recommendations are:


Improve documenting of and reporting on main projects


Seek training opportunities for staff and board


Integrate evaluation in design of main projects


Select a pilot project f
or impact assessment


Include needed fina
ncial resources in future budgets

To enhance the
impact of its coalition work, AIS could
develop a partnership strategy that
would capitalize on lessons learned and provide regional groups with the incentive and capacity
to work in collaboration with NGOs

Based on its previous success in those areas,
AIS should con
tinue to prioritize and follow up on
its efforts to reach non
literate communities, especially through adequately funded community
radio programs and theatre productions in local languages.




a. The accountancy service provided by CGA

The accountancy is done by an outside firm,
Centre de Gestion Agrée (CGA)
, which has sufficient
ence and is well equipped in terms of both software and human resources. The section has to
send the financial records to CGA at the end of each month so that they can be entered into the
accounts. However, given the slowness we observed in the sending of
such records, this deadline is
not always met. The supporting vouchers are also not always sent to CGA on time, thus slowing
down accounting operactions. This situation not only leads to delays in producing balance sheets
but also has repercussions for the

performance of the audit because the latter needs to be based on
the closing balance sheet.

At the level of the section, the Director, who has a qualification in economics, carries out additional
related tasks (bank reconciliation, in other word
s checking the bank statements against
against the section’s bank books) which are not a normal part of his duties as the officer responsible
for authorizing expenditure. It should be noted that the fact that different responsibilities are
allocated to the

Director does not always mean that he is willing to take them on. In this case, it is a
task that is usually passed on to an accountant but since the accounts are done outside, the section
must take it upon itself to manage any accounts which require regu
lar in
house monitoring. Given
this, having the accounting done in
house would have the following advantages:

* It would familiarise the staff with accounting transactions, procedures and requirements,
especially when purchasing different goods and servic

* There would be less risk of financial records getting lost when being sent between the section
and CGA or between CGA and the external auditors at the time of the audit


* The accounting would be done in real time (financial reports could be produ
ced whenever
needed) ;

* It would free up the Director to retain his role as the authorizer rather than the manager of

The minimum estimated cost of creating a permanent accountant post is as follows:

minimum gross salary (level BAC+2


CFA Fr.301,300 (per month)

(for a net salary of CFA Fr.200,000)

purchase of original Saari software, version 15, line 100

: CFA Fr.1,100,000

Installation, configuration and training:

CFA Fr.350,000

TOTAL: CFA Fr.1,751,300

(These estimates were suggested to us by CGA).

It should be borne in mind that CGA
is paid a fee of CFA Fr.600,000 per year to maintain the
accounts and that bringing the accounting in
house will therefore cost more.


Translator’s note: BAC + 2 = 2 years’ high
er education.

b. Analysis of the 2007 audit report

Analysis of the 2007 audit report prompts the following observations and comm


The auditing firm is well versed in auditing and prepares the accounts for major institutions in
the country. As far as the 2007 audit report carried out for AIS is concerned, it should be noted
that it is presented in a general way which limits it
s analysis of the statement of source and
applications of funds. In fact, the analysis focuses on the cash position which emphasizes the
section’s income and outgoings, thereby preventing it from drawing the management’s
attention to other commitments that

do not feature in the said statement (e.g. no comment was
made on the state of its tax and social security liabilities because these are not shown in a
statement which only relates income and outgoings).

For the same reason the report noticeably fails to

analyze the assets and liabilities shown on the
balance sheet or to analyze compliance with procedures and makes no recommendations with
regard to its findings. The interview conducted with the firm revealed that the limits we
observed and which affect th
e quality of the report are due to the fact that the fee set aside is
inadequate for carrying out that type of study. It should be pointed out that the annual fee the
firm receives is CFA Fr.1,180,000 and that it considers this insufficient to prepare the
type of
detailed report that meets the necessary standards.

Also the fact that there is no
manual of management procedures
, a management tool that
symbolizes good governance and management transparency, does not facilitate the work of the
auditors who as

a rule should refer to it to check whether procedures have been followed in all
cases in the day
day management of the section and as a result make any necessary

The absence of detailed terms of reference for carrying out the audit m
ake it difficult to assess
the quality of the report because normally they would have made it possible to compare the
report’s content against what had been requested and thus act as a reference. In fact, the
relevant request was made in an email message t
o the auditors dated 10 June 2008 asking them
to carry out an audit of the accounts for accounting year 2007 (1 January

31 December 2007)
but without providing any further details.


The auditing process was done by means of circularization, in other wo
rds sending out letters
to all the section’s partners asking them to confirm the figures shown in the balance sheet. No
evidence was found of a circular addressed to the Konrad Adenauer Foundation which,
nevertheless, provides substantial funding to the se
ction, thus meaning that these grants do not
appear in the section’s accounts.


The profit and loss figure shown in the balance sheet at the end of the accounting period

CFA FR.15,974,102) makes no sense for a not
profit organization like Amnesty

International; it needs to be shown as break
even at year end in order to be consistent with the
mission of an organization that neither profits nor loses. The auditing firm is in agreement with
this remark.

c. Analysis the tax and

social security liabilities (duties and taxes)

Analysis of the item “Tax and social security liabilities” from the 2007 balance sheet shows an
overall balance of CFA Fr.5,099,854, broken down as follows:



Total as







Holiday pay

Family allowances

IPRES general

IPRES management

Social security






Amount allocated to staff holiday pay as of the closing date

Amount owing to the Social Security Office for contributions
paid on behalf of staff.

Amount owing to IPRES for contributions paid on behalf of





Tax debts




Amount owing to the State fo
r tax deducted from salaries at

Amount owing to the State with regard to the 5% deduction to
be applied to all payments above CFA Fr.25,000 to a natural
person unable to charge VAT. BRS stands for
Bordereau de
Retenue à la Source
, Declaration of ta
x deducted at source. In
fact it corresponds to the document used to declare this tax.

Social security and
tax debts


: Extract from the 2007 balance sheet

: The above statement prompts the following comments:

Holiday pay liab
: CFA Fr.650,322

This is the amount allowed for holidays not taken by staff under contract. It does not constitute a
commitment to the State or any other kind of social institution but rather a commitment to the
staff. There would be a risk if
the staff started to claim this amount because it is perceived as a debt.
However, there is little chance of this happening because two of the staff members concerned have
already left (they were dismissed at the end of 2007) and made no claim for it. For
the remaining
staff in question, they have been asked to settle their holiday situation so that the corresponding
amounts can be cancelled by the accountants (CGA).

This state of affairs requires the management to ensure that staff take their holidays reg
ularly in the
course of the year in order to prevent the corresponding amounts from appearing in the balance
sheet at the end of the accounting year.

Family allowances
: CFA Fr.703,008

This amount of CFA Fr.703.008 consists of CFA Fr.461,088 carried forw
ard to 1 January 2007 (in
other words, the amount owing prior to the 2007 accounting period), plus the difference,
amounting to CFA Fr.241,920, which relates to the 2007 accounting period (up to 31 December
2007). The overall total (CFA Fr.703,008) repres
ents the amount owed to the
Caisse de la Sécurité
Sociale (CSS)
, Social Security Office, and is the sum of what is owed for 2007 and what is owed from
previous years. This debt has not been paid.

IPRES general scheme
: CFA Fr.806,407

This amou
nt consists of CFA Fr.750.450 carried forward to 1 July 2007 (from accounting periods prior
to 2007) plus the difference (CFA Fr.55,957) relating to the 2007 accounting period as of 31
December 2007. This debt has not been paid (IPRES is the
Institut de Pr
evoyance Retraites du
, Senegalese Institute for the Provision of Pensions).

IPRES management scheme

CFA Fr.77,408

This amount consists of CFA Fr.47,820 carried over to 1 July 2007 (from previous accounting
periods), plus the differenc
e (CFA Fr.29,588) relating to the 2007 accounting period. This debt has
not been paid.

Income tax (IR):

CFA Fr.2,181,575

This amount is what is owed in income tax (IR) and includes both the charge representing

minimum flat rate (TRIMF) and the employer’s flat rate contribution (CFCE). It consists of CFA
Fr.1,361,163 carried forward to 1 January 2007 (the balance relating to years prior to 2007), plus the
difference (CFA Fr.820,412), which relates to the 20
07 accounting period (up to 31 December 2007).
This debt has not been paid.

Tax deducted at source (BRS):

CFA Fr.681,134

This amount consists of CFA Fr.586.839 carried forward (from the years prior to 2007) plus CFA

Fr.94,295 relating to the 2007 accounting period, making a total of CFA Fr.681,134 which is
shown in the 2007 balance sheet under the heading “BRS” (
Bordereau de retenue à la source
Declaration of tax deducted at source). It represents the obligatory ded
uction of 5 per cent at
source made in respect of any provider or supplier who is not registered for tax and therefore
does not pay VAT (as in the case of freelance consultants and suppliers from the informal
sector). This debt has not been paid.

The situation revealed above prompts the following observations:

The discussions we had about this showed that CGA and the management differ in their
understanding of these liabilities shown in the financial statements. The management thinks
that the
matter of tax and social security liabilities is closed. In fact, they have taken steps to
regularize the situation as from 2008 but by entering into negotiations to have the debts from
the previous years written off rather than having to pay them. However
, the section has no
written evidence of these negotiations. CGA, in line with accounting standards, has always
recorded the social security contributions and taxes that are normally due when an organization
has staff working under contract. Given that the

management claim that they have held
discussions with the tax authorities at the highest level and obtained an agreement in principle
that the earlier state of affairs will not be taken into consideration, CGA needs to be given an
official document so tha
t these debts can be cancelled in the balance sheet.

In accounting, no entry can be cancelled (reversed) without having a voucher to justify it. That is
why the sums that appear as liabilities in the balance sheet have only gone on growing over the

It is therefore recommended that the management ask the tax department and IPRES to
provide it with
certificates of


to prove that AIS owes them nothing. The
certificates will then be presented to CGA so that they can look at the possibility
of cancelling
these debts which would be derecognised by the institutions concerned.

It should be noted that considerable effort has been put into this issue during the 2008
accounting period. In fact, the taxes and social security contributions are in or
der from January
2008 to date, which means that the 2008 balance sheet will only show the arrears relating to
earlier years that have not yet been settled if the management do not manage to reach
agreement with CGA about how they can be cancelled.

r account analyzed: Account 42 1100: “Staff, Advances”
: CFA Fr.153,000

The balance of this account went up and down as a result of salary advances agreed with staff up
to an amount of CFA Fr.403,000. The amount reimbursed as of 31 December 2007 was CFA
.250,000, meaning that CFA Fr.153.000 had not yet been reimbursed at year end.

It is not out of order for management to agree to salary advances for staff under contract if
finances allow because it is a practice that is social in nature. However, the wh
ole amount should
be reimbursed by 31 December of the relevant year at the latest so that there is no overlapping
between accounting periods, given that salaries are budgeted for one year and are normally
closed at year end.

d. Analysis of the grant to
AIS from the Konrad Adenauer Foundation.

As well as the income received from the international movement, AIS receives other income as a
result of fundraising. In this study, particular attention was paid to the grant provided by the Konrad
Adenauer Founda
tion, given its importance vis
vis the section’s overall budget and its distinctive
features as a method of funding. In fact, the figure given in the budget estimates for 2007 under the

“Special Programmes
: Konrad Adenauer Foundation”
is CFA Fr.
18,000,000, out of a total
amount obtained through fundraising of CFA Fr.41,961,011, in other words 42 per cent. We also note
that the grant budgeted for represents 18 per cent of the annual estimated budget (CFA

The grants received from
the Foundation mainly relate to human rights training seminars. The
amount mentioned as the grant for 2007 (CFA Fr.18,000,000) is an estimate. As far as the actual
grant is concerned, the only amount mentioned is that of CFA Fr.132,775 for communication an
photocopying expenses which were reimbursed to the section following submission of an invoice.
This amount is far lower than the grants actually received because the other expenses were paid
directly to the providers involved in the activity financed by
the Foundation on behalf of the section
without passing through the section accounts. The specific figures were not available at the time of
the evaluation.

The funding method used by the Foundation has the disadvantage of not appearing in the volume of
unds obtained and of thus escaping the section’s accounting because few transactions pass through
its accounts. This means that, on reading the section’s financial statements, the full amount of
financial support received is not clear. When the funding is
not direct, the Foundation should
confirm, by means of circularization, the volume of funds granted to the section at the end of the
year so that they appear in its accounts, thereby ensuring that the latter fully reflect the section’s
financial situation.

e. Analysis of other fundraising for 2007

Out of an estimated budget for 2007 amounting to CFA Fr.97,931,316, the section was able to raise
CFA Fr.74,822,489. Eighty per cent of it came from a range of different sources, in particular the

Secretariat, AI France and AI Netherlands, while the remaining 20 per cent came from
local fundraising. This was made up of the income obtained from membership dues, the sale of
promotional goods, collecting boxes in the airport, international NGOs (Oxfam

America and APT)
and the Konrad Adenauer Foundation already analyzed above.

The section’s efforts to raise funds at local level should be praised. It claims that it could raise even
more but that it is held back by the AI principle forbidding sections t
o take advantage of funding
from local governments and aid funds available from embassies, which means that it has lost out on
opportunities that may have boosted not only its visibility but also the impact of its actions.

However, even though the sectio
n is proactive in seeking funding from institutions on the ground, it
is passive when it comes to collecting membership dues. In this regard, there was no mention in any
of the interviews conducted of people being unable to afford them but rather that ther
e was an
absence of appropriate follow through by the section. However, mention was made of the existence
of double charging, namely a levy imposed on groups and a levy imposed as a member of a group,
which may well be a burden on members and end up discou
raging them. The Board should look at
this issue. Given the passivity in collecting membership dues, we have no choice but to propose that
the management establishes regular periods to be devoted to “membership dues collecting
campaigns”. The Board could a
lso look at the possibility of the in
house controllers undertaking this
task given that they are prepared to help in this way.


Evaluation of the implementation of the recommendations made with regard to pay


de sur la politique d'emploi et de rémunération du Personnel de l'Amnesty
International/Sénégal”, “Study of the employment and pay policy for staff at Amnesty
International Senegal”,
carried out by
Ibrahima KANE, Consultant.)

a. Staff pay


STUDY (after tax) in CFA Fr.

tax) in CFA Fr.

Section Director



Administrative assistant



Coordinator responsible for
vism growth and training






This table shows the net and non gross pay, in other words the pay actually received after making
the relevant

deductions for tax and social security. The post of accountant has been recommended but
has not yet been created. It should be noted that the (net) salary proposed is higher than that suggested
by CGA (III.1.a). This is due to the fact that the Consultan
t’s proposals reflect the pay framework used
by NGOs while CGA’s proposal considers the minimum salary an accountant of that level would
generally be paid in Senegal in current circumstances.

Analysis of the above table shows that the pay rates proposed i
n the
“Study of the employment and
pay policy for staff at Amnesty International Senegal”

have not been implemented as such but
there has been a significant improvement. The staff believe that the rates implemented and
approved by the Board are reasonable
compared to those that existed before. A 15 per cent pay
increase is planned for

We noticed that there was a tendency to compare the rates of pay in place in sections from various
countries and even in the regional office based in Dakar (and so in t
he same city as the section)
against the rates of pay in place for local staff which are different. Since this issue was not part of our
terms of reference, we did not conduct an investigation into it but we believe that it is a matter
which forms part of
the overall pay policy adopted at the level of the International Secretariat vis
vis the different sections and that particular attention should be paid to this sensitive issue to ensure
fairness and avoid the surfacing of useless frustrations that might

affect AI's image (avoid major
disparity in pay rates). Should not an analysis of the pay rates in place in AI sections in different
countries (especially within the same sub
region) be conducted by carrying out a comparative study
and seeing whether any
disparities are justified by the differences in the cost of living between one
country and another? The Secretariat can assess the relevance of conducting such an analysis, it’s a
matter for reflection.

b. Ensure that the current staff contracts have bee
n approved by the Labour Inspectorate: all
staff contracts were approved by the Labour Inspectorate on 2 January 2008.

c. Rectify the administrative situation of the staff vis
vis the social security and tax institutions
Institut de Prévoyance Retraite

du Sénégal (IPRES); Caisse de Sécurité Sociale (CSS),
taxes on
, Institut de Prévoyance Maladie
): with regard to this point, we noticed that all payments
are up to date for 2008. However, it should be stressed that this process only began in Janu
2008 and did not concern the arrears which, according to the management, are to be written off
following negotiations, as mentioned above. However, CGA does not have an official document
testifying to this (certificate of non
liability) so that they ca
n cancel them in the balance sheet.
We also found that the section staff are still not members of any kind of medical insurance
scheme; we therefore reiterate the same recommendation.

d. Rectify the government
established travel allowance rate which wa
s increased in 1998: this
has been done.

d. Put in place a
Manual of Administrative, Financial and Accounting Procedures

that takes
account of the staff promotion system and sets out a plan for managing human resources: we
noticed that this has still not

been done and reiterate the same recommendation, given its
importance for financial and human resource management.

d. If necessary, amend contracts of employment to include the new salary scales: we found that
the contracts contain a clause referring to

gross and net pay and that the clauses in the contracts
concerning pay were consistent with the pay slips we checked.

e. Standardize the current staff pay slips by including salary deductions: we found that the staff
pay slips do include salary de



Given the above, and in recognition of the considerable efforts made by the section with regard to
financial and human resource management, the following recommendations for further improving
the section’s manage
ment (in decreasing order of importance) are advisable:

Organize a meeting as soon as possible

between the Section Director and the Director of CGA to
discuss ways of cancelling the debts that appear in the balance sheet but for which non
payability has b
een negotiated and obtained by means of official proof such as a certificate of

Bring accounting in
house as suggested in earlier recommendations on this subject. While
waiting for this to happen, the section should forward accounting recor
ds within the required
time limit in order to avoid any delay in issuing the balance sheet. Recruitment of an accountant
has already been recommended (Periodic Section Review, IMT) and now seems to be the wish
of the section leaders.

Drawing up a manual

of procedures is essential for management purposes. Among other things,
it should include up
date and more detailed financial regulations as well as regulations on
staff management.

Draft terms of reference for all studies financed by the section and
ensure that there is a
contract between the section and the provider who should issue an invoice in order to receive

Ensure that the staff join a medical insurance scheme.

Officially request the Konrad Adenauer Foundation to confirm for accoun
ting purposes at the
end of each year the overall grant it has given to the section. Also ensure that the auditors send
a circular (letter confirming the amount shown at the end of the accounting period) to the
Konrad Adenauer Foundation at the end of each

accounting period.

Make sure that CGA discusses with the auditors the procedure for ensuring the final balance
breaks even.

Discuss with the auditors the question of increasing their fees in order to obtain a more detailed
audit, the specificities of
which should be clarified in the terms of reference.

Encourage the staff to take their holidays regularly during the year so that there are no amounts
outstanding at the end of the accounting period thereby making it necessary for them to appear
in the b
alance sheet. Ensure that the amounts in question are cancelled in the 2008 balance
sheet by settling all the holiday entitlement not taken to date (pending), and ensure that the
same situation does not arise in future accounting periods.

Ensure that any
advances agreed with staff are fully reimbursed by 31 December of the relevant
year at the latest.

Undertake regular campaigns to collect membership dues by involving internal controllers in
this activity.


In the course of this evaluation mission it became very apparent that some key needs, concerns,
and developments in the areas of infrastr
ucture, fundraising, staffing, and governance, although
not included in the terms of reference, should b
e reflected in this report to the extent that they
directly or indirectly impact the Section performance in the three areas under review.



The section moved its office in September 08 and
sorely needs new equipment, especially a
ator given the increasingly frequent power outages. It also urgently needs a new

to allow
, among others,

for timely duplication of all financial documents that have
to be given to the external accounting firm. The office also needs new compu
ters, including a
laptop for the Growth & Mobilization Coordinator who has to spend a significant amount of time
in the field. This new equipment will greatly improve the efficiency of the office.

In addition AI Senegal should be in
a position to acquire

the necessary software packages to
professionalize its databases and, in the future, accounting systems.


Fundraising challenges:

It was mentioned on several occasions that the fundraising capacity of the section is severely
diminished by the perception t
hat Amnesty is a wealthy organization

The section cannot rely either on some of the m
ost common sources of funding available to

other NGOs because AI is an international organization and cannot accept government funding
through the embassies represented

in Dakar. Many individuals who would have the means to
ute financially (such as jurists

would not attend fundraising events for fear of being
associated with AI.

AIS has been relatively successful in terms of securing significant grants from non
AI sources
(Konrad Adenauer, Oxfam
) but it feels

the need to diversify these sources, and especially
to seek more long
term funding so that it can follow up and capitalize on successful projects.

Finally, for lack of technological means, the Section h
as been unable to benefit from the
financial support of the diaspora, especially from Italy.


Staffing and governance:

In spite of the successful restructuring of the
National Secretariat, the Section feels that the
current level of staffing no longer allo
ws them to respond to increasing expectations, to pursue
more aggressive growth and mobilization objectives, and to further professionalize their overall
operations. No specific positions, however, were mentioned other than the


week spent in Dakar confirmed the sentiment that the Director of the Section is overworked
and has taken, so far, almost none of the vacation time due to him. He is spending a
disproportionate amount of time dealing with accounting issues

but, even more
devoting a significant proportion of h
is time to a multiplicity of IS
missions/meetings. These are
no doubt very helpful to him in terms of motivation, experience, and visibility but have the
potential of interfering with his section’s duties g
iven the small size of the current staff.

Thanks to the SLA and the support of the Swiss Section, AIS was able to participate in a one
training (May 08) on Board/staff responsibilities and relations. Everyone praised the process and
the main outcome
was the revisions of the Section’s Statutes as approved by the August 08
AGM. These do clarify the respective roles of Staff and Bureau Executif bu
t more follow up will
be needed to strengthen and institutionalize th
e process as outlined in the proposed “
section of the seminar
recap document (PPP).


IS support:

Although satisfied with the overall support of IMT and IMP, the Section leadership raised some
significant concerns regarding the way they feel they are
perceived by the IS: “
we sometime
feel that the IS thinks that it is not worth investing in Africa, that there is not much to achieve in
Africa. There are lots of negative signals which are very demoralizing. Please do communicate our
frustration. For instance, we feel that Latin Amer
ican sections have a better standin
g in terms of
salaries. Also we were led to believe that we would get Salesforce, bu
t then the decision was

Summary of main

recommendations for AI Senegal:

Prioritize the implementation of the financial mana
gement recommendations

included in
section III of this report, and especially:


The commissioning of a Procedures Manual


The transition to internal accounting systems, inclu
ding the hiring of a bookkeeper

by 2010


The resolution of the tax debt and pending h
uman resources issues

Prioritize the development of the

next strategic plan
(current one covers the period 2004
2008), taking into account the recommendati
ons from the 2007 OSSA exercise,
the recent
National Fundraising Strategy, and
lessons learned from

ssful projects

Follow up on the commitments made as a result of the two
SLA trainings
mobilization and Board/staff relations)

Continue to focus on the investment in and support of youth initiatives, mobilization, and

essionalize tools and systems (database, website, collection of membership fees, etc) to
track and support growth

Develop the Section capacity to document, report on, and evaluate the impact of key projects